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The name ten refers to more than one character, item or concept. For a list of other meanings, see ten (disambiguation).

TEN is a Primitive Quendian root signifying "direction".[1]


Other versions


In the Etymologies appears the root TEƷ- ("line, direction"). From this root derives:[3]

  • [see TEÑ1]


According to Christopher Tolkien, the root TEƷ- was changed to TEÑ. In this new entry, Quenya téra and Noldorin tîr derived from Primitive Quendian teñrā,[3] where an intermediate form appears to be tēra.[4]Template:Or

Note that there is also an additional entry on TEÑ in the Etymologies (see TEÑ2),[3] and a root TEÑ in the manuscript "Eldarin Roots and Stems".[1]


The complexity of the root TEN is has been discussed at length by Patrick H. Wynne. A very late (ca. 1968) manuscript by Tolkien includes an almost identical rendering of √ten as given in the version from "Eldarin Roots and Stems" (that is, the version used as the first definition in this article), which, however, was changed to a √men (yielding different derivatives). An earlier manuscript (late 1950s or early 1960s) by Tolkien also contains a mention of a √ten-, having a similar (but not identical) description.[2]


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, "Words, Phrases and Passages in Various Tongues in The Lord of the Rings", in Parma Eldalamberon XVII (edited by Christopher Gilson), p. 187 (root appearing as "√TEN-")
  2. 2.0 2.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, "Eldarin Hands, Fingers & Numerals and Related Writings — Part Three" (edited by Patrick H. Wynne), in Vinyar Tengwar, Number 49, June 2007, pp. 23-24 (roots appearing as "√ten" and "√ten-")
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Lost Road and Other Writings, "Part Three: The Etymologies", p. 391 (roots appearing as "TEƷ-" and "TEÑ"
  4. J.R.R. Tolkien, "Addenda and Corrigenda to the Etymologies — Part Two" (edited by Carl F. Hostetter and Patrick H. Wynne), in Vinyar Tengwar, Number 46, July 2004, p. 17