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Radagast

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==History==
 
==History==
 
[[File:Jef Murray - Mage of Rhosgobel.jpg|thumb|left|''Mage of Rhosgobel'' by [[Jef Murray]]]]
 
[[File:Jef Murray - Mage of Rhosgobel.jpg|thumb|left|''Mage of Rhosgobel'' by [[Jef Murray]]]]
Still concerned for the fate of [[Middle-earth]], [[Manwë]] summoned a council of the [[Valar]]. Here it was decided that they would send emissaries to [[Middle-earth]]. [[Aulë]] chose [[Saruman|Curumo]], Oromë chose [[Blue Wizards|Alatar]], and Manwë chose [[Gandalf|Olórin]]. [[Yavanna]] subsequently begged Curumo to take [[Radagast#Aiwendil|Aiwendil]] with him. In c. {{TA|1000}}, the [[wizards]] arrived upon the shores of Middle-earth. However, it is said that Saruman arrived first and alone, and that Radagast arrived at the same time as Gandalf.<ref name="UTIstari"/>
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The [[Maia]] Aiwendil was an [[Ainu]] who existed before time, and one of the [[spirit]]s who descented to [[Arda]] in order to serve the [[Valar]].<ref>{{S|Vala}}</ref> Aiwendil was a servant of the Valie [[Yavanna]], the Queen of earth.<ref name="UTIstari"/>
  
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Aiwendil's capacity and role in [[Valinor]] during the [[Elder Days]] is unknown. After the Undying Lands were separated from Arda during the [[Downfall of Númenor]], [[Manwe]] was still concerned for the fate of the peoples of [[Middle-earth]]. He summoned a council of the [[Valar]] and it was decided that they would send emissaries to [[Middle-earth]]. [[Aulë]] chose [[Saruman|Curumo]], Oromë chose [[Blue Wizards|Alatar]], and Manwë chose [[Gandalf|Olórin]]. [[Yavanna]] subsequently begged Curumo to take [[Radagast#Aiwendil|Aiwendil]] with him.
  
According to Gandalf, Radagast was never much of a traveller.<ref name="FRCouncil"/> It is known that he eventually settled down and dwelt, for a time at least, at [[Rhosgobel]]. This meant that he lived on the western borders of [[Mirkwood]], somewhere between the [[Carrock]] and the [[Old Forest Road]].<ref name="UTIstari"/> It is likely that he became acquainted with the inhabitants of that region. It is clear that he was friends with the [[eagles|great eagles]].<ref name="FRCouncil"/> He also knew and was thought highly of by (the unsociable) [[Beorn]]:<ref name="HQueer">{{H|Queer}}</ref>
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In c. {{TA|1000}}, the Maiar arrived upon the shores of Middle-earth, having the form of frail old [[Men]], whom the peoples called [[Wizards]]. Saruman arrived first and alone, and Radagast arrived at the same time as Gandalf.<ref name="UTIstari"/>
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===Travels in Middle-earth===
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When the Wizards took their mission they roamed Middle-earth, but Radagast was never much of a traveller.<ref name="FRCouncil"/> There is not much to be told about his early journeys, but by the late [[Third Age]] he eventually settled down and dwelt, for a time at least, at [[Rhosgobel]] somewhere between the [[Carrock]] and the [[Old Forest Road]].<ref name="UTIstari"/> Situated on the western borders of [[Mirkwood]], it can be assumed that the Radagast held watch against the [[Shadow]] of [[Dol Guldur]] that slowly engulfed the forest. It is likely that he became acquainted with the inhabitants of that region. Close to animals and birds, he was friends with the [[eagles|great eagles]].<ref name="FRCouncil"/> Although the neighboring [[Beorn]] was unsociable, he used to see him from time to time, and he considered Radagast "not bad" for a Wizard.<ref name="HQueer">{{H|Queer}}</ref>
  
{{Blockquote|Yes; not a bad fellow as Wizards go, I believe. I used to see him now and again|[[Beorn]]<ref name="HQueer"/>}}
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In {{TA|2851}} the [[White Council]] met once more, and after that, Saruman began to search the [[Gladden Fields]] for the [[One Ring]].<ref name="AppB2">{{App|B2}}</ref> Radagast decided to aid his search with birds and beasts who acted as spies hoping that Saruman's actions would help watch and hinder Sauron. Radagast did this in good faith, knowing nothing of Saruman's real ambitions.<ref name="SRings">{{S|Rings}}</ref>
  
