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Tengwar/Quenya mode

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{{font|[http://at.mansbjorkman.net/parmaite.htm Tengwar Parmaite] by [[Måns Björkman]]}}
 
{{main|Tengwar}}
 
{{main|Tengwar}}
 
'''Quenya mode''' is a name of the writing method of [[Quenya]] using [[Tengwar]].
 
'''Quenya mode''' is a name of the writing method of [[Quenya]] using [[Tengwar]].
  
 
==Origin==
 
==Origin==
[[Fëanor]] invented the tengwar on the [[Valian Year 1250]] strongly influenced by the [[Sarati]] of [[Rúmil the Loremaster]].<ref>{{HM|WJ}}, [[The Annals of Valinor]]</ref><ref name="ApD">[[Vinyar Tengwar 39]], Appendix D to [[Quendi and Eldar]]</ref> Fëanor constructed the Tengwar both as a general phonetic alphabet, and devised special arrangements to fit the characteristics of all languages of [[Valinor]]<ref>{{HM|TI}}, [[Appendix on Runes]]</ref>
+
[[Fëanor]] invented the tengwar on the [[Valian Year 1250]] strongly influenced by the [[Sarati]] of [[Rúmil (elf of Tirion)|Rúmil the Loremaster]].<ref>{{HM|WJ}}, [[The Annals of Valinor]]</ref><ref name="ApD">[[Vinyar Tengwar 39]], Appendix D to [[Quendi and Eldar]]</ref> Fëanor constructed the Tengwar both as a general phonetic alphabet, and devised special arrangements to fit the characteristics of all languages of [[Valinor]]<ref>{{HM|TI}}, [[Appendix on Runes]]</ref>
  
 
Unlike Rúmil, Fëanor considered vowels as indepedent sounds and not just “colours” of the consonants, so he devised the “full writing” ([[Quanta Sarmë]]).<ref name="ApD"/>
 
Unlike Rúmil, Fëanor considered vowels as indepedent sounds and not just “colours” of the consonants, so he devised the “full writing” ([[Quanta Sarmë]]).<ref name="ApD"/>
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{| border="1"
 
{| border="1"
 
! colspan="2" | Tincotéma
 
! colspan="2" | Tincotéma
! colspan="2" | Tyelpetéma<ref group="notes1">Quenya also made use of a palatal series, the Tyelpetéma. Christopher Tolkien, who made the names known, notes that the names are given in a number of different formulations, and he cannot determine which were the standard ones. The only difference from the Tincotéma was the underposed (for tengwar with raised stems) and overposed (for tengwar with lowered stems) dots. Those tengwar, not included in the tables, must have been ommited from the standard letters.</ref>
+
! colspan="2" | Tyelpetéma<ref group="1">Quenya also made use of a palatal series, the Tyelpetéma. Christopher Tolkien, who made the names known, notes that the names are given in a number of different formulations, and he cannot determine which were the standard ones. The only difference from the Tincotéma was the underposed (for tengwar with raised stems) and overposed (for tengwar with lowered stems) dots. Those tengwar, not included in the tables, must have been ommited from the standard letters.</ref>
 
! colspan="2" | Parmatéma
 
! colspan="2" | Parmatéma
 
! colspan="2" | Calmatéma
 
! colspan="2" | Calmatéma
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|-
 
|-
 
| {{tg|!}}
 
| {{tg|!}}
| t<sup>h</sup><br>extended grade<ref group="notes1">The original Fëanorean alphabet contained a Grade of &ldquo;extended&rdquo; stems, both raised and lowered. The usage of those tengwar (whose names, if they had, are of course unknown) was to represent spirant sounds. As we know, no Amanya language possessed spirant sounds, since the Primitive spirants ''th, ph'', and ''kh'' had already became ''th, f'' and ''ch'' in Quenya. It is possible that they were used for recording Valarin or maybe archaic forms.</ref>
+
| t<sup>h</sup><br>extended grade<ref group="1">The original Fëanorean alphabet contained a Grade of &ldquo;extended&rdquo; stems, both raised and lowered. The usage of those tengwar (whose names, if they had, are of course unknown) was to represent spirant sounds. As we know, no Amanya language possessed spirant sounds, since the Primitive spirants ''th, ph'', and ''kh'' had already became ''th, f'' and ''ch'' in Quenya. It is possible that they were used for recording Valarin or maybe archaic forms.</ref>
 
| {{tg|!Ö}}
 
| {{tg|!Ö}}
 
| t<sup>h</sup><br>extended grade
 
| t<sup>h</sup><br>extended grade
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|-
 
|-
 
| {{tg|3}}
 
| {{tg|3}}
| th > s<br>Thúle<ref group="notes1">In Noldorin Quenya the sound ''th'' had merged with ''s'' since very early. The word thúlë thus became ''súlë''.</ref> > Súle
+
| th > s<br>Thúle<ref group="1">In Noldorin Quenya the sound ''th'' had merged with ''s'' since very early. The word thúlë thus became ''súlë''.</ref> > Súle
 
| {{tg|3Í}}
 
| {{tg|3Í}}
 
| sty<br>Istyar
 
| sty<br>Istyar
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| m<br>Malta
 
| m<br>Malta
 
| {{tg|g}}
 
| {{tg|g}}
| ñg-<br>Ñgoldo<ref group="notes1" name="N">Those sounds were found only initially. Sometimes written ''ng-'' and ''ngw-'', but not to be confused with Anga/Ungwe, which are used only medially.</ref>
+
| ñg-<br>Ñgoldo<ref group="1" name="N">Those sounds were found only initially. Sometimes written ''ng-'' and ''ngw-'', but not to be confused with Anga/Ungwe, which are used only medially.</ref>
 
| {{tg|b}}
 
| {{tg|b}}
| ñgw-<br>Ñgwalmë<ref group="notes1" name="N"/>
+
| ñgw-<br>Ñgwalmë<ref group="1" name="N"/>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| {{tg|6}}
 
| {{tg|6}}
| &#x0279;<br>?Óre<ref group="notes1">Óre is given as /&#633;/: &ldquo;weak (untrilled) ''r'', originally occurring in Quenya&rdquo;. This quote suggests that Quenya originally contrasted /&#633;/ and /r/, since there would be no need for independent letters if the two sounds were merely [[:wikipedia:allophone|allophones]] of each other. In this case, however, the original distribution of the letters Óre and Rómen must have been different from the one we observe at the end of the Third Age, where both letters are in perfectly complementary distribution, no contrast being possible. If Óre is the original name of this letter, this could mean that it is one of the words with original /&#633;/.</ref>
+
| &#x0279;<br>?Óre<ref group="1">Óre is given as /&#633;/: &ldquo;weak (untrilled) ''r'', originally occurring in Quenya&rdquo;. This quote suggests that Quenya originally contrasted /&#633;/ and /r/, since there would be no need for independent letters if the two sounds were merely [[:wikipedia:allophone|allophones]] of each other. In this case, however, the original distribution of the letters Óre and Rómen must have been different from the one we observe at the end of the Third Age, where both letters are in perfectly complementary distribution, no contrast being possible. If Óre is the original name of this letter, this could mean that it is one of the words with original /&#633;/.</ref>
 
| {{tg|6Õ}}
 
| {{tg|6Õ}}
| ry?<br>?Arya<ref group="notes1">This tengwa is given as Arya, and is attested either as a Rómen or as an Óre with the overdots. Since the sound ''ry'' derives from original ''sy > zy'' (still present in Vanyarin), the form of the letter should be Áze with the dots, changed after ''z'' merged with ''r''. But then this tengwa should be placed among the Additional Tengwar, for it is not consisted of a telco and a lúva.</ref>
+
| ry?<br>?Arya<ref group="1">This tengwa is given as Arya, and is attested either as a Rómen or as an Óre with the overdots. Since the sound ''ry'' derives from original ''sy > zy'' (still present in Vanyarin), the form of the letter should be Áze with the dots, changed after ''z'' merged with ''r''. But then this tengwa should be placed among the Additional Tengwar, for it is not consisted of a telco and a lúva.</ref>
 
| {{tg|y}}
 
| {{tg|y}}
 
| v<br>Vala
 
| v<br>Vala
 
| {{tg|h}}
 
| {{tg|h}}
| 3 > -<br>Anna<ref group="notes1">originally represented ''3'', a sound from primitive ''g'' (cf. ''*galadâ > *galda > *3alda > alda''). The ''3'' sound was early lost, and Anna was used as an initial vowel carrier to indicate an assuming &ldquo;vanished&rdquo; initial consonant wherever words begun with a vowel (note that its "ancestor", the sarat <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tirion Sarati'">I</em>, was also used for ''3'' before being used as a carrier. It was inherited as a carrier by Fëanor, and later it replaced initial Anna). This usage tried to explain the relation of words between Noldorin words starting with a vowel where Telerin had ''g-'' (cf. Quenya ''alda'' vs. Telerin ''galla''), but did not explain all the cases of words without an initial consonant (''alca'', according to this, should be spelled *{{tg|hDjaE}} that time, although it had never been ''**galka'' before). The problem with the name is that Anna is given as derived from the root AN, and not *GAN (although there is some evidence that the latter root is the correct, and therefore its archaic form was ''*3anna'').</ref>
+
| [[Yogh|ȝ]] > -<br>Anna<ref group="1">Anna originally represented ''[[Yogh|ȝ]]'', a sound from primitive ''g'' (cf. ''*galadâ > *galda > *ȝalda > alda''). The ''ȝ'' sound was early lost, and Anna was used as an initial vowel carrier to indicate an assuming &ldquo;vanished&rdquo; initial consonant wherever words begun with a vowel (note that its "ancestor", the sarat <em style="font: normal 1.7em/1.5em 'Tirion Sarati'">'</em>, was also used for ''ȝ'' before being used as a carrier. It was inherited as a carrier by Fëanor, and later it replaced initial Anna). This usage tried to explain the relation of words between Noldorin words starting with a vowel where Telerin had ''g-'' (cf. Quenya ''alda'' vs. Telerin ''galla''), but did not explain all the cases of words without an initial consonant (''alca'', according to this, should be spelled *{{tg|hDjaE}} that time, although it had never been ''**galka'' before). The problem with the name is that Anna is given as derived from the root AN, and not *GAN (although there is some evidence that the latter root is the correct, and therefore its archaic form was ''*ȝanna'').</ref>
 
| {{tg|n}}
 
| {{tg|n}}
 
| w<br>Wilya
 
| w<br>Wilya
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| s<br>Silmë
 
| s<br>Silmë
 
| {{tg|I}}
 
| {{tg|I}}
| s<br>Silmë nuquerna<ref group="notes1" name="nu">The inverted forms of Silmë and Ázë, which were used when followed by a vowel (since they were too tall to receive a tehta). It is not known if these forms were invented by Fëanor or by later users, but Silmë Nuquerna was used in the Mode of Beleriand (as a vocalic ''y''), which makes it possible to be already present in Valinor. If the original form of Arya was an Ázë with dots, there must also have been an inverted form of it (Arya Nuquerna).</ref>
+
| s<br>Silmë nuquerna<ref group="1" name="nu">The inverted forms of Silmë and Ázë, which were used when followed by a vowel (since they were too tall to receive a tehta). It is not known if these forms were invented by Fëanor or by later users, but Silmë Nuquerna was used in the Mode of Beleriand (as a vocalic ''y''), which makes it possible to be already present in Valinor. If the original form of Arya was an Ázë with dots, there must also have been an inverted form of it (Arya Nuquerