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Tengwar/Mode of Beleriand

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{{font|[http://at.mansbjorkman.net/parmaite.htm Tengwar Parmaite] by [[Måns Björkman]]}}
 
The '''Mode of Beleriand''' was a mode of [[Tengwar]] which used full letters for vowels instead of [[tehtar]].
 
The '''Mode of Beleriand''' was a mode of [[Tengwar]] which used full letters for vowels instead of [[tehtar]].
 
==History==
 
The history of this mode is not known but the name suggest it evolved in the [[First Age]], on [[Beleriand]], when the [[Noldor]] came to [[Middle-earth]]; we are told that they were forbidden by King [[Elu Thingol]] to use Quenya<ref>{{HM|S}}, [[Of the Noldor in Beleriand]] "the Exiles took the Sindarin tongue in all their daily uses"</ref>and were forced to adopt [[Sindarin]].
 
 
Normally, they adapted Tengwar to their new language, taking advantage of their inherent flexibility to other sounds, imitating maybe the way the [[Falmari]] of [[Eldamar]] represented the [[Telerin]] sounds that didn't exist in [[Quenya]]. For some obscure reasons we do not know, they found the most usual tehta-mode inappropriate for Sindarin, and they took therefore also example of the original Fëanorian [[Quanta Sarmë]], using distinct tengwar for vowels.
 
 
The Mode of Beleriand seems to have been held "traditionally" by the Noldor who were established in [[Eregion]] during the [[Second Age]], as seen on the [[West-gate]] of [[Moria]] Inscription written by [[Celebrimbor]]<ref>{{HM|FR}}, [[Journey in the Dark]]</ref>. After Eregion was destroyed in [[Second Age 1697]], the Noldor migrated to [[Imladris]]<ref>{{HM|AB}}</ref>, where the Mode of Beleriand was perhaps used even till the [[Third Age]]<ref>''[[The Road Goes Ever On, A Song Cycle]]''</ref>.
 
 
==Structure==
 
It seems that Sindarin speakers found use only for 3 of the 5 [[témar]].
 
 
===Vowels===
 
Of the [[Quessetéma]], [[Wilya]] was used for a final -''u'' (or -''w''). There is also an ''a''-tengwa called [[Osse]], not corresponding with any of the older ones known from Quenya; it could have been imported from a Quenya semivowel unknown to us (Quanta-Sarme).
 
 
Since the vowels were separate letters, the carriers took vowel values too. The [[telco]] was used for ''i'', while the long carrier could have been used for the semiconsonantal initial sound ''y-'' (or ''i-'' as in ''Ioreth'').<ref name="KL">This is the usage in the [[King's Letter]] which employs a similar mode</ref>
 
 
Diphthongs were expressed by tehtar. Two [[amatixi]] (maybe a remnant of the earlier [[Tyelpetéma]]), used for -''i'' in the diphthongs ''ai'', ''ei'' and ''ui''. Similarly for ''au'' (spelled -''aw''), perhaps the ''w''-tehta was used (''caun'', <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">a]é6</em>). ''ae'' is attested written with the separate letters for ''a'' and ''e'', and maybe the same applies to the diphthong ''oe'' too.
 
 
===Labialised consonants===
 
In Quenya mode, labialised consonants (''kw'', ''ngw'' etc) belonged to the Quessetéma. It's possible that the Mode of Beleriand used a ''w''-tehta over consonants for this (''edwen'', which would be written here as <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">l2èl6</em>).<ref name="KL"/>
 
===Nasalization===
 
[[Anto]], [[Ampa]] and other letters used for nasalized stops in Quenya took different values. A tilde is used before stops for nasalisation.
 
===Length===
 
A well-known tehta that indicates long consonants, the under-tilde, was not used. Long ''m'' and ''n'' were written with [[Malta]] and Númen (i.e., doubling of the [[lúva]]), and other long consonants were written with two letters.
 