Following the {{TA|2851}} meeting of the [[White Council]], Saruman began to search the [[Gladden Fields]] for the [[One Ring]].<ref name="AppB2">{{App|B2}}</ref> Knowing nothing of Saruman's treachery, Radagast aided him with birds and beasts who acted as spies. Radagast did this in good faith for he believed this would help watch and hinder the [[Sauron|Enemy]].<ref name="SRings">{{S|Rings}}</ref>
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[[File:Angelo Montanini - Radagast.jpg|thumb|''Radagast'' by Angelo Montanini]]Radagast did not play a large part in the later [[War of the Ring]]. In summer {{TA|3018}} Saruman told Radagast that he was willing to help Gandalf, and sent the Brown Wizard to seek him out at once. On [[Midsummer's Day]], Radagast was sitting on the side of the [[Greenway]] when Gandalf found him on his way to [[Bree]]. Radagast warned Gandalf that the [[Nazgûl]] were abroad, disguised as riders in black, and that they were seeking news of [[the Shire]]. He also gave him Saruman's message and agreed to help Gandalf by getting beasts and birds to send news to [[Orthanc]]. With that he rode away back towards Mirkwood.<ref name="FRCouncil"/>
  
[[File:Angelo Montanini - Radagast.jpg|thumb|''Radagast'' by Angelo Montanini]]Radagast's part in the [[War of the Ring]] was small, albeit important. In {{TA|3018}} on Midsummer, on his way to [[Bree]], Gandalf found Radagast sitting on the side of the [[Greenway]]. Radagast informed Gandalf that Saruman had sent him. He told Gandalf that the [[Nazgûl]] were abroad, disguised as riders in black, and that they were seeking news of [[the Shire]]. Radagast said that Saruman was willing to help Gandalf but that he had to seek him out at once. Before Radagast rode away, he agreed to help Gandalf by getting beasts and birds to send news to [[Orthanc]]. With that he rode away back towards Mirkwood. Whilst Gandalf was imprisoned by Saruman, he did not believe that Radagast too had fallen. Indeed, it was thanks to Radagast that Gandalf was able to escape from the pinnacle of Orthanc upon the wings of [[Gwaihir]].<ref name="FRCouncil"/>
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Saruman's message proved to be a trap for Gandalf who was imprisoned in Orthanc, but still he did not believe that Radagast was also a part of Saruman's plans. Indeed, it was thanks to Radagast that Gandalf was able to escape from the pinnacle of Orthanc upon the wings of [[Gwaihir]].<ref name="FRCouncil"/>
  
Following the conclusion of the [[Council of Elrond]], many scouts were sent out from [[Rivendell]] to many different locations. Some passed over the [[Misty Mountains]] and eventually came to [[Rhosgobel]], but they found that Radagast was not there.<ref name="FRSouth">{{FR|South}}</ref>
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Radagast's actions during and after the rest of the War are not recorded. After the [[Council of Elrond]], many scouts were sent out from [[Rivendell]] to many different locations. Some passed over the [[Misty Mountains]] and eventually came to [[Rhosgobel]], but they found that Radagast was not there.<ref name="FRSouth">{{FR|South}}</ref>
 
