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Rivendell

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{{disambig-more|Rivendell|[[Rivendell (disambiguation)]]}}
 
{{location
 
{{location
 
| image=[[Image:J.R.R. Tolkien - Rivendell.jpg|250px]]
 
| image=[[Image:J.R.R. Tolkien - Rivendell.jpg|250px]]
 
| name=Rivendell
 
| name=Rivendell
| othernames=Imladris, the [[Last Homely House]]
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| othernames=Imladris, the Last Homely House
 
| etymology=
 
| etymology=
 
| type=Valley/City
 
| type=Valley/City
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| references=''[[The Lord of the Rings]]'', ''[[The Hobbit]]'', ''[[Unfinished Tales]]''
 
| references=''[[The Lord of the Rings]]'', ''[[The Hobbit]]'', ''[[Unfinished Tales]]''
 
}}
 
}}
'''Rivendell''', or '''[[Rivendell#Etymology|Imladris]]''', was an [[Elves|Elven]] dwelling in the [[Misty Mountains]] on the eastern edge of [[Eriador]]. It was also called "'''The Last Homely House East of the Sea'''", a reference to [[Valinor]], west of [[Belegaer|the sea]]. It was established by [[Elrond]] in the [[Second Age]] as a refuge from [[Sauron]] after the fall of [[Eregion]].  Besides Elrond himself, notable Elves who lived there included [[Arwen]] and [[Glorfindel]].
+
'''Rivendell''', or '''[[Rivendell#Etymology|Imladris]]''', was an [[Elves|Elven]] dwelling in the [[Misty Mountains]] on the eastern edge of [[Eriador]]. It was also called "'''The Last Homely House East of the Sea'''", a reference to [[Valinor]] west of [[Belegaer|the sea]], and the '''First Homely House''', so called because it was the last outpost in the relatively civilised lands of [[Eriador]] before a traveller crossed the [[Misty Mountains]] and entered the Wilds of [[Rhovanion]]. It was established by [[Elrond]] in the [[Second Age]] as a refuge from [[Sauron]] after the fall of [[Eregion]].  Besides Elrond himself, notable Elves who lived there included [[Arwen]] and [[Glorfindel]].
  
 
==Location==
 
==Location==
 +
[[File:Soni Alcorn-Hender - Valley of Rivendell.jpg|thumb|left|''Valley of Rivendell'' by Soni Alcorn-Hender]]
 
Rivendell was located at the edge of a narrow gorge of the [[Bruinen|Bruinen River]], but well hidden in the moorlands and foothills of the [[Misty Mountains]].{{fact}}
 
Rivendell was located at the edge of a narrow gorge of the [[Bruinen|Bruinen River]], but well hidden in the moorlands and foothills of the [[Misty Mountains]].{{fact}}
  
 
==History==
 
==History==
 
===Establishment===
 
===Establishment===
Elrond established Imladris in {{SA|1697}} during the [[War of the Elves and Sauron]].<ref>{{App|SA}}</ref>  In Elrond's following at that time were both Elves from [[Lindon]] whom he had led in [[Sack of Eregion|battle to defend Eregion]] and those Elves who had fled [[Eregion]] when it was destroyed.  Many more refugees joined Elrond's host as Sauron ravaged Eriador during the course of the war.  By {{SA|1700}}, Imladris, despite being [[First Siege of Imladris|besieged]], was the only part of [[Eriador]] not under Sauron's control.  It was was liberated after [[Gil-galad]]'s forces, strengthened by the armament sent by [[Tar-Minastir]], routed Sauron's armies and drove him out of Eriador.  A Council was held at that time, establishing Elrond as Gil-galad's vice-regent in Eriador and that Imladris should be maintained as an Elvish stronghold.<ref>{{UT|6}}</ref>
+
Elrond established Imladris in {{SA|1697}} during the [[War of the Elves and Sauron]].<ref>{{App|SA}}</ref>  In Elrond's following at that time were both Elves from [[Lindon]] whom he had led in [[Sack of Eregion|battle to defend Eregion]] and those Elves who had fled [[Eregion]] when it was destroyed.  Many more refugees joined Elrond's host as Sauron ravaged Eriador during the course of the war.  By {{SA|1700}}, Imladris, despite being [[First Siege of Imladris|besieged]], was the only part of [[Eriador]] not under Sauron's control.  It was liberated after [[Gil-galad]]'s forces, strengthened by the armament sent by [[Tar-Minastir]], routed Sauron's armies and drove him out of Eriador.  A Council was held at that time, establishing Elrond as Gil-galad's vice-regent in Eriador and that Imladris should be maintained as an Elvish stronghold.<ref>{{UT|6}}</ref>
  
