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The name ten refers to more than one character, item or concept. For a list of other meanings, see ten (disambiguation).

TEN is a Primitive Quendian root signifying "direction".[1]

[edit] Derivatives

[edit] Other versions

[edit] TEƷ

In the Etymologies appears the root TEƷ- ("line, direction"). From this root derives:[3]

  • [see TEÑ1]

[edit] TEÑ1 and TEÑ2

According to Christopher Tolkien, the root TEƷ- was changed to TEÑ. In this new entry, Quenya téra and Noldorin tîr derived from Primitive Quendian teñrā,[3] where an intermediate form appears to be tēra.[2]

There exists furthermore an additional entry on TEÑ in the Etymologies (for the sake of clarity, here called TEÑ2), yielding the derivatives Noldorin ("line, row"), tiwdi ("alphabet"), tær, taer ("straight"), and Quenya téma ("row, series, line"), tea ("straight line, road").[3][2]

Note that there also exists a root TEÑ, with a different signification, in the manuscript "Eldarin Roots and Stems".[1]

[edit] ten

The complexity of the root TEN is has been discussed at length by Patrick H. Wynne. A very late (ca. 1968) manuscript by Tolkien includes an almost identical rendering of √ten as given in the version from "Eldarin Roots and Stems" (that is, the version used as the first definition in this article), which, however, was changed to a √men (yielding different derivatives). An earlier manuscript (late 1950s or early 1960s) by Tolkien also contains a mention of a √ten-, having a similar (but not identical) description.[4]


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, "Words, Phrases and Passages in Various Tongues in The Lord of the Rings", in Parma Eldalamberon XVII (edited by Christopher Gilson), p. 187 (root appearing as "√TEN-")
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, "Addenda and Corrigenda to the Etymologies — Part Two" (edited by Carl F. Hostetter and Patrick H. Wynne), in Vinyar Tengwar, Number 46, July 2004, pp. 17-18
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Lost Road and Other Writings, "Part Three: The Etymologies", pp. 391-2 (roots appearing as "TEƷ-" and "TEÑ"
  4. J.R.R. Tolkien, "Eldarin Hands, Fingers & Numerals and Related Writings — Part Three" (edited by Patrick H. Wynne), in Vinyar Tengwar, Number 49, June 2007, pp. 23-24 (roots appearing as "√ten" and "√ten-")