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==Did Radagast fail?==
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[[J.R.R. Tolkien|Tolkien's]] feelings on whether or not Radagast, and indeed the two [[Blue Wizards|"Blue Wizards"]], failed changed over time. The [[wizards]] that were sent to [[Middle-earth]] were tasked by the [[Valar]] to help the [[Free Peoples]] defeat [[Sauron]]. There is no question that, through his treachery and fall into evil, [[Saruman]] failed. There is also no question that [[Gandalf]] succeeded. But it was in emphasising this latter point that Tolkien denigrated the role of Radagast and the Blue Wizards.
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In his efforts to produce an Index for ''[[The Return of the King]]'' in [[1954]], Tolkien wrote an essay on the [[Wizards|Istari]]. Therein he explicitly stated that Radagast had failed:
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{{Blockquote|Indeed, of all the Istari, one only remained faithful [Gandalf], and he was the last-comer. For Radagast, the fourth, became enamoured of the many beasts and birds that dwelt in [[Middle-earth]], and forsook [[Elves]] and [[Men]], and spent his days among wild creatures.|[[J.R.R. Tolkien]]<ref name="UTIstari"/>}}
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He even went as far as suggesting that only Gandalf returned to the [[Valinor|Uttermost West]]:
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{{Blockquote|Wilt thou learn the lore <nowiki>||</nowiki> that was long secret<br/>of the Five that came <nowiki>||</nowiki> from a far country?<br/>One only returned. <nowiki>||</nowiki> Others never again|[[J.R.R. Tolkien]]<ref name="UTIstari"/>}}
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Under these terms, then, Radagast failed. However, not only does Tolkien's criticism of Radagast seem harsh in light of what is revealed in ''The Lord of the Rings'', Tolkien's attitude towards Radagast and the Blue Wizards seems to have changed following the publication of ''[[The Return of the King]]''. In the Istari essay and in [[Letter 211]] Tolkien wrote that he was unsure what happened to the Blue Wizards and speculated that they possibly failed. In a later writing he turned this upside down and noted that they 'must have had very great influence on the history of the Second Age and Third Age in weakening and disarraying the forces of East ... who would ... otherwise have ... outnumbered the West.'<ref name="PM">{{PM|Last}}, p. 385</ref>
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According to [[John D. Rateliff]], Tolkien's feeling on Radagast's success or failure must have changed too. He speculates that Radagast had taken the area of and around [[Mirkwood]] under his protection (like the Blue Wizards had taken the east under their protection). He provides more solid evidence when he argues that Radagast and Gandalf were much alike:
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*Radagast and Gandalf arrived at the same time in [[Middle-earth]];
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*both were friends with the eagles (beings of [[Manwë]] and who would associate with few but the very important);
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*both were considered closely linked from the outset - they were 'cousins' in ''The Hobbit''.
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Indeed both were quite different creatures from Saruman:
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{{Blockquote|His [Sauron's] cynicism ... seemed fully justified in Saruman. Gandalf he did not understand. But certainly he [Sauron] had already become evil, and therefore stupid, enough to imagine that his [Gandalf's] different behaviour [from Saruman's] was due simply to weaker intelligence and lack of firm masterful purpose. He [Gandalf] was only [in Sauron's view] a rather cleverer Radagast - cleverer, because it is more profitable (more productive of power) to become absorbed in the study of people than of animals.|[[J.R.R. Tolkien]]<ref group="note">The pronouns in square brackets are as interpreted by John D. Rateliff in {{HH|Medwed}}, "(vi) Radagast"</ref><ref>{{MR|Myths}}, p. 397</ref>}}
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Rateliff thus concludes that Radagast was much like Gandalf; both were good wizards. But Radagast was weaker and his role overshadowed by Gandalf's achievements.<ref name="HHMedwed">{{HH|Medwed}}, "(vi) Radagast"</ref>
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Therefore it is difficult to conclude whether or not Radagast failed. But it is clear that Tolkien had doubts following his criticism of him in the Istari essay and Radagast certainly did not fall into evil. Indeed Radagast is such an elusive character that it is difficult to make any bold conclusions, such as whether or not he returned to [[Valinor]].
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Tolkien gave a brief account of a council of the [[Valar]] where they decided to send emissaries to Middle-earth to contest the will of Sauron. Therein it is told 'that each Istar were chosen by each Valar for his innate characteristics'.<ref name="UTIstari"/> This is significant because it suggests [[Yavanna]] chose Aiwendil (Radagast) for his love of wild creatures, and that perhaps he was sent to [[Middle-earth]] by Yavanna to serve this purpose.<ref name="UTIstari"/> If this was Radagast's appointed mission then it would be inappropriate to claim that he failed. However, it is difficult to gauge how far the fulfilment of this task facilitated the downfall of [[Sauron]].
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Perhaps the most explicit snapshot of Tolkien's feelings about Radagast can be be found in this quotation:
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{{Blockquote|He [Gandalf] differed from Radagast and Saurman in that he never turned aside from his appointed mission ('I was the Enemy of Sauron') and was unsparing of himself. Radagast was fond of beasts and birds, and found them easier to deal with; he did not become proud and domineering, but neglectful and easygoing, and he had very little to do with Elves or Men although obviously resistance to Sauron had to be sought chiefly in their cooperation.|[[J.R.R. Tolkien]]<ref name="RC.245">[[J.R.R. Tolkien]], [[Wayne G. Hammond]] and [[Christina Scull]] (eds), ''[[The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion]]'', p. 245</ref>}}
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Here it is stated that both Saruman and Radagast turned away from the ultimate task of defeating Sauron. But where Saruman was proud and power-hungry (characteristics which brought about his own ruin), Radagast was neglectful and sought companionship with birds and beasts over co-operation with the Free Peoples of Middle-earth. Thus Radagast's innate characteristics meant that he could play no more than a small part in the downfall of the Lord of the Rings.
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==Characteristics==
 
==Characteristics==
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As one of the [[maiar]] of [[Yavanna]], Radagast had a great interest in the [[kelvar]] and [[olvar]] of [[Middle-earth]] and was a friend to beasts and birds.<ref name="UTIstari"/><ref name="FRCouncil"/>  
 
As one of the [[maiar]] of [[Yavanna]], Radagast had a great interest in the [[kelvar]] and [[olvar]] of [[Middle-earth]] and was a friend to beasts and birds.<ref name="UTIstari"/><ref name="FRCouncil"/>  
Gandalf, however, held greater respect from, and knowledge about, birds and beasts than Radagast.<ref name="RC.245"/>
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Gandalf, however, held greater respect from, and knowledge about, birds than Radagast.<ref name="RC.245">[[J.R.R. Tolkien]], [[Wayne G. Hammond]] and [[Christina Scull]] (eds), ''[[The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion]]'', p. 245</ref>
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Radagast displayed some qualities of innocence and naivety, making him an ideal accomplice of Saruman's plans, seen in providing his services to help the White examine the Gladden Fields.<ref name="SRings"/> Saruman in turn considered him Simple(minded) and Fool.<ref name="FRCouncil"/>
  