 
At the end of the Second Age, [[Elendil]] and Gil-galad formed the [[Last Alliance of Elves and Men]] to challenge Sauron, and their host halted for a while at Imladris before crossing the Misty Mountains.<ref name="SV"/> [[Isildur]]'s wife and his youngest son, [[Valandil (King of Arnor)|Valandil]], were in Imladris at that time, and Isildur was journeying back to them after Sauron's defeat when he was ambushed at the [[Gladden Fields]].<ref>{{UT|7}}</ref>  After receiving the shards of [[Narsil]], Valandil took up his role as King of [[Arnor]] and left Imladris for [[Annúminas]].<ref name="SV">{{S|V}}</ref>
 
At the end of the Second Age, [[Elendil]] and Gil-galad formed the [[Last Alliance of Elves and Men]] to challenge Sauron, and their host halted for a while at Imladris before crossing the Misty Mountains.<ref name="SV"/> [[Isildur]]'s wife and his youngest son, [[Valandil (King of Arnor)|Valandil]], were in Imladris at that time, and Isildur was journeying back to them after Sauron's defeat when he was ambushed at the [[Gladden Fields]].<ref>{{UT|7}}</ref>  After receiving the shards of [[Narsil]], Valandil took up his role as King of [[Arnor]] and left Imladris for [[Annúminas]].<ref name="SV">{{S|V}}</ref>
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Situated on the western slopes of the Misty Mountains, Rivendell was on the eastern edge of [[Arnor]], close to the province of [[Rhudaur]] which became independent during the disintegration of the North Kingdom in {{TA|861}}.  Danger came to Eriador around {{TA|1300}} when the witch-kingdom of [[Angmar]] was established in the north-east beyond the [[Ettenmoors]].  It was during the late reign of [[Arveleg I]] that [[Second Siege of Imladris |Rivendell was besieged by Angmar]].  After an incursion by Angmar into Eriador in {{TA|1409}}, the Elvenfolk of Rivendell joined those of Lindon in subduing the power of the [[Witch-king]] for many years.<ref name="North">{{App|North}}</ref>
 
Situated on the western slopes of the Misty Mountains, Rivendell was on the eastern edge of [[Arnor]], close to the province of [[Rhudaur]] which became independent during the disintegration of the North Kingdom in {{TA|861}}.  Danger came to Eriador around {{TA|1300}} when the witch-kingdom of [[Angmar]] was established in the north-east beyond the [[Ettenmoors]].  It was during the late reign of [[Arveleg I]] that [[Second Siege of Imladris |Rivendell was besieged by Angmar]].  After an incursion by Angmar into Eriador in {{TA|1409}}, the Elvenfolk of Rivendell joined those of Lindon in subduing the power of the [[Witch-king]] for many years.<ref name="North">{{App|North}}</ref>
  
After the end of the North-kingdom in {{TA|1975}} [[Aranarth]], the first [[Chieftains of the Dúnedain|Chieftain of the Dúnedain]], had is son fostered in Rivendell, as were all subsequent sons of the chieftains.  The heirlooms and treasures of the house of Isildur were also kept in Rivendell, including the shards of Narsil, were also kept there after Arvedui's death.<ref name="North"/>  Among these were also some of the few remaining documents containing the history of Númenor.<ref>{{UT|3}}</ref>
+
After the end of the North-kingdom in {{TA|1975}} [[Aranarth]], the first [[Chieftains of the Dúnedain|Chieftain of the Dúnedain]], had [[Arahael|his son]] fostered in Rivendell, as were all subsequent sons of the chieftains.  The heirlooms and treasures of the house of Isildur, including the shards of [[Narsil]], were also kept there after [[Arvedui]]'s death.<ref name="North"/>  Among these were also some of the few remaining documents containing the history of Númenor.<ref>{{UT|3}}</ref>
  
There was traffic across the Misty Mountains in the Third Age between Imladris and [[Lothlórien|Lórien]], for Elrond's wife was [[Celebrían]], daughter of Galadriel and Celeborn.  
+
There was traffic across the Misty Mountains in the Third Age between Imladris and [[Lothlórien|Lórien]], for Elrond's wife was [[Celebrían]], daughter of Galadriel and Celeborn.
  