 
A tehta was used to indicate long vowels, an acute accent called [[Andaith]] (''á'', <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">]R</em>)
 
{{references}}
 
 
 
== Table ==
 
== Table ==
 
{| border="1"
 
{| border="1"
Line 35: Line 8:
 
! colspan="2" | Quessetéma
 
! colspan="2" | Quessetéma
 
|-
 
|-
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">q</em>
+
| {{tg|q}}
 
| p<br>Parma
 
| p<br>Parma
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">1</em>
+
| {{tg|1}}
 
| t<br>Tinco
 
| t<br>Tinco
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">a</em>
+
| {{tg|a}}
 
| k<br>Calma
 
| k<br>Calma
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">z</em>
+
| {{tg|z}}
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
|-
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">w</em>
+
| {{tg|w}}
 
| b<br>Umbar
 
| b<br>Umbar
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">2</em>
+
| {{tg|2}}
 
| d<br>Ando
 
| d<br>Ando
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">s</em>
+
| {{tg|s}}
 
| g<br>Anga
 
| g<br>Anga
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">x</em>
+
| {{tg|x}}
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
|-
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">e</em>
+
| {{tg|e}}
 
| f<br>Formen
 
| f<br>Formen
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">3</em>
+
| {{tg|3}}
 
| th<br>Thúle
 
| th<br>Thúle
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">d</em>
+
| {{tg|d}}
 
| ch<br>Charma
 
| ch<br>Charma
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">c</em>
+
| {{tg|c}}
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
|-
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">r</em>
+
| {{tg|r}}
 
| v<br>Ampa
 
| v<br>Ampa
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">4</em>
+
| {{tg|4}}
 
| dh<br>Anto
 
| dh<br>Anto
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">f</em>
+
| {{tg|f}}<ref group="note">This letter is not attested in any Sindarin text, neither is the sound it theoretically represented, but we can theorize that this sound existed in very early Sindarin (''g'' disappeared in the middle of words via this sound. Cf. early Quenya ''[[Yogh|ȝ]]''). If the Noldor came to Middle-earth when this sound still existed, it is likely that they represented it by this tengwa, before finally disappearing. See also [[Gasdil]].</ref>
 
| gh?<br>Anca
 
| gh?<br>Anca
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">v</em><ref>This letter is not attested in any Sindarin text, neither is the sound it theoretically represented, but we can theorize that this sound existed in very early Sindarin (''g'' dissappeared in the middle of words via this sound. Cf. early Quenya ''3''). If the Noldor came to Middle-earth when this sound still existed, it is likely that they represented it by this tengwa, before finally disappearing. See also [[Gasdil]].</ref>
+
| {{tg|v}}
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
|-
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">t</em><ref name="MN">Because of their doubled lúvar, those tengwar were considered as lenghtened forms of Vala and Órë, which had the values of ''m'' and ''n'', respectively.</ref>
+
| {{tg|t}}<ref group="note" name="MN">Because of their doubled lúvar, those tengwar were considered as lenghtened forms of Vala and Órë, which had the values of ''m'' and ''n'', respectively.</ref>
 
| mm<br>Malta
 
| mm<br>Malta
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">5</em><ref name="MN"/>
+
| {{tg|5}}<ref group="note" name="MN"/>
 
| nn<br>Númen
 
| nn<br>Númen
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">g</em>
+
| {{tg|g}}
 
| -ng?<br>Ngoldo
 
| -ng?<br>Ngoldo
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">b</em>
+
| {{tg|b}}
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
|-
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">y</em>
+
| {{tg|y}}
 
| m<br>Vala
 
| m<br>Vala
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">6</em>
+
| {{tg|6}}
 
| n<br>Óre
 
| n<br>Óre
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">h</em>
+
| {{tg|h}}
 
| o<br>Anna
 
| o<br>Anna
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">n</em><ref>Maybe for prevocalic and final ''w'' (e.g., ''tawarwaith'', ''tiw''). Shouldn&rsquo;t be used for the diphthong ''au'' (finally spelled -''aw'').</ref>
+
| {{tg|n}}<ref group="note">Maybe for prevocalic and final ''w'' (e.g., ''[[tawarwaith]]'', ''[[tew|tiw]]''). If that's the case, it shouldn't be used for the diphthong ''au'' (finally spelled -''aw'').</ref>
 
| -w<br>Wilya
 
| -w<br>Wilya
 
|-
 
|-
 
! colspan="10" | '''Additional Tengwar:'''
 