 
==Etymology==
 
==Etymology==
 
===Radagast===
 
===Radagast===
In a manuscript written by [[J.R.R. Tolkien|Tolkien]]  in [[1954]], the name ''Radagast'' is said to mean "tender of beasts" in [[Adûnaic]], the language of [[Númenor]].<ref name="UTIstari"/> However, in a later note Tolkien said that the name is in the language of the [[Men]] of the [[Vales of Anduin]], and that its meaning is not interpretable.<ref>{{UT|Istari}}, note 4</ref>
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In a manuscript written by [[J.R.R. Tolkien|Tolkien]]  in [[1954]], the name ''Radagast'' is said to mean "tender of beasts" in [[Adûnaic]], the language of the [[Númenoreans]].<ref name="UTIstari"/> However, in a later note Tolkien said that the name is in the language of the [[Men]] of the [[Vales of Anduin]], and that its meaning is not interpretable.<ref>{{UT|Istari}}, note 4</ref>
  
 
As stated by [[Wayne G. Hammond|Hammond]] and [[Christina Scull|Scull]], several theories have appeared concerning the inspiration of the name ''Radagast''.<ref name=RC>{{HM|RC}}, pp. 240-1</ref> One such theory has been proposed by [[Douglas A. Anderson]], who notes the name [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radegast_%28god%29 ''Redigast''] in Slavic mythology.<ref>{{HM|AH}}, p. 167</ref>
 
As stated by [[Wayne G. Hammond|Hammond]] and [[Christina Scull|Scull]], several theories have appeared concerning the inspiration of the name ''Radagast''.<ref name=RC>{{HM|RC}}, pp. 240-1</ref> One such theory has been proposed by [[Douglas A. Anderson]], who notes the name [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radegast_%28god%29 ''Redigast''] in Slavic mythology.<ref>{{HM|AH}}, p. 167</ref>
  
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The similarity to [[Old English]] ''rudugást'' meaning "red-brown spirit" has also been noted by fans.<ref>{{webcite|author=|articleurl=http://www.glyphweb.com/arda/r/radagast.html‎|articlename=Radagast|dated=|website=EoA|accessed=}}</ref>
 
===Aiwendil===
 
===Aiwendil===
The name ''Aiwendil'' (pron. {{IPA|[aɪˈwendil]}}) is [[Quenya]] for "lover of birds".<ref name="UTIndex">{{UT|Index}}</ref> It is perhaps derived from ''[[aiwe]]'' ("(small) bird") and ''ndil'' ("devoted to").<ref name=RC/><ref>{{LR|Etymologies}}, pp. 348, 378 (entries [[AIWĒ-]] and NIL-, NDIL-)</ref>
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The name ''Aiwendil'' (pron. {{IPA|[aɪˈwendil]}}) is [[Quenya]] for "lover of birds".<ref name="UTIndex">{{UT|Index}}</ref> It is obviously derived from ''[[aiwe]]'' ("(small) bird") and ''ndil'' ("devoted to").<ref name=RC/><ref>{{LR|Etymologies}}, pp. 348, 378 (entries [[AIWĒ-]] and NIL-, NDIL-)</ref>
  
 
==Names==
 
==Names==
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==Other versions of the Legendarium==
 
==Other versions of the Legendarium==
From the first drafts of ''The Hobbit'', [[Gandalf|Bladorthin]] identifies Radagast as a fellow wizard and as his 'cousin'. [[John D. Rateliff]] notes that, at this stage in the development of [[J.R.R. Tolkien|Tolkien's]] [[legendarium]] there was no reason why a wizard could not have a cousin. Rateliff also suggests that it is likely that Tolkien considered explaining Gandalf's absence (following the departure of Thorin and Company from Beorn's house) by saying that he went to visit Radagast (who lived close by) to plan the attack on the [[Sauron|Necromancer]].<ref name="HHMedwed"/>
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From the first drafts of ''The Hobbit'', [[Gandalf|Bladorthin]] identifies Radagast as a fellow wizard and as his 'cousin'. [[John D. Rateliff]] notes that, at this stage in the development of [[J.R.R. Tolkien|Tolkien's]] [[legendarium]] there was no reason why a wizard could not have a cousin. Rateliff also suggests that it is likely that Tolkien considered explaining Gandalf's absence (following the departure of Thorin and Company from Beorn's house) by saying that he went to visit Radagast (who lived close by) to plan the attack on the [[Sauron|Necromancer]].<ref name="HHMedwed">{{HH|Medwed}}, "(vi) Radagast"</ref>
  
