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Taliska

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'''Taliska''' was the language spoken by the [[House of Bëor|Bëorian]] (First) and [[House of Hador|Hadorian]] (Third) Houses of the [[Atanatári]], who spoke different dialects.
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'''Taliska'''<ref group=note>The name "Taliska" is used in this article conventionally. See [[#Other versions of the Legendarium]]</ref> was a [[Mannish]] language spoken by the [[Edain]] of the [[House of Bëor]] and [[House of Hador]].  
  
The Second House of Men spoke an unrelated language, the [[Haladin]] tongue. This language and Taliska were not mutually intelligible.
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==Origins==
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The ancestors of the folk of Beor and Marach were originally one group when they migrated to the West. In the northern [[Rhûn]] they met some [[Dwarves]]<ref>{{WJ|Dwarves}}</ref> who probably influenced their language.<ref name=DM>{{PM|Dwarves}}</ref> It was at the Northern shore of the [[Sea of Rhûn]] that the tribes separated. They didn't meet often, and their languages soon diverged.<ref>{{PM|Ros}}, Note 13</ref>
  
The exact origin of Taliska is not clear, but certain is that there are both [[Elvish]] and Dwarvish ([[Khuzdul]]) influences, suggesting the [[Atanatári]] (Fathers of Men) had contacts with both peoples before arriving in [[Beleriand]].
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The [[House of Hador|Greater Folk]] seemed to have been related to the ancestors of the [[Northmen]]<ref>{{UT|Cirion}}, note 4</ref> (whose language eventually evolved in the various [[Northern Mannish|languages of the Northmen]] in the [[Third Age]]<ref name=app>{{App|Men}}</ref>). The [[House of Bëor|Lesser Folk]] had extensive contact with the [[Dark Elves]], they adopted "many words and devices" that influenced their language.<ref name=men>{{S|17}}</ref><ref name=DM/>
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==History==
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When the two tribes reached [[Beleriand]], they already spoke different dialects. The language of the folk of Marach was more pure and they viewed the dialect of the folk of Beor, with the adopted Elvish elements, of lower status.<ref name=DM/>
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The folk of Haleth spoke the unrelated [[Haladin]] tongue, which was unintelligible to the Houses of the Northern Tribes of Men.
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The language of the House of Beor eventually was almost extinct, both because of the adoption of [[Sindarin]] and because the House was mostly annihilated after the [[Dagor Bragollach]].<ref>{{S|Fingolfin}}</ref> On the other hand, the House of Hador did not wholly abandon their language, it survived the [[War of Wrath]] and was still spoken when the Edain migrated to [[Elenna]]. Thus it later became [[Adûnaic]].<ref name=men/>
  
[[Adûnaic]], the language of Númenor, and ultimately also [[Westron]] (the "Common Speech" as well as the languages of the [[Northmen]] are derived from Taliska.
 
 
==Other versions of the Legendarium==
 
==Other versions of the Legendarium==
Taliska was an early language developed by Tolkien. Unlike his later languages who are 'original', it was based directly on the Germanic languages, and has a lot in common with the [[Gothic]] language; this shows that Tolkien tried to connect his mythos with the origins of Europe, something that was evident in the ''[[The Book of Lost Tales]]''. Gothic was an early interest of Tolkien.  
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[[Helge Fauskanger]] and Ellen Schousboe noted several changes in the conception of Taliska:<ref>{{webcite|website=Arda|author=[[Helge Fauskanger]]|articleurl=http://folk.uib.no/hnohf/mannish.htm|articlename=Mannish}}</ref>
  
A rather complete grammar and syntax of Taliska is known to exist, but despite work by [[Tolkienists]] this has as of 2008 not yet been published.
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*The name "Taliska" originally referred to the language of the Houses of Bëor and ''Haleth'' whereas it was the House of Hador that spoke another language, which would eventually be conceived as [[Adûnaic]]. In an early text by Tolkien, some words he labels as Taliska refer to terms which in the later version would be used by the [[Haladin]].
  
It is possible that Taliska belongs to an older phase of his creation, put along with [[Qenya]], [[Ilkorin]] and [[Gnomish]]. The status of Taliska changed inconsistently:
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*Later, in the essay "[[Of Dwarves and Men]]" (published in ''[[The Peoples of Middle-Earth]]''), Tolkien wrote that the Bëorians and Halethians did not speak related languages: The Hadorians still spoke "ancient Adûnaic", and the Bëorians had a closely related language; it was the language of Halethians that was unrelated to both of them (see [[pre-Númenorean]]).  
  
*In an earlier version, the name "Taliska" referred to the language of the Houses of Bëor and Haleth. The House of Hador spoke another language, which would eventually be conceived as [[Adûnaic]]. <br>In an early text by Tolkien, some words he labels as Taliska refer to terms which in the later version they will be used by the [[Haladin]].
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The later conception establishes a wider Hadorian/Beorian language, which however is not given a name. The fate of the term ''Taliska'' is vague, and while it could refer to the Halethian isolate (cf. the older conception) sometimes it's used conventionally to refer to the Hadorian/Beorian family.
  
*Later, in [[The Peoples of Middle-Earth]] "[[Of Dwarves and Men]]" Tolkien wrote that the Bëorians and Halethians did not speak related languages: The Hadorians still spoke "ancient Adûnaic", and the Bëorians this had a closely related language; it was the language of Halethians that was unrelated to both of them. <br>In this later conception, we can't know what would happen to the name "Taliska", if it should still refer either to the language of the Haladin or of the Hadorians-Beorians.
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==Inspiration==
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Taliska was an early language developed by Tolkien. Unlike his later languages which are ''[[Wikipedia:A_priori_(languages)|a priori]]'', it was based directly on the Germanic languages, and has a lot in common with the [[Gothic]] language, an early interest of Tolkien;<ref>{{PE|19}}, p. 22</ref> this shows that Tolkien tried to connect his mythos with the origins of Europe, something that was evident in the ''[[The Book of Lost Tales]]''.
  