 
===The One Ring===
 
===The One Ring===
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==Inspiration==
 
==Inspiration==
A possible inspiration could have been [[wikipedia:Lauterbrunnen|Lauterbrunnen, Switzerland]], which Tolkien visited in [[1911]]:  
+
A possible inspiration (so suggested by [[David Salo]]<ref>Aaron Fuegi, "[http://scv.bu.edu/~aarondf/Rivimages/realriv.html Rivendell in Switzerland]" at [http://scv.bu.edu/~aarondf/home.html the Last Homely House] (accessed 15 November 2011)</ref>) could have been [[wikipedia:Lauterbrunnen|Lauterbrunnen, Switzerland]], which Tolkien visited in [[1911]]:  
  
 
{{quote|I am... delighted that you have made the acquaintance of Switzerland, and of the very part that I once knew best and which had the deepest effect on me.  The hobbit’s journey from Rivendell to the other side of the Misty Mountains, including the glissade down the slithering stones into the pine woods, is based on my adventures in 1911 (he was 19 and traveled to Lauterbrunnen)... Our wanderings mainly on foot in a party of 12 are not now clear in sequence, but leave many vivid pictures as clear as yesterday."  (He talks of similar conditions of the travel of Bilbo camping out, walking mountain paths, carrying packs).|Tolkien<ref>{{l|306}}</ref>}}
 
{{quote|I am... delighted that you have made the acquaintance of Switzerland, and of the very part that I once knew best and which had the deepest effect on me.  The hobbit’s journey from Rivendell to the other side of the Misty Mountains, including the glissade down the slithering stones into the pine woods, is based on my adventures in 1911 (he was 19 and traveled to Lauterbrunnen)... Our wanderings mainly on foot in a party of 12 are not now clear in sequence, but leave many vivid pictures as clear as yesterday."  (He talks of similar conditions of the travel of Bilbo camping out, walking mountain paths, carrying packs).|Tolkien<ref>{{l|306}}</ref>}}
  
==Portrayal in Adaptations ==  
+
==Portrayal in Adaptations ==
'''2002: ''[[The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (video game)]]'':'''
+
{{Gallery
:Rivendell is the fifth level, and the first where no fighting is required. After Frodo is taken to Rivendell by [[Glorfindel]], he is first woken by [[Gandalf]]; after that, the [[Council of Elrond]] starts. After the council, there is an opportunity to speak to the NPCs - [[Aragorn]], [[Arwen]], [[Boromir]], [[Elrond]], [[Gandalf]], [[Gimli]], [[Legolas]], [[Meriadoc Brandybuck|Merry]], [[Peregrin Took|Pippin]] and [[Samwise Gamgee|Sam]]. The gameplay continues by entering a door. A short cutscene follows in which Bilbo gives [[Sting]] and the [[mithril]] shirt.<ref>''[[The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (video game)]]'', "Rivendell"</ref>
+
|title=Rivendell in adaptations
 +
|height=150
 +
|width=250
 +
|lines=2
 +
 
 +
|File:The Lord of the Rings The Fellowship of the Ring - Rivendell.jpg|Rivendell in ''[[The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring]]''
 +
|File:The Lord of the Rings Online - Rivendell.jpg|Rivendell in ''[[The Lord of the Rings Online]]''
 +
|File:BFME2 - Elrond Rivendell.jpg|Rivendell in ''[[The Lord of the Rings: The Battle for Middle-earth II]]''
 +
|File:Aragorn's Quest - Rivendell1.jpg|Rivendell in ''[[The Lord of the Rings: Aragorn's Quest]]''
 +
|File:The Lord of the Rings War in the North - Concept Art of Rivendell.png|Rivendell in ''[[The Lord of the Rings: War in the North]]''
 +
|File:The Hobbit - An Unexpected Journey - Gandalf and Galadriel.jpg|Rivendell in ''[[The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey]]''
 +
}}
 +
'''2001-03: [[The Lord of the Rings (film series)|''The Lord of the Rings'' (film series)]]:'''
 +
:Rivendell appears in every installment, although its role in the second and third film is rather minor.
 +
 
 +
'''2002: [[The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (video game)|''The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring'' (video game)]]:'''
 +
:Rivendell is the fifth level, and the first where no fighting is required. After Frodo is taken to Rivendell by [[Glorfindel]], he is first woken by [[Gandalf]]; after that, the [[Council of Elrond]] starts. After the council, there is an opportunity to speak to the NPCs - [[Aragorn]], [[Arwen]], [[Boromir]], [[Elrond]], [[Gandalf]], [[Gimli]], [[Legolas]], [[Meriadoc Brandybuck|Merry]], [[Peregrin Took|Pippin]] and [[Samwise Gamgee|Sam]]. The gameplay continues by entering a door. A short cutscene follows in which Bilbo gives [[Sting]] and the [[mithril]] shirt.<ref>[[The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (video game)|''The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring'' (video game)]], "Rivendell"</ref>
 +
 
 +
'''2006: ''[[The Lord of the Rings: The Battle for Middle-earth II]]'':'''
 +
:Rivendell is one of the battlegrounds in the game and a site of skirmish between Elves and Goblins.
  
 
'''2007: ''[[The Lord of the Rings Online]]'':'''
 
'''2007: ''[[The Lord of the Rings Online]]'':'''
:Rivendell is one of the major cities in the game, located between Trollshaws and the Misty Mountains. Elves are able to quick travel to the city if they have earned the trait, have it equiped and have one travel ration. Rivendell is also one of the places that players can choose as Elven character's homeland.
+
:Rivendell is one of the major cities in the game, located between Trollshaws and the Misty Mountains. Rivendell is also one of the places that players can choose as Elven character's homeland. The Last Homely House refers to a large dwelling of Elrond, not to the entire refuge of Rivendell. It is located on the eastern side of Rivendell. One can find Elrond's library, the [[Hall of Fire]], the scholar's guild and various guest rooms.
 +
 
 +
'''2011: ''[[The Lord of the Rings: War in the North]]'':'''
 +
:Rivendell is one of the major cities in the game and the only place characters are obliged to visit more than once (other cities can be re-visited, but this is optional).
 +
 
 +
'''2012-14: [[The Hobbit (film series)|''The Hobbit'' (film series)]]:'''
 +
:The movie will show both parts of Rivendell familiar from [[The Lord of the Rings (film series)|''The Lord of the Rings'' (film series)]] and several new places.
  
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
 
* [[:Category:Images of Rivendell|Images of Rivendell]]
 
* [[:Category:Images of Rivendell|Images of Rivendell]]
==External links==
+
 
*[http://scv.bu.edu/~aarondf/Rivimages/realriv.html Rivendell in Switzerland]
+
 
[[Category:Eriador]]
 
[[Category:Eriador]]
[[Category:Elven Realms]]
 
[[Category:Sieges]]
 
 
{{references}}
 
{{references}}
[[Category:Cities, Towns and Villages]]
+
[[Category:Cities, towns and villages]]
 +
[[Category:Elven realms]]
 +
 
 
[[de:Bruchtal]]
 
[[de:Bruchtal]]
 
[[fi:Rivendell]]
 
[[fi:Rivendell]]

Latest revision as of 18:28, 4 October 2013

"Don't call my place a nasty hole! You wait till it has been cleaned and redecorated!" — Thorin
This article is undergoing major revisions as part of Tolkien Gateway's countdown to The Hobbit films. To plan and to discuss the changes see here.
The name Rivendell refers to more than one character, item or concept. For a list of other meanings, see Rivendell (disambiguation).
J.R.R. Tolkien - Rivendell.jpg
Rivendell
Physical Description
TypeValley/City
LocationWest of Hithaeglir
RealmsElrond's dominion
InhabitantsElves
DescriptionHidden valley with permanent elven settlement
General Information
Other namesImladris, the Last Homely House
EventsFirst and Second Siege of Imladris, Quest of Erebor, Council of Elrond
ReferencesThe Lord of the Rings, The Hobbit, Unfinished Tales