 
Early in the process of writing ''[[The Lord of the Rings]]'', it is clear that [[J.R.R. Tolkien|Tolkien]] envisaged some role for Radagast in the tale.<ref>{{RS|New}}, p. 379;{{RS|Elrond}}, p. 397</ref> He eventually decided that he would use Radagast as the means of getting Gandalf to Isengard.<ref name="TIC1.130-140">{{TI|C1}}, pp. 130-140</ref>
 
Early in the process of writing ''[[The Lord of the Rings]]'', it is clear that [[J.R.R. Tolkien|Tolkien]] envisaged some role for Radagast in the tale.<ref>{{RS|New}}, p. 379;{{RS|Elrond}}, p. 397</ref> He eventually decided that he would use Radagast as the means of getting Gandalf to Isengard.<ref name="TIC1.130-140">{{TI|C1}}, pp. 130-140</ref>
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|File:Radagast (Mithril LR3).png|Radagast as a [[Mithril Miniatures|Mithril Miniature]]
 
|File:Radagast (Mithril LR3).png|Radagast as a [[Mithril Miniatures|Mithril Miniature]]
 
|File:WiMe-Radagast&Hobbits-1.png|Radagast in ''[[J.R.R. Tolkien's War in Middle Earth]]''
 
|File:WiMe-Radagast&Hobbits-1.png|Radagast in ''[[J.R.R. Tolkien's War in Middle Earth]]''
|File:Radagast (Decipher).JPG|Radagast in ''[[The Lord of the Rings Trading Card Game]]''
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|File:Decipher - Radagast.JPG|Radagast in ''[[The Lord of the Rings Trading Card Game]]''
 
|File:Radagast (LOTRSBG).jpg|Radagast in ''[[The Lord of the Rings Strategy Battle Game]]''
 
|File:Radagast (LOTRSBG).jpg|Radagast in ''[[The Lord of the Rings Strategy Battle Game]]''
 
|File:Radagast (LOTRO).png|Radagast in ''[[The Lord of the Rings Online]]''
 
|File:Radagast (LOTRO).png|Radagast in ''[[The Lord of the Rings Online]]''
 
|File:Radagast in LOTR- War in the North-1.png|Radagast in ''[[The Lord of the Rings: War in the North]]''
 
|File:Radagast in LOTR- War in the North-1.png|Radagast in ''[[The Lord of the Rings: War in the North]]''
 
|File:The Hobbit - An Unexpected Journey - Radagast.jpg|Radagast in ''[[The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey]]''
 
|File:The Hobbit - An Unexpected Journey - Radagast.jpg|Radagast in ''[[The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey]]''
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|File:Radagast the Brown with Sebastian.png|"Radagast the Brown with Sebastian" in ''[[The Hobbit Strategy Battle Game]]''
 
}}
 
}}
 
===Films===
 
===Films===
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'''2012-14: [[The Hobbit (film series)|''The Hobbit'' (film series)]]:'''
 
'''2012-14: [[The Hobbit (film series)|''The Hobbit'' (film series)]]:'''
 
:Although Radagast is only briefly mentioned in ''The Hobbit'', Radagast will feature in ''The Hobbit'' films and will be played by [[Sylvester McCoy]].<ref name="IMCasting">{{webcite|author=[[Ian McKellen]]|articleurl=http://www.mckellen.com/cinema/hobbit-movie/110510.htm|articlename=2 Elves and another wizard|dated=10-May-2011|website=[http://www.mckellen.com/ Ian McKellen's website]|accessed=23-Dec-2011}}</ref>
 
:Although Radagast is only briefly mentioned in ''The Hobbit'', Radagast will feature in ''The Hobbit'' films and will be played by [[Sylvester McCoy]].<ref name="IMCasting">{{webcite|author=[[Ian McKellen]]|articleurl=http://www.mckellen.com/cinema/hobbit-movie/110510.htm|articlename=2 Elves and another wizard|dated=10-May-2011|website=[http://www.mckellen.com/ Ian McKellen's website]|accessed=23-Dec-2011}}</ref>
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'''2012: ''[[The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey]]'':'''
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:After discovering that a shadow has fallen on [[Mirkwood|Greenwood the Great]], Radagast enters [[Dol Guldur]] and is attacked by the [[Witch-king]]. He finds that the fortress is occupied by a [[Sauron|Necromancer]] and travels to inform Gandalf. He finds [[Thorin and Company]] just west of [[Rivendell]] and hands Gandalf a [[Morgul blades|morgul blade]]. He draws a pack of [[wargs]] and their riders away so that Thorin and Company can flee in safety.
  
