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Radagast

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Jef Murray - Radagast.jpg
Radagast
Maia
Biographical Information
Other namesAiwendil[1]
Radagast the Brown[2]
Radagast the Bird-tamer[note 1][2]
Radagast the Simple[note 1][2]
Radagast the Fool[note 1][2]
Physical Description
GenderMale
"Radagast the Brown! [...] Radagast the Bird-tamer! Radagast the Simple! Radagast the Fool! Yet he had just the wit to play the part that I set him."
Saruman[2]

Radagast the Brown, also known as Aiwendil, was one of the wizards sent to Middle-earth to contest the will of Sauron. Originally a maia of Yavanna, he had a strong affinity for animals. He dwelt, for a time, at Rhosgobel on the western eaves of Mirkwood, near the Gladden Fields on the Great River.[1][2]

Contents

History

Mage of Rhosgobel by Jef Murray

The Maia Aiwendil was an Ainu who existed before time, and one of the spirits who descented to Arda in order to serve the Valar.[3] Aiwendil was a servant of the Valie Yavanna, the Queen of earth.[1]

Aiwendil's capacity and role in Valinor during the Elder Days is unknown. After the Undying Lands were separated fro Arda during the Downfall of Númenor, Manwe was still concerned for the fate of the peoples of Middle-earth. He summoned a council of the Valar and it was decided that they would send emissaries to Middle-earth. Aulë chose Curumo, Oromë chose Alatar, and Manwë chose Olórin. Yavanna subsequently begged Curumo to take Aiwendil with him.

In c. T.A. 1000, the Maiar arrived upon the shores of Middle-earth, having the form of frail old Men, whom the peoples called Wizards. Saruman arrived first and alone, and Radagast arrived at the same time as Gandalf.[1]

When the Wizards took their mission they roamed Middle-earth, but Radagast was never much of a traveller.[2] There is not much to be told about his early journeys, but by the late Third Age he eventually settled down and dwelt, for a time at least, at Rhosgobel somewhere between the Carrock and the Old Forest Road.[1] Situated on the western borders of Mirkwood, it can be assumed that the Radagast held watch against the Shadow of Dol Guldur that slowly engulfed the forest. It is likely that he became acquainted with the inhabitants of that region. Close to animals and birds, he was friends with the great eagles.[2] Although the neighboring Beorn was unsociable, he used to see him from time to time, and he considered Radagast "not bad" for a Wizard.[4]

Following the T.A. 2851 meeting of the White Council, Saruman began to search the Gladden Fields for the One Ring.[5] Knowing nothing of Saruman's ambitions, Radagast aided him with birds and beasts who acted as spies. Radagast did this in good faith for he believed this would help watch and hinder the Enemy.[6]

Radagast by Angelo Montanini
Radagast's part in the War of the Ring was small, albeit important. In summer T.A. 3018 he saw Saruman who told Radagast that he was willing to help Gandalf but that he had to seek him out at once. On Midsummer, and as Radagast was sitting on the side of the Greenway, Gandalf found him on his way to Bree. He warned Gandalf that the Nazgûl were abroad, disguised as riders in black, and that they were seeking news of the Shire. He also told Gandalf Saruman's message and agreed to help Gandalf by getting beasts and birds to send news to Orthanc. With that he rode away back towards Mirkwood.[2]

Whilst Gandalf was imprisoned by Saruman, he did not believe that Radagast too had fallen. Indeed, it was thanks to Radagast that Gandalf was able to escape from the pinnacle of Orthanc upon the wings of Gwaihir.[2]

Following the conclusion of the Council of Elrond, many scouts were sent out from Rivendell to many different locations. Some passed over the Misty Mountains and eventually came to Rhosgobel, but they found that Radagast was not there.[7]

Characteristics

Radagast is, of course, a worthy wizard, a master of shapes and changes of hue; and he has much lore of herbs and beasts, and birds are especially his friends.
Gandalf[2]

Little is known about Radagast apart from certain defining characteristics. Saruman was the chief of the Order of Wizards and Gandalf came next in the order; Radagast meanwhile held much less power and wisdom.[1]

As one of the maiar of Yavanna, Radagast had a great interest in the kelvar and olvar of Middle-earth and was a friend to beasts and birds.[1][2] Gandalf, however, held greater respect from, and knowledge about, birds than Radagast.[8]