Rivendell, or Imladris, was an Elven dwelling in the Misty Mountains on the eastern edge of Eriador. It was also called "The Last Homely House East of the Sea", a reference to Valinor west of the sea, and the First Homely House, so called because it was the last outpost in the relatively civilised lands of Eriador before a traveller crossed the Misty Mountains and entered the Wilds of Rhovanion. It was established by Elrond in the Second Age as a refuge from Sauron after the fall of Eregion. Besides Elrond himself, notable Elves who lived there included Arwen and Glorfindel.

Contents

[edit] Location

Valley of Rivendell by Soni Alcorn-Hender

Rivendell was located at the edge of a narrow gorge of the Bruinen River, but well hidden in the moorlands and foothills of the Misty Mountains.[source?]

[edit] History

[edit] Establishment

Elrond established Imladris in S.A. 1697 during the War of the Elves and Sauron.[1] In Elrond's following at that time were both Elves from Lindon whom he had led in battle to defend Eregion and those Elves who had fled Eregion when it was destroyed. Many more refugees joined Elrond's host as Sauron ravaged Eriador during the course of the war. By S.A. 1700, Imladris, despite being besieged, was the only part of Eriador not under Sauron's control. It was liberated after Gil-galad's forces, strengthened by the armament sent by Tar-Minastir, routed Sauron's armies and drove him out of Eriador. A Council was held at that time, establishing Elrond as Gil-galad's vice-regent in Eriador and that Imladris should be maintained as an Elvish stronghold.[2]

At the end of the Second Age, Elendil and Gil-galad formed the Last Alliance of Elves and Men to challenge Sauron, and their host halted for a while at Imladris before crossing the Misty Mountains.[3] Isildur's wife and his youngest son, Valandil, were in Imladris at that time, and Isildur was journeying back to them after Sauron's defeat when he was ambushed at the Gladden Fields.[4] After receiving the shards of Narsil, Valandil took up his role as King of Arnor and left Imladris for Annúminas.[3]

[edit] Third Age

After the fall of Gil-galad, Elrond remained in Imladris. During the Third Age it was a refuge and sanctuary; many Elves gathered there, and it was the chief dwelling of the High Elves in Eriador. The heirs of Isildur were also harbored there due to their kinship with Elrond, as descendants of his brother Elros.[3] Rivendell maintained this special relationship with the North Kingdom throughout the Third Age, and Elrond and his people remained steadfast allies to the heirs of Isildur.

Situated on the western slopes of the Misty Mountains, Rivendell was on the eastern edge of Arnor, close to the province of Rhudaur which became independent during the disintegration of the North Kingdom in T.A. 861. Danger came to Eriador around T.A. 1300 when the witch-kingdom of Angmar was established in the north-east beyond the Ettenmoors. It was during the late reign of Arveleg I that Rivendell was besieged by Angmar. After an incursion by Angmar into Eriador in T.A. 1409, the Elvenfolk of Rivendell joined those of Lindon in subduing the power of the Witch-king for many years.[5]

After the end of the North-kingdom in T.A. 1975 Aranarth, the first Chieftain of the Dúnedain, had his son fostered in Rivendell, as were all subsequent sons of the chieftains. The heirlooms and treasures of the house of Isildur, including the shards of Narsil, were also kept there after Arvedui's death.[5] Among these were also some of the few remaining documents containing the history of Númenor.[6]

There was traffic across the Misty Mountains in the Third Age between Imladris and Lórien, for Elrond's wife was Celebrían, daughter of Galadriel and Celeborn.

[edit] The One Ring

In the Quest of Erebor, Bilbo Baggins stopped off at Rivendell with the Dwarves on the way to the Lonely Mountain and also on the way back to the Shire with Gandalf.[7]

Years later, Frodo Baggins and his companions journeyed to Rivendell, where they met with Bilbo, who had retired there after his 111th birthday, spending his time on his memoir, There and Back Again. Several other Elves, Dwarves and Men had also arrived at Rivendell on separate errands;[8] at the Council of Elrond they learned that all of their errands were related to the fate of the One Ring, and they had to decide what to do about it. In the end, the Hobbits influenced the decision.[9]

[edit] Etymology

Rivendell ("cloven-dell") is the Common Speech translation of the Sindarin name Imladris ("deep dale of the cleft").[10] An alternative (or complementary) etymology, gives Rivendell as the Englished version of the Westron name Karningul (itself a translation of Imladris).[11]

The name Imladris is also glossed as "Canyon of the Cleft"[12] and "flat-floared valley of the Cleft".[13]

[edit] Inspiration

A possible inspiration (so suggested by David Salo[14]) could have been Lauterbrunnen, Switzerland, which Tolkien visited in 1911:

"I am... delighted that you have made the acquaintance of Switzerland, and of the very part that I once knew best and which had the deepest effect on me. The hobbit’s journey from Rivendell to the other side of the Misty Mountains, including the glissade down the slithering stones into the pine woods, is based on my adventures in 1911 (he was 19 and traveled to Lauterbrunnen)... Our wanderings mainly on foot in a party of 12 are not now clear in sequence, but leave many vivid pictures as clear as yesterday." (He talks of similar conditions of the travel of Bilbo camping out, walking mountain paths, carrying packs)."
― Tolkien[15]

[edit] Portrayal in Adaptations

Rivendell in adaptations

2001-03: The Lord of the Rings (film series):

Rivendell appears in every installment, although its role in the second and third film is rather minor.

2002: The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (video game):

Rivendell is the fifth level, and the first where no fighting is required. After Frodo is taken to Rivendell by Glorfindel, he is first woken by Gandalf; after that, the Council of Elrond starts. After the council, there is an opportunity to speak to the NPCs - Aragorn, Arwen, Boromir, Elrond, Gandalf, Gimli, Legolas, Merry, Pippin and Sam. The gameplay continues by entering a door. A short cutscene follows in which Bilbo gives Sting and the mithril shirt.[16]

2006: The Lord of the Rings: The Battle for Middle-earth II:

Rivendell is one of the battlegrounds in the game and a site of skirmish between Elves and Goblins.

2007: The Lord of the Rings Online:

Rivendell is one of the major cities in the game, located between Trollshaws and the Misty Mountains. Rivendell is also one of the places that players can choose as Elven character's homeland. The Last Homely House refers to a large dwelling of Elrond, not to the entire refuge of Rivendell. It is located on the eastern side of Rivendell. One can find Elrond's library, the Hall of Fire, the scholar's guild and various guest rooms.

2011: The Lord of the Rings: War in the North:

Rivendell is one of the major cities in the game and the only place characters are obliged to visit more than once (other cities can be re-visited, but this is optional).

2012-14: The Hobbit (film series):

The movie will show both parts of Rivendell familiar from The Lord of the Rings (film series) and several new places.

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Second Age"
  2. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The History of Galadriel and Celeborn"
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age"
  4. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Disaster of the Gladden Fields"
  5. 5.0 5.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "The Realms in Exile", "The Northern Line: Heirs of Isildur"
  6. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "A Description of the Island of Númenor"
  7. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit
  8. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "Many Meetings"
  9. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "The Council of Elrond"
  10. J.R.R. Tolkien, "Nomenclature of The Lord of the Rings" in Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (eds), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, p. 774
  11. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix F, "On Translation"
  12. J.R.R. Tolkien, "Eldarin Hands, Fingers & Numerals and Related Writings — Part One" (edited by Patrick H. Wynne), in Vinyar Tengwar, Number 47, February 2005, p. 14 (note 18)
  13. J.R.R. Tolkien, "Anthony D. Howlett 28 May 1969" (letter)
  14. Aaron Fuegi, "Rivendell in Switzerland" at the Last Homely House (accessed 15 November 2011)
  15. J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 306, (undated, late 1967 - early 1968)
  16. The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (video game), "Rivendell"