 
===Radio series===
 
===Radio series===
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'''2011: ''[[The Lord of the Rings: War in the North]]'':'''
 
'''2011: ''[[The Lord of the Rings: War in the North]]'':'''
 
:The characters [[Eradan]], [[Farin]] and [[Andriel]] travel to Mirkwood in search of Radagast and arrive just in time to rescue him from a giant spider. He thanks them for the rescue and provides them with information about the Dragon Urgost.<ref>[http://www.warinthenorth.com/index.php/the-game/allies Allies] at [http://www.warinthenorth.com/ WarintheNorth.com] (accessed 8 October 2011)</ref>
 
:The characters [[Eradan]], [[Farin]] and [[Andriel]] travel to Mirkwood in search of Radagast and arrive just in time to rescue him from a giant spider. He thanks them for the rescue and provides them with information about the Dragon Urgost.<ref>[http://www.warinthenorth.com/index.php/the-game/allies Allies] at [http://www.warinthenorth.com/ WarintheNorth.com] (accessed 8 October 2011)</ref>
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'''2012-: ''[[The Hobbit Strategy Battle Game]]'':'''
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:Radagast, based on [[Peter Jackson]]'s [[The Hobbit (film series)|''The Hobbit'']], is a hero figurine in two different versions: the standard model "Radagast the Brown with [[Sebastian]]",<ref>{{webcite|author=|articleurl=http://www.games-workshop.com/gws/catalog/productDetail.jsp?catId=cat970003a&prodId=prod1870030a|articlename=Radagast the Brown with Sebastian|dated=|website=[http://www.games-workshop.com/ Games-Workshop.com]|accessed=30 January 2013}}</ref> and a limited model sold with the box ''The Hobbit: Escape from Goblin Town''.<ref>{{webcite|author=|articleurl=http://www.games-workshop.com/gws/catalog/productDetail.jsp?catId=cat970009a&prodId=prod1820008a|articlename=The Hobbit: Escape from Goblin Town - Limited Edition|dated=|website=[http://www.games-workshop.com/ Games-Workshop.com]|accessed=30 January 2013}}</ref>
  
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
 
*[[:Category:Images of Radagast|Images of Radagast]]
 
*[[:Category:Images of Radagast|Images of Radagast]]
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*"[[Radagast/Fail|Did Radagast fail?]]"
 
{{References|n}}
 
{{References|n}}
  

Revision as of 16:33, 25 September 2013

Jef Murray - Radagast.jpg
Radagast
Maia
Biographical Information
Other namesAiwendil[1]
Radagast the Brown[2]
Radagast the Bird-tamer[note 1][2]
Radagast the Simple[note 1][2]
Radagast the Fool[note 1][2]
Physical Description
GenderMale
"Radagast the Brown! [...] Radagast the Bird-tamer! Radagast the Simple! Radagast the Fool! Yet he had just the wit to play the part that I set him."
Saruman[2]

Radagast the Brown, also known as Aiwendil, was one of the wizards sent to Middle-earth to contest the will of Sauron. Originally a maia of Yavanna, he had a strong affinity for animals. He dwelt, for a time, at Rhosgobel on the western eaves of Mirkwood, near the Gladden Fields on the Great River.[1][2]

Contents

History

Mage of Rhosgobel by Jef Murray

The Maia Aiwendil was an Ainu who existed before time, and one of the spirits who descented to Arda in order to serve the Valar.[3] Aiwendil was a servant of the Valie Yavanna, the Queen of earth.[1]

Aiwendil's capacity and role in Valinor during the Elder Days is unknown. After the Undying Lands were separated from Arda during the Downfall of Númenor, Manwe was still concerned for the fate of the peoples of Middle-earth. He summoned a council of the Valar and it was decided that they would send emissaries to Middle-earth. Aulë chose Curumo, Oromë chose Alatar, and Manwë chose Olórin. Yavanna subsequently begged Curumo to take Aiwendil with him.

In c. T.A. 1000, the Maiar arrived upon the shores of Middle-earth, having the form of frail old Men, whom the peoples called Wizards. Saruman arrived first and alone, and Radagast arrived at the same time as Gandalf.[1]

Travels in Middle-earth

When the Wizards took their mission they roamed Middle-earth, but Radagast was never much of a traveller.[2] There is not much to be told about his early journeys, but by the late Third Age he eventually settled down and dwelt, for a time at least, at Rhosgobel somewhere between the Carrock and the Old Forest Road.[1] Situated on the western borders of Mirkwood, it can be assumed that the Radagast held watch against the Shadow of Dol Guldur that slowly engulfed the forest. It is likely that he became acquainted with the inhabitants of that region. Close to animals and birds, he was friends with the great eagles.[2] Although the neighboring Beorn was unsociable, he used to see him from time to time, and he considered Radagast "not bad" for a Wizard.[4]

In T.A. 2851 the White Council met once more, and after that, Saruman began to search the Gladden Fields for the One Ring.[5] Radagast decided to aid his search with birds and beasts who acted as spies hoping that Saruman's actions would help watch and hinder Sauron. Radagast did this in good faith, knowing nothing of Saruman's real ambitions.[6]

