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Reckoning of Rivendell

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The '''Reckoning of Rivendell''' or Calendar of Imladris is the only recorded [[Elvish]] calendar, as it was the only one known to the [[Hobbits]]. The [[Eldar]] measured time on two scales: First, long periods of time were reckoned in ''[[yén]]i'', which corresponded to 144 solar years containing 8,766 ''[[enquië]]'' ("weeks") or 52,596 days.  Second, the Elves acknowledged a single solar year, which was called a ''[[Coranar]]'' ("sun-round") or ''[[Loa]]'' ("growth").  A ''coranar'' contained six 'months' (more akin to seasons), rather than twelve, and they were not all of the same length, as shown below.
The Reckoning of Rivendell or [[Imladris]] is the only recorded [[Elvish]] calendar. It contained six 'months' (more akin to seasons), rather than twelve, and its arrangement reflects the Elvish preference for counting in sixes and twelves. Because of their long lifespan, the Elves tended to divide time into [[Yén]]i of 144 years each, but they also had a period equivalent to a year, called a [[Loa]] or [[Coranar]].
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{| class="wikitable"
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In addition to the six month-seasons, a ''coranar'' had additional days inserted into the calendar to bring the total to 365 days.  The first day of the year was ''[[yestarë]]'', which preceded ''Tuilë'', and the last day of the year was ''[[mettarë]]'', which followed ''Coirë''.  Between ''yávië'' and ''quellë'' were three ''[[enderi]]'' ("middle-days") which were doubled every twelve years as leap days.  
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The names of the six seasons and additional days of the ''coranar'' were:
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{| class="wikitable"  
 
![[Quenya]] name
 
![[Quenya]] name
 
![[Sindarin]] name
 
![[Sindarin]] name
 +
!English Translation
 +
!Length in Days
 
|-
 
|-
|[[Narvinyë]] || [[Narwain]]
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|[[Yestarë]] || ||First Day || 1
 
|-
 
|-
|[[Nénimë]] || [[Nínui]]
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|[[Tuilë]] || [[Ethuil]] || Spring || 54
 
|-
 
|-
|[[Súlimë]] || [[Gwaeron]]
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|[[Lairë]] || [[Laer]] || Summer || 72
 
|-
 
|-
|[[Víressë]] || [[Gwirith]]
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|[[Yávië]] || [[Iavas]] || Autumn || 54
 
|-
 
|-
|[[Lótessë]] || [[Lothron]]
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|[[Enderi]] || ||Middle Days || 3 or 6
 
|-
 
|-
|[[Nárië]] || [[Nórui]]
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|[[Quellë]] || [[Firith]] || Fading || 54
 
|-
 
|-
|[[Cermië]] || [[Cerveth]]
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|[[Hrívë]] || [[Rhîw]] || Winter || 72
 
|-
 
|-
|[[Urimë]] || [[Urui]]
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|[[Coirë]] || [[Echuir]] || Stirring || 54
 
|-
 
|-
|[[Yavannië]] || [[Ivanneth]]
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|[[Mettarë]] || ||Last Day || 1
|-
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|[[Narquelië]] || [[Narbeleth]]
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|-
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|[[Hísimë]] || [[Hithui]]
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|-
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|[[Ringarë]] || [[Girithron]]
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|}
 
|}
Rather than adding one day every four years, as with the modern leap year, the Elves instead added three days every twelve years. In these years, the [[Enderi]] ("middle-days") of each year were doubled from the usual three to six. For precision, the last year of every third [[yén]] was shortened by three days, rather than lengthened (the last year of a yén was always a 'leap' year). This was a rare occurrence, happening only once every 432 years.
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''Quellë'' was also known as ''[[Lasse-lanta]]'' ("leaf-fall") or, in Sindarin, [[Narbeleth]] ("Sun-waning").
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Other calendar adjustments to deal with inaccuracies are unknown. As stated above a ''yén'' would be over a day too long.  There is an indication that the last year of every third ''yén'' had its ''enderi'' omitted, but any further methods of adjustment are unknown.<ref>{{App|Calendars}}</ref>
  
According to [[Jim Allan]] in ''[[An Introduction to Elvish]]'', each of the elvish month names has a correspondence to the months of the [[Wikipedia:French Republican Calendar|French Republican Calendar]]; for example, Nénimë/Pluviôse mean "Rainy", Súlìmë/Ventôse mean "Windy". Jim Allan suggests that Tolkien used this similarity because the French Republican Calendar was based on earlier unrecorded Germanic month names.
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{{references}}
[[Category: Middle-earth Calendars]]
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[[Category:Middle-earth Calendars]]

Revision as of 19:35, 13 October 2012

The Reckoning of Rivendell or Calendar of Imladris is the only recorded Elvish calendar, as it was the only one known to the Hobbits. The Eldar measured time on two scales: First, long periods of time were reckoned in yéni, which corresponded to 144 solar years containing 8,766 enquië ("weeks") or 52,596 days. Second, the Elves acknowledged a single solar year, which was called a Coranar ("sun-round") or Loa ("growth"). A coranar contained six 'months' (more akin to seasons), rather than twelve, and they were not all of the same length, as shown below.

In addition to the six month-seasons, a coranar had additional days inserted into the calendar to bring the total to 365 days. The first day of the year was yestarë, which preceded Tuilë, and the last day of the year was mettarë, which followed Coirë. Between yávië and quellë were three enderi ("middle-days") which were doubled every twelve years as leap days.

The names of the six seasons and additional days of the coranar were:

Quenya name Sindarin name English Translation Length in Days
Yestarë First Day 1
Tuilë Ethuil Spring 54
Lairë Laer Summer 72
Yávië Iavas Autumn 54
Enderi Middle Days 3 or 6
Quellë Firith Fading 54
Hrívë Rhîw Winter 72
Coirë Echuir Stirring 54
Mettarë Last Day 1

Quellë was also known as Lasse-lanta ("leaf-fall") or, in Sindarin, Narbeleth ("Sun-waning").

Other calendar adjustments to deal with inaccuracies are unknown. As stated above a yén would be over a day too long. There is an indication that the last year of every third yén had its enderi omitted, but any further methods of adjustment are unknown.[1]

References

  1. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix D, "The Calendars"