! colspan="10" | '''Additional Tengwar:'''
 
|-
 
|-
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">7</em>
+
| {{tg|7}}
 
| r<br>Rómen
 
| r<br>Rómen
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">u</em><ref name="AA">These letters were used for the initial soft sounds ''rh'' and ''lh'' (spelled ''hr'' and ''hl'' in Quenya).</ref>
+
| {{tg|u}}<ref group="note" name="AA">These letters were used for the initial soft sounds ''rh'' and ''lh'' (spelled ''hr'' and ''hl'' in Quenya).</ref>
 
| rh<br>Arda
 
| rh<br>Arda
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">j</em>
+
| {{tg|j}}
 
| l<br>Lambë
 
| l<br>Lambë
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">m</em>
+
| {{tg|m}}<ref group="note" name="AA"/>
 
| lh<br>Alda
 
| lh<br>Alda
 
|-
 
|-
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">8</em>
+
| {{tg|8}}
 
| s<br>Silmë
 
| s<br>Silmë
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">i</em><ref>It is not known if this tengwa existed in Aman or if it is a Beleriandic invention. In tehtar-modes, however, it was used when a tehta should be placed over Silme. In this mode, the sound it represents is the vowel ''y'' (not to be confused with the consonantal Quenya ''y'' in ''yulma'')</ref>
+
| {{tg|i}}
| y<br>Silmë nuquerna
+
| Silmë nuquerna
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">k</em><ref>This letter (previously Ázë) became ''ss''. But it is not known which took it from which. There are two probabilities:
+
| {{tg|k}}<ref group="note">This letter (previously Ázë) became ''ss'' for [[Quenya mode|Quenya writing]]. But it is not known which took it from which. There are two equal probabilities</ref>
* Sindarin didn&rsquo;t possess the ''z'' sound, so the Noldor gave it the value of ''ss''. Quenya imitated this Sindarin mode and gave the value of ''ss'' to that letter, which had till that time the value of ''r''.
+
* The '''King&rsquo;s Letter''' is a 4th Age Sindarin text. Maybe the value ''ss'' of this tengwa was an attribute borrowed from the Quenya mode of that time.</ref>
+
 
| ss?<br>Essë
 
| ss?<br>Essë
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">,</em><ref>We lack a letter for the umlaut sound ''œ'' found in early Sindarin (later becoming ''e''), but a wild guess is that perhaps Essë nuquerna was used, similarly like Silmë nuquerna was used for ''y''.</ref>
+
| {{tg|,}}
| œ?<br>Essë nuquerna
+
| Essë nuquerna
 
|-
 
|-
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">9</em><ref>Sindarin didn&rsquo;t possess palatalised sounds. ''hy'' had became ''h''. Hyarmen was employed for this soft sound, not to be confused with ''ch''.</ref>
+
| {{tg|9}}<ref group="note">Sindarin didn't possess palatalized sounds. ''hy'' had became ''h''. Hyarmen was employed for this soft sound, not to be confused with ''ch''.</ref>
 
| h<br>Hyarmen
 
| h<br>Hyarmen
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">o</em><ref>This mysterious letter, said to have the value ''hw'', had never appeared in any of the Sindarin texts. It is unknown why was it employed instead of Hwesta and when. It was probably used much later by the mannish modes, where Hwesta was used for the sound ''ch'' or ''chw''.</ref>
+
| {{tg|o}}<ref group="note">This mysterious letter, said to have the value ''hw'', had never appeared in any of the Sindarin texts. It is unknown why was it employed instead of Hwesta and when. It was probably used much later by the [[Mannish]] modes, where Hwesta was used for the sound ''ch'' or ''chw''.</ref>
 
| chw?<br>Hwesta Sindarinwa
 
| chw?<br>Hwesta Sindarinwa
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">l</em>
+
| {{tg|l}}
 
| e<br>Yanta
 
| e<br>Yanta
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">.</em>
+
| {{tg|.}}
 
| u<br>Úrë
 
| u<br>Úrë
 
|-
 
|-
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">~</em>
+
| {{tg|~}}
 
| i-?
 
| i-?
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">`</em>
+
| {{tg|`}}
| i
+
| i<br>Telco
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">]</em>
+
| {{tg|]}}
 
| a<br>Osse
 
| a<br>Osse
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">y+</em>
+
| {{tg|y+}}
 
| mh?
 
| mh?
 