Radagast by Angelo Montanini
Radagast did not play a large part in the later War of the Ring. In summer T.A. 3018 Saruman told Radagast that he was willing to help Gandalf, and sent the Brown Wizard to seek him out at once. On Midsummer's Day, Radagast was sitting on the side of the Greenway when Gandalf found him on his way to Bree. Radagast warned Gandalf that the Nazgûl were abroad, disguised as riders in black, and that they were seeking news of the Shire. He also gave him Saruman's message and agreed to help Gandalf by getting beasts and birds to send news to Orthanc. With that he rode away back towards Mirkwood.[2]

Saruman's message proved to be a trap for Gandalf who was imprisoned in Orthanc, but still he did not believe that Radagast was also a part of Saruman's plans. Indeed, it was thanks to Radagast that Gandalf was able to escape from the pinnacle of Orthanc upon the wings of Gwaihir.[2]

Radagast's actions during and after the rest of the War are not recorded. After the Council of Elrond, many scouts were sent out from Rivendell to many different locations. Some passed over the Misty Mountains and eventually came to Rhosgobel, but they found that Radagast was not there.[7]

Characteristics

Radagast is, of course, a worthy wizard, a master of shapes and changes of hue; and he has much lore of herbs and beasts, and birds are especially his friends.
Gandalf[2]

Little is known about Radagast apart from certain defining characteristics. Saruman was the chief of the Order of Wizards and Gandalf came next in the order; Radagast meanwhile held much less power and wisdom.[1]

As one of the maiar of Yavanna, Radagast had a great interest in the kelvar and olvar of Middle-earth and was a friend to beasts and birds.[1][2] Gandalf, however, held greater respect from, and knowledge about, birds than Radagast.[8]

Radagast displayed some qualities of innocence and naivety, making him an ideal accomplice of Saruman's plans, seen in providing his services to help the White examine the Gladden Fields.[6] Saruman in turn considered him Simple(minded) and Fool.[2]

Etymology

Radagast

In a manuscript written by Tolkien in 1954, the name Radagast is said to mean "tender of beasts" in Adûnaic, the language of the Númenoreans.[1] However, in a later note Tolkien said that the name is in the language of the Men of the Vales of Anduin, and that its meaning is not interpretable.[9]

As stated by Hammond and Scull, several theories have appeared concerning the inspiration of the name Radagast.[10] One such theory has been proposed by Douglas A. Anderson, who notes the name Redigast in Slavic mythology.[11]

The similarity to Old English rudugást meaning "red-brown spirit" has also been noted by fans.[12]

Aiwendil

The name Aiwendil (pron. [aɪˈwendil]) is Quenya for "lover of birds".[13] It is obviously derived from aiwe ("(small) bird") and ndil ("devoted to").[10][14]

Names

It appears that in Valinor Radagast was known as "Aiwendil".[1]

As one of the wizards sent to Middle-earth, he was known as "Radagast the Brown". Saruman, when talking to Gandalf, mocked Radagast by calling him "Radagast the Bird-tamer", "Radagast the Simple", and "Radagast the Fool".[2]

Other versions of the Legendarium

From the first drafts of The Hobbit, Bladorthin identifies Radagast as a fellow wizard and as his 'cousin'. John D. Rateliff notes that, at this stage in the development of Tolkien's legendarium there was no reason why a wizard could not have a cousin. Rateliff also suggests that it is likely that Tolkien considered explaining Gandalf's absence (following the departure of Thorin and Company from Beorn's house) by saying that he went to visit Radagast (who lived close by) to plan the attack on the Necromancer.[15]

Early in the process of writing The Lord of the Rings, it is clear that Tolkien envisaged some role for Radagast in the tale.[16] He eventually decided that he would use Radagast as the means of getting Gandalf to Isengard.[17]

Initially Gandalf describes Radagast as his 'cousin',[18] as he did in The Hobbit,[4] but in a subsequent draft he becomes his 'kinsman'.[19] In the final version Gandalf merely says that Radagast is 'one of my order'.[2]

Tolkien initially called him "Radagast the Grey", but in pencil he changed this to "Brown" and subsequently Saruman refers to him as "Radagast the Brown".[17]

When Tolkien finished writing the story up till Moria, he made notes on the future story development; therein he considered handing over Isengard to Radagast.[20]

Portrayal in adaptations

Radagast in adaptations
Radagast as a Mithril Miniature  
"Radagast the Brown with Sebastian" in The Hobbit Strategy Battle Game  

Films

2001: The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring:

Radagast was entirely omitted. Without Radagast's involvement, Gandalf goes to Isengard of his own accord (because he wanted council form Saruman) and is able to escape from the pinnacle of Orthanc by speaking to a moth who sends for the help of the eagles.