The term ''Taliska'', as in this article, is still used sometimes to refer to the common language of the Hadorians-Beorians (instead of Haleth), but this usage is unofficial and perhaps mistaken.
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The connection with Germanic persisted in the framework of ''[[The Lord of the Rings]]''. The Mannish languages that would derive from Adunaic, are rendered as [[Gothic]], [[Norse]], [[Old English]], modern English etc. Non-Taliskan languages are usually rendered with [[Celtic]] elements, if at all.<ref name=app/> (q.v. for more references).
[[category:Languages]]
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A rather complete grammar and syntax of Taliska is known to exist, but despite work by [[Tolkienists]] this has not yet been published.
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{{references|notes}}
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==External links==
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*[http://folk.uib.no/hnohf/mannish.htm Mannish] in [[Ardalambion]]
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*[http://elfling.midgardsmal.com/index.php?topic=104091.0 Questions About Taliska; Using Taliska] [[Elfling]] forum thread
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[[Category:Taliska| ]]
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[[Category:Unpublished material]]
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[[de:Taliska]]
 
[[fr:encyclo/langues/taliska]]
 
[[fr:encyclo/langues/taliska]]

Latest revision as of 19:19, 25 March 2018

"Tell me, who are you, alone, yourself and nameless?" - Tom Bombadil
This article describes a concept which is mentioned in J.R.R. Tolkien's works, but was never given a definite name.

Taliska[note 1] was a Mannish language spoken by the Edain of the House of Bëor and House of Hador.

Contents

[edit] Origins

The ancestors of the folk of Beor and Marach were originally one group when they migrated to the West. In the northern Rhûn they met some Dwarves[1] who probably influenced their language.[2] It was at the Northern shore of the Sea of Rhûn that the tribes separated. They didn't meet often, and their languages soon diverged.[3]

The Greater Folk seemed to have been related to the ancestors of the Northmen[4] (whose language eventually evolved in the various languages of the Northmen in the Third Age[5]). The Lesser Folk had extensive contact with the Dark Elves, they adopted "many words and devices" that influenced their language.[6][2]

[edit] History

When the two tribes reached Beleriand, they already spoke different dialects. The language of the folk of Marach was more pure and they viewed the dialect of the folk of Beor, with the adopted Elvish elements, of lower status.[2]

The folk of Haleth spoke the unrelated Haladin tongue, which was unintelligible to the Houses of the Northern Tribes of Men.

The language of the House of Beor eventually was almost extinct, both because of the adoption of Sindarin and because the House was mostly annihilated after the Dagor Bragollach.[7] On the other hand, the House of Hador did not wholly abandon their language, it survived the War of Wrath and was still spoken when the Edain migrated to Elenna. Thus it later became Adûnaic.[6]

[edit] Other versions of the Legendarium

Helge Fauskanger and Ellen Schousboe noted several changes in the conception of Taliska:[8]

  • The name "Taliska" originally referred to the language of the Houses of Bëor and Haleth whereas it was the House of Hador that spoke another language, which would eventually be conceived as Adûnaic. In an early text by Tolkien, some words he labels as Taliska refer to terms which in the later version would be used by the Haladin.
  • Later, in the essay "Of Dwarves and Men" (published in The Peoples of Middle-Earth), Tolkien wrote that the Bëorians and Halethians did not speak related languages: The Hadorians still spoke "ancient Adûnaic", and the Bëorians had a closely related language; it was the language of Halethians that was unrelated to both of them (see pre-Númenorean).

The later conception establishes a wider Hadorian/Beorian language, which however is not given a name. The fate of the term Taliska is vague, and while it could refer to the Halethian isolate (cf. the older conception) sometimes it's used conventionally to refer to the Hadorian/Beorian family.

[edit] Inspiration

Taliska was an early language developed by Tolkien. Unlike his later languages which are a priori, it was based directly on the Germanic languages, and has a lot in common with the Gothic language, an early interest of Tolkien;[9] this shows that Tolkien tried to connect his mythos with the origins of Europe, something that was evident in the The Book of Lost Tales.

The connection with Germanic persisted in the framework of The Lord of the Rings. The Mannish languages that would derive from Adunaic, are rendered as Gothic, Norse, Old English, modern English etc. Non-Taliskan languages are usually rendered with Celtic elements, if at all.[5] (q.v. for more references).

A rather complete grammar and syntax of Taliska is known to exist, but despite work by Tolkienists this has not yet been published.

Notes

  1. The name "Taliska" is used in this article conventionally. See #Other versions of the Legendarium

References

  1. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Jewels, "Part Two. The Later Quenta Silmarillion: Concerning the Dwarves (Chapter 13)"
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "Of Dwarves and Men"
  3. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "The Problem of Ros", Note 13
  4. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "Cirion and Eorl and the Friendship of Gondor and Rohan", note 4
  5. 5.0 5.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix F, "The Languages and Peoples of the Third Age", "Of Men"
  6. 6.0 6.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Coming of Men into the West"
  7. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Ruin of Beleriand and the Fall of Fingolfin"
  8. Helge Fauskanger, "Mannish", Ardalambion (accessed 16 November 2018)
  9. J.R.R. Tolkien, "Quenya Phonology", in Parma Eldalamberon XIX (edited by Christopher Gilson), p. 22

[edit] External links