|-
 
|-
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">&#189;</em><ref>The lenited ''g'' sound was indicated by a sign called Gasdil, which is an elaboration of the letter Halla. It is used like Tolkien uses the apostrophe, to indicate a missing ''g'': ''galadh'', &ldquo;tree&rdquo;, but ''i ‘aladh'', &ldquo;the tree&rdquo;</ref>
+
| {{tg|&#189;}}<ref group="note">The lenited ''g'' sound was indicated by a sign called Gasdil, which is an elaboration of the letter [[Halla]]. It is used like the apostrophe, to indicate a missing ''g'': ''[[galadh]]'', "tree", but ''i ‘aladh'', "the tree"</ref>
 
| ‘<br>Gasdil
 
| ‘<br>Gasdil
 +
|{{tg|I}}<ref group="note">This original letter is similar to Silme Nuquerna however it is a different shape. The sound it represents is the vowel ''y'' (not to be confused with the consonantal Quenya ''y'' in ''yulma'')</ref>
 +
|y
 
|}
 
|}
  
=== Notes ===
+
==History==
<references/>
+
The history of this mode is not known but the name suggest it evolved in the [[First Age]], on [[Beleriand]], when the [[Noldor]] came to [[Middle-earth]]; we are told that they were forbidden by King [[Thingol|Elu Thingol]] to use Quenya<ref>{{S|Noldor}}</ref>and were forced to adopt [[Sindarin]].
 +
 
 +
Normally, they adapted Tengwar to their new language, taking advantage of their inherent flexibility to other sounds, imitating maybe the way the [[Falmari]] of [[Eldamar]] represented the [[Telerin]] sounds that didn't exist in [[Quenya]]. For some obscure reasons we do not know, they found the most usual tehta-mode inappropriate for Sindarin, and they took therefore also example of the original Fëanorian [[Quanta Sarmë]], using distinct tengwar for vowels.
 +
 
 +
The Mode of Beleriand seems to have been held "traditionally" by the Noldor who were established in [[Eregion]] during the [[Second Age]], as seen on the [[West-gate]] of [[Moria]] Inscription written by [[Celebrimbor]]<ref>{{FR|Journey}}</ref>. After Eregion was destroyed in {{SA|1697}}, the Noldor migrated to [[Rivendell|Imladris]]<ref>{{App|B}}</ref>, where the Mode of Beleriand was perhaps used even till the [[Third Age]]<ref>''[[The Road Goes Ever On, A Song Cycle]]''</ref>.
 +
 
 +
==Structure==
 +
It seems that Sindarin speakers found use only for 3 of the 5 [[témar]] since Sindarin lacked the palatalized (''ly, ny, ty'') sounds of Quenya as well as the labialized ''qu''.
 +
 
 +
===Vowels===
 +
Of the [[Quessetéma]], [[Vilya|Wilya]] was used for a final -''u'' (or -''w''). There is also an ''a''-tengwa called [[Osse]], not corresponding with any of the older ones known from Quenya; it could have been imported from a Quenya semivowel unknown to us, which belonged to the Quanta-Sarme.
 +
 
 +
The carriers took vowel values too: The [[telco]] was used for ''i'', while the long carrier could have been used for the semiconsonantal initial sound ''y-'' (or ''i-'' as in ''Ioreth'').<ref name="KL">This is the usage in the [[King's Letter]] which employs a similar mode</ref>
 +
 
 +
Diphthongs were expressed by tehtar. Two [[amatixi]] (maybe a remnant of the earlier [[Tyelpetéma]]), used for -''i'' in the diphthongs ''ai'', ''ei'' and ''ui''<ref>''ei'' and ''ui'' are each attested in the [[Doors of Durin]] and [[A Elbereth Gilthoniel]] texts respectively</ref>. ''Au'' (spelled -''aw'' at the end of words) is not attested, but perhaps similarly the [[w-tehta|''w''-tehta]] was used (''[[caun]]'', {{tg|a]é6}}).
 +
 
 +
''ae'', although a diphthong, is attested written with the separate letters for ''a'' and ''e'', and maybe the same applies to the diphthong ''oe'' too.
 +
 
 +
===Labialised consonants===
 +
In Quenya mode, labialised consonants (''kw'', ''ngw'' etc) belonged to the Quessetéma. It's possible that the Mode of Beleriand used a [[w-tehta|''w''-tehta]] {{tg|è}} over consonants for this (''[[edwen]]'', would perhaps be written here as {{tg|l2èl6}}).<ref name="KL"/>
 +
 
 +
===Nasalization===
 +
[[Anto]], [[Ampa]] and other letters used for nasalized stops in Quenya took different values. A tilde is used before stops for nasalisation. (''mb'', {{tg|wP}})
 +
 
 +
===Length===
 +
A well-known tehta that indicates long consonants, the under-tilde, was not used. Long ''m'' and ''n'' were written with [[Malta]] and Númen (i.e., doubling of the [[lúva]]), and other long consonants were written with two letters (''[[mellon]]'', {{tg|yljjh6}}).
 +
 
 +
A tehta was used to indicate long vowels, an acute accent called [[Andaith]] (''á'', {{tg|]R}})
  
=== Examples ===
+
== Examples ==
The best known sample of the Mode of Beleriand is of course the '''Moria Gate Inscription''', written by Celebrimbor of Eregion, a Noldorin place where this Mode was preserved.
+
The best known sample of the Mode of Beleriand is of course the Inscription of the [[West-gate]] of Moria, written by Celebrimbor of Eregion; this suggest that this Mode was preserved there by the Noldor.
  
<blockquote><p><em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">- l5I6 2.7`6 ]7]6 yh7`] - ql2h yljjh6 ] y`5h -
+
<blockquote>
 +
{{tg|- l5I6 2.7`6 ]7]6 yh7`] - ql2h yljjh6 ] y`5h -
 
<br>
 
<br>
- `y 6]7r` 9]Ö6 ld]1p - aljlw7`wPh7 h l7ls`h6 1lÕ3]1p ` 3`n 9`6 -</em></p>
+
- `y 6]7r` 9]Ö6 ld]1p - aljlw7`wPh7 h l7ls`h6 1lÕ3]1p ` 3`Vn 9`6 -}}</p>
  
<p><em>Ennyn Durin Aran Moria. Pedo mellon a minno.<br>
+
<p>Ennyn Durin Aran Moria. Pedo mellon a minno.<br>
Im Narvi hain echant. Celebrimbor o Eregion teithant i-thiw hin.</em></p></blockquote>
+
Im Narvi hain echant. Celebrimbor o Eregion teithant i-thîw hin.</p></blockquote>
  
Tolkien has written the hymn of Imladris, '''A Elbereth Gilthoniel''', in this mode. Imladris, inhabited by the refugees of Eregion, is one of the places that might have kept the Mode of Beleriand, even in the 3rd Age.  
+
[[A Elbereth Gilthoniel]] was an [[aerlinn]] of the Elves of Imladris. Imladris was inhabited by the refugees of Eregion<ref>{{S|Rings}}</ref> and is one of the places that might have kept the Mode of Beleriand, even in the 3rd Age.  
 
{|
 
{|
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">] ljwl7l3 s~j3h6lj</em>
+
| {{tg|] ljwl7l3 s`j3h6`lj}}
 
| ''A Elbereth Gilthoniel  
 
| ''A Elbereth Gilthoniel  
 
|-
 
|-
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">8~j~r7l6 ql5] 6~V7lj</em>
+
| {{tg|8`j`r7l6 ql5] 6`V7`lj}}
 
| ''silivren penna míriel
 
| ''silivren penna míriel
 
|-
 
|-
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">h yl6lj ]sj]7 ljl6]3</em>
+
| {{tg|h yl6lj ]sj]7 ljl6]3}}
 
| ''o menel aglar elenath!
 
| ''o menel aglar elenath!
 
|-
 
|-
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">6]d]l7l2 q]j]62~V7lj</em>
+
| {{tg|6]d]l7l2 q]j]62`V7`lj}}
 
| ''Na-chaered palan-díriel
 
| ''Na-chaered palan-díriel
 
|-
 
|-
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">h s]j]47lt~6 l5h7]3</em>
+
| {{tg|h s]j]47lt`6 l5h7]3}}
 
| ''o galadhremmin ennorath,  
 
| ''o galadhremmin ennorath,  
 
|-
 
|-
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">e]6.Öjh8 jl j5]3h6</em>
+
| {{tg|e]6.Öjh8 jl j5]3h6}}
 
| ''Fanuilos, le linnathon
 
| ''Fanuilos, le linnathon
 
|-
 
|-
| <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tengwar Annatar', 'Tengwar Quenya', 'Tengwar Sindarin', 'Tengwar Formal', 'Tengwar Parmaite', 'Tengwar Elfica'">6lr ]l]7 8~V 6lr ]l]7h6</em>
+
| {{tg|6lr ]l]7 8`V 6lr ]l]7h6}}
 
| ''nef aear, sí nef aearon!
 
| ''nef aear, sí nef aearon!
 
|}
 
|}
[[category:tengwar]]
+
 
 +
{{References|n}}
 +
{{languages}}
 +
[[Category:tengwar]]

Latest revision as of 11:31, 10 March 2019

Ryszard Derdzinski - Feanor.jpg
Celebrimbor o Eregion teithant i thîw hin

This article displays one of J.R.R. Tolkien's writing systems. For optimal viewing, install the following font:

Tengwar Parmaite by Måns Björkman

The Mode of Beleriand was a mode of Tengwar which used full letters for vowels instead of tehtar.

Contents

[edit] Table

Parmatéma Tincotéma Calmatéma Quessetéma
q p
Parma
1 t
Tinco
a k
Calma
z
w b
Umbar
2 d
Ando
s g
Anga
x
e f
Formen
3 th
Thúle
d ch
Charma
c
r v
Ampa
4 dh
Anto
f

[note 1]

gh?
Anca
v
t

[note 2]

mm
Malta
5

[note 2]

nn
Númen
g -ng?
Ngoldo
b
y m
Vala
6 n
Óre
h o
Anna
n

[note 3]

-w
Wilya
Additional Tengwar:
7 r
Rómen
u

[note 4]

rh
Arda
j l
Lambë
m

[note 4]

lh
Alda
8 s
Silmë
i Silmë nuquerna k

[note 5]

ss?
Essë
, Essë nuquerna
9

[note 6]

h
Hyarmen
o

[note 7]

chw?
Hwesta Sindarinwa
l e
Yanta
. u
Úrë
~ i-? ` i
Telco
] a
Osse
y+ mh?
½

[note 8]


Gasdil
I

[note 9]

y

[edit] History

The history of this mode is not known but the name suggest it evolved in the First Age, on Beleriand, when the Noldor came to Middle-earth; we are told that they were forbidden by King Elu Thingol to use Quenya[1]and were forced to adopt Sindarin.

Normally, they adapted Tengwar to their new language, taking advantage of their inherent flexibility to other sounds, imitating maybe the way the Falmari of Eldamar represented the Telerin sounds that didn't exist in Quenya. For some obscure reasons we do not know, they found the most usual tehta-mode inappropriate for Sindarin, and they took therefore also example of the original Fëanorian Quanta Sarmë, using distinct tengwar for vowels.

The Mode of Beleriand seems to have been held "traditionally" by the Noldor who were established in Eregion during the Second Age, as seen on the West-gate of Moria Inscription written by Celebrimbor[2]. After Eregion was destroyed in S.A. 1697, the Noldor migrated to Imladris[3], where the Mode of Beleriand was perhaps used even till the Third Age[4].

[edit] Structure

It seems that Sindarin speakers found use only for 3 of the 5 témar since Sindarin lacked the palatalized (ly, ny, ty) sounds of Quenya as well as the labialized qu.

[edit] Vowels

Of the Quessetéma, Wilya was used for a final -u (or -w). There is also an a-tengwa called Osse, not corresponding with any of the older ones known from Quenya; it could have been imported from a Quenya semivowel unknown to us, which belonged to the Quanta-Sarme.

The carriers took vowel values too: The telco was used for i, while the long carrier could have been used for the semiconsonantal initial sound y- (or i- as in Ioreth).[5]

Diphthongs were expressed by tehtar. Two amatixi (maybe a remnant of the earlier Tyelpetéma), used for -i in the diphthongs ai, ei and ui[6]. Au (spelled -aw at the end of words) is not attested, but perhaps similarly the w-tehta was used (caun, a]é6 ).

ae, although a diphthong, is attested written with the separate letters for a and e, and maybe the same applies to the diphthong oe too.

[edit] Labialised consonants

In Quenya mode, labialised consonants (kw, ngw etc) belonged to the Quessetéma. It's possible that the Mode of Beleriand used a w-tehta è

over consonants for this (edwen, would perhaps be written here as l2èl6

).[5]

[edit] Nasalization

Anto, Ampa and other letters used for nasalized stops in Quenya took different values. A tilde is used before stops for nasalisation. (mb, wP )

[edit] Length

A well-known tehta that indicates long consonants, the under-tilde, was not used. Long m and n were written with Malta and Númen (i.e., doubling of the lúva), and other long consonants were written with two letters (mellon, yljjh6 ).

A tehta was used to indicate long vowels, an acute accent called Andaith (á, ]R )

[edit] Examples

The best known sample of the Mode of Beleriand is of course the Inscription of the West-gate of Moria, written by Celebrimbor of Eregion; this suggest that this Mode was preserved there by the Noldor.

- l5I6 2.7`6 ]7]6 yh7`] - ql2h yljjh6 ] y`5h -
- `y 6]7r` 9]Ö6 ld]1p - aljlw7`wPh7 h l7ls`h6 1lÕ3]1p ` 3`Vn 9`6 -

Ennyn Durin Aran Moria. Pedo mellon a minno.
Im Narvi hain echant. Celebrimbor o Eregion teithant i-thîw hin.

A Elbereth Gilthoniel was an aerlinn of the Elves of Imladris. Imladris was inhabited by the refugees of Eregion[7] and is one of the places that might have kept the Mode of Beleriand, even in the 3rd Age.

] ljwl7l3 s`j3h6`lj A Elbereth Gilthoniel
8`j`r7l6 ql5] 6`V7`lj silivren penna míriel
h yl6lj ]sj]7 ljl6]3 o menel aglar elenath!
6]d]l7l2 q]j]62`V7`lj Na-chaered palan-díriel
h s]j]47lt`6 l5h7]3 o galadhremmin ennorath,
e]6.Öjh8 jl j5]3h6 Fanuilos, le linnathon
6lr ]l]7 8`V 6lr ]l]7h6 nef aear, sí nef aearon!

Notes

  1. This letter is not attested in any Sindarin text, neither is the sound it theoretically represented, but we can theorize that this sound existed in very early Sindarin (g disappeared in the middle of words via this sound. Cf. early Quenya ȝ). If the Noldor came to Middle-earth when this sound still existed, it is likely that they represented it by this tengwa, before finally disappearing. See also Gasdil.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Because of their doubled lúvar, those tengwar were considered as lenghtened forms of Vala and Órë, which had the values of m and n, respectively.
  3. Maybe for prevocalic and final w (e.g., tawarwaith, tiw). If that's the case, it shouldn't be used for the diphthong au (finally spelled -aw).
  4. 4.0 4.1 These letters were used for the initial soft sounds rh and lh (spelled hr and hl in Quenya).
  5. This letter (previously Ázë) became ss for Quenya writing. But it is not known which took it from which. There are two equal probabilities
  6. Sindarin didn't possess palatalized sounds. hy had became h. Hyarmen was employed for this soft sound, not to be confused with ch.
  7. This mysterious letter, said to have the value hw, had never appeared in any of the Sindarin texts. It is unknown why was it employed instead of Hwesta and when. It was probably used much later by the Mannish modes, where Hwesta was used for the sound ch or chw.
  8. The lenited g sound was indicated by a sign called Gasdil, which is an elaboration of the letter Halla. It is used like the apostrophe, to indicate a missing g: galadh, "tree", but i ‘aladh, "the tree"
  9. This original letter is similar to Silme Nuquerna however it is a different shape. The sound it represents is the vowel y (not to be confused with the consonantal Quenya y in yulma)

References

  1. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Noldor in Beleriand"
  2. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "A Journey in the Dark"
  3. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B
  4. The Road Goes Ever On, A Song Cycle
  5. 5.0 5.1 This is the usage in the King's Letter which employs a similar mode
  6. ei and ui are each attested in the Doors of Durin and A Elbereth Gilthoniel texts respectively
  7. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age"
Languages in Tolkien's works
Elvish languages Avarin · Common Eldarin · Gnomish · Nandorin · Noldorin · Primitive Quendian · Quenya (Exilic · Qenya · Telerin · Valinorean · Vanyarin) · Silvan · Sindarin (Doriathrin · Falathrin · Gondor · Ilkorin · Mithrim · Old)
Mannish languages Adûnaic · Dalish · Drúedainic · Dunlendish · Pre-Númenórean · Rohirric · Taliska · Westron (Hobbitish)
Dwarvish languages Iglishmêk · Khuzdul
Other languages Black Speech · Entish · Orkish · Valarin · Warg-language
Outside the legendarium Animalic · Arktik · Mágol · Naffarin · Nevbosh
Scripts Angerthas/Cirth (Daeron · Erebor · Moria) · Goblin Alphabet · Moon-letters · Tengwar · Sarati · Valmaric script
"A Secret Vice" (book) · "The Lhammas" · "The Tree of Tongues" · Sub-creation