2012-14: The Hobbit (film series):

Although Radagast is only briefly mentioned in The Hobbit, Radagast will feature in The Hobbit films and will be played by Sylvester McCoy.[21]

2012: The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey:

After discovering that a shadow has fallen on Greenwood the Great, Radagast enters Dol Guldur and is attacked by the Witch-king. He finds that the fortress is occupied by a Necromancer and travels to inform Gandalf. He finds Thorin and Company just west of Rivendell and hands Gandalf a morgul blade. He draws a pack of wargs and their riders away so that Thorin and Company can flee in safety.

Radio series

1981: BBC Radio's The Lord of the Ring:

Donald Gee provided the voice of Radagast. He is, however, not the person who sends the eagle to save Gandalf from Orthanc.

Games

1987-: Mithril Miniatures:

Radagast has been issued in a couple of different versions: figure LR3 "Radagast the Brown" is seen with a cat and an owl;[22] an older version of the figure portrays Radagast without beard and with a different bird.[23] There is also a "Radagast Mounted" (MS539), where Radagast (again without beard) is portrayed mounted on a horse.[24]

1988: J.R.R. Tolkien's War in Middle Earth:

Radagast is a non-playable character in this game.

2001-: The Lord of the Rings Strategy Battle Game:

The hero figure Radagast the Brown, is a user of subtle magics,in contrast to the more overt kinds used by Gandalf and Saruman. However, he has some unique powers nonetheless.[25]

2011-2010: The Lord of the Rings Trading Card Game:

A Decipher card was made by Weta, with Weta's John Harding posing as Radagast.[26]

2007: The Lord of the Rings Online:

Radagast can be found encamped in the Lone-lands, north along the Great Road. He is friendly to the local people, the Eglain, and helps the to combat the rise of evil in the swamps of Agamaur.[27]

2011: The Lord of the Rings: War in the North:

The characters Eradan, Farin and Andriel travel to Mirkwood in search of Radagast and arrive just in time to rescue him from a giant spider. He thanks them for the rescue and provides them with information about the Dragon Urgost.[28]

2012-: The Hobbit Strategy Battle Game:

Radagast, based on Peter Jackson's The Hobbit, is a hero figurine in two different versions: the standard model "Radagast the Brown with Sebastian",[29] and a limited model sold with the box The Hobbit: Escape from Goblin Town.[30]

See also

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Saruman gave him this name to mock him.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Istari"
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "The Council of Elrond"
  3. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Valaquenta: Account of the Valar and Maiar According to the Lore of the Eldar"
  4. 4.0 4.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit, "Queer Lodgings"
  5. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age"
  6. 6.0 6.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age"
  7. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "The Ring Goes South"
  8. J.R.R. Tolkien, Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (eds), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, p. 245
  9. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Istari", note 4
  10. 10.0 10.1 Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (eds), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, pp. 240-1
  11. J.R.R. Tolkien; Douglas A. Anderson, (ed.), (2002) The Annotated Hobbit: Revised and Expanded Edition, p. 167
  12. "Radagast" , Encyclopedia of Arda (accessed 21 December 2014)
  13. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, Index
  14. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Lost Road and Other Writings, "Part Three: The Etymologies", pp. 348, 378 (entries AIWĒ- and NIL-, NDIL-)
  15. J.R.R. Tolkien, John D. Rateliff (ed.), The History of The Hobbit, Mr. Baggins, The Second Phase, "Medwed", "(vi) Radagast"
  16. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Return of the Shadow, "The Third Phase: New Uncertainties and New Projections", p. 379; J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Return of the Shadow, "The Story Continued: XXIII. In the House of Elrond", p. 397
  17. 17.0 17.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Treason of Isengard, "The Council of Elrond (1)", pp. 130-140
  18. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Treason of Isengard, "The Council of Elrond (1)", p. 131
  19. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Treason of Isengard, "The Council of Elrond (2)", p. 149
  20. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Treason of Isengard, "The Story Foreseen from Moria", p. 212
  21. Ian McKellen, "2 Elves and another wizard" dated 10 May 2011, Ian McKellen's website (accessed 23 December 2011)
  22. Mithril wizards Miniatures at Mithril.ie (accessed 8 October 2011)
  23. Lord of the Rings (Mithril) at TwilightTangents.com (accessed 8 October 2011; cf. Radgast (image))
  24. 32mm Fellowship Figures - MS539 Radagast Mounted at Mithril.ie (accessed 8 October 2011)
  25. Radagast the Brown at Games-Workshop-com (accessed 8 October 2011)
  26. Kathy McCracken, "The Making of the Weta "Book Cards": Casting and Costuming" dated 22 July 2004, Internet Archive: Wayback Machine (accessed 30 June 2012)
  27. NPC: Radagast the Brown at My.Lotro.com (accessed 8 October 2011)
  28. Allies at WarintheNorth.com (accessed 8 October 2011)
  29. "Radagast the Brown with Sebastian" , Games-Workshop.com (accessed 30 January 2013)
  30. "The Hobbit: Escape from Goblin Town - Limited Edition" , Games-Workshop.com (accessed 30 January 2013)


Ainur
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