Radagast displayed some qualities of innocence and naivety, making him an ideal accomplice of Saruman's plans, seen in providing his services to help the White examine the Gladden Fields.[6] Saruman in turn considered him Simple(minded) and Fool.[2]

Etymology

Radagast

In a manuscript written by Tolkien in 1954, the name Radagast is said to mean "tender of beasts" in Adûnaic, the language of the Númenoreans.[1] However, in a later note Tolkien said that the name is in the language of the Men of the Vales of Anduin, and that its meaning is not interpretable.[9]

As stated by Hammond and Scull, several theories have appeared concerning the inspiration of the name Radagast.[10] One such theory has been proposed by Douglas A. Anderson, who notes the name Redigast in Slavic mythology.[11]

Aiwendil

The name Aiwendil (pron. [aɪˈwendil]) is Quenya for "lover of birds".[12] It is perhaps derived from aiwe ("(small) bird") and ndil ("devoted to").[10][13]

Names

It appears that in Valinor Radagast was known as "Aiwendil".[1]

As one of the wizards sent to Middle-earth, he was known as "Radagast the Brown". Saruman, when talking to Gandalf, mocked Radagast by calling him "Radagast the Bird-tamer", "Radagast the Simple", and "Radagast the Fool".[2]

Other versions of the Legendarium

From the first drafts of The Hobbit, Bladorthin identifies Radagast as a fellow wizard and as his 'cousin'. John D. Rateliff notes that, at this stage in the development of Tolkien's legendarium there was no reason why a wizard could not have a cousin. Rateliff also suggests that it is likely that Tolkien considered explaining Gandalf's absence (following the departure of Thorin and Company from Beorn's house) by saying that he went to visit Radagast (who lived close by) to plan the attack on the Necromancer.[14]

Early in the process of writing The Lord of the Rings, it is clear that Tolkien envisaged some role for Radagast in the tale.[15] He eventually decided that he would use Radagast as the means of getting Gandalf to Isengard.[16]

Initially Gandalf describes Radagast as his 'cousin',[17] as he did in The Hobbit,[4] but in a subsequent draft he becomes his 'kinsman'.[18] In the final version Gandalf merely says that Radagast is 'one of my order'.[2]

Tolkien initially called him "Radagast the Grey", but in pencil he changed this to "Brown" and subsequently Saruman refers to him as "Radagast the Brown".[16]

When Tolkien finished writing the story up till Moria, he made notes on the future story development; therein he considered handing over Isengard to Radagast.[19]

Portrayal in adaptations

Radagast in adaptations
Radagast as a Mithril Miniature  
"Radagast the Brown with Sebastian" in The Hobbit Strategy Battle Game  

Films

2001: The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring:

Radagast was entirely omitted. Without Radagast's involvement, Gandalf goes to Isengard of his own accord (because he wanted council form Saruman) and is able to escape from the pinnacle of Orthanc by speaking to a moth who sends for the help of the eagles.

2012-14: The Hobbit (film series):

Although Radagast is only briefly mentioned in The Hobbit, Radagast will feature in The Hobbit films and will be played by Sylvester McCoy.[20]

2012: The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey:

After discovering that a shadow has fallen on Greenwood the Great, Radagast enters Dol Guldur and is attacked by the Witch-king. He finds that the fortress is occupied by a Necromancer and travels to inform Gandalf. He finds Thorin and Company just west of Rivendell and hands Gandalf a morgul blade. He draws a pack of wargs and their riders away so that Thorin and Company can flee in safety.

Radio series

1981: BBC Radio's The Lord of the Ring:

Donald Gee provided the voice of Radagast. He is, however, not the person who sends the eagle to save Gandalf from Orthanc.

Games

1987-: Mithril Miniatures:

Radagast has been issued in a couple of different versions: figure LR3 "Radagast the Brown" is seen with a cat and an owl;[21] an older version of the figure portrays Radagast without beard and with a different bird.[22] There is also a "Radagast Mounted" (MS539), where Radagast (again without beard) is portrayed mounted on a horse.[23]

1988: J.R.R. Tolkien's War in Middle Earth:

Radagast is a non-playable character in this game.

2001-: The Lord of the Rings Strategy Battle Game:

The hero figure Radagast the Brown, is a user of subtle magics,in contrast to the more overt kinds used by Gandalf and Saruman. However, he has some unique powers nonetheless.[24]

2011-2010: The Lord of the Rings Trading Card Game:

A Decipher card was made by Weta, with Weta's John Harding posing as Radagast.[25]

2007: The Lord of the Rings Online:

Radagast can be found encamped in the Lone-lands, north along the Great Road. He is friendly to the local people, the Eglain, and helps the to combat the rise of evil in the swamps of Agamaur.[26]

2011: The Lord of the Rings: War in the North:

The characters Eradan, Farin and Andriel travel to Mirkwood in search of Radagast and arrive just in time to rescue him from a giant spider. He thanks them for the rescue and provides them with information about the Dragon Urgost.[27]

2012-: The Hobbit Strategy Battle Game:

Radagast, based on Peter Jackson's The Hobbit, is a hero figurine in two different versions: the standard model "Radagast the Brown with Sebastian",[28] and a limited model sold with the box The Hobbit: Escape from Goblin Town.[29]

See also

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Saruman gave him this name to mock him.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Istari"
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "The Council of Elrond"
  3. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Valaquenta: Account of the Valar and Maiar According to the Lore of the Eldar"
  4. 4.0 4.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit, "Queer Lodgings"
  5. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age"
  6. 6.0 6.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age"
  7. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "The Ring Goes South"
  8. J.R.R. Tolkien, Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (eds), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, p. 245
  9. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Istari", note 4
  10. 10.0 10.1 Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (eds), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, pp. 240-1
  11. J.R.R. Tolkien; Douglas A. Anderson, (ed.), (2002) The Annotated Hobbit: Revised and Expanded Edition, p. 167
  12. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, Index
  13. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Lost Road and Other Writings, "Part Three: The Etymologies", pp. 348, 378 (entries AIWĒ- and NIL-, NDIL-)
  14. J.R.R. Tolkien, John D. Rateliff (ed.), The History of The Hobbit, Mr. Baggins, The Second Phase, "Medwed", "(vi) Radagast"
  15. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Return of the Shadow, "The Third Phase: New Uncertainties and New Projections", p. 379; J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Return of the Shadow, "The Story Continued: XXIII. In the House of Elrond", p. 397
  16. 16.0 16.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Treason of Isengard, "The Council of Elrond (1)", pp. 130-140
  17. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Treason of Isengard, "The Council of Elrond (1)", p. 131
  18. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Treason of Isengard, "The Council of Elrond (2)", p. 149
  19. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Treason of Isengard, "The Story Foreseen from Moria", p. 212
  20. Ian McKellen, "2 Elves and another wizard" dated 10 May 2011, Ian McKellen's website (accessed 23 December 2011)
  21. Mithril wizards Miniatures at Mithril.ie (accessed 8 October 2011)
  22. Lord of the Rings (Mithril) at TwilightTangents.com (accessed 8 October 2011; cf. Radgast (image))
  23. 32mm Fellowship Figures - MS539 Radagast Mounted at Mithril.ie (accessed 8 October 2011)
  24. Radagast the Brown at Games-Workshop-com (accessed 8 October 2011)
  25. Kathy McCracken, "The Making of the Weta "Book Cards": Casting and Costuming" dated 22 July 2004, Internet Archive: Wayback Machine (accessed 30 June 2012)
  26. NPC: Radagast the Brown at My.Lotro.com (accessed 8 October 2011)
  27. Allies at WarintheNorth.com (accessed 8 October 2011)
  28. "Radagast the Brown with Sebastian" , Games-Workshop.com (accessed 30 January 2013)
  29. "The Hobbit: Escape from Goblin Town - Limited Edition" , Games-Workshop.com (accessed 30 January 2013)


Ainur
Valar
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Queens:  Varda · Yavanna · Nienna · Estë · Vairë · Vána · Nessa
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Associated Maiar
Manwë Eönwë · Olórin Varda Ilmarë · Olórin · Arien
Ulmo Ossë · Uinen · Salmar Yavanna Aiwendil
Aulë Mairon · Curumo Estë Melian
Oromë Tilion · Alatar · Pallando Vána
Other Maiar
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Wizards Saruman · Gandalf · Radagast · Blue Wizards (Rómestámo · Morinehtar)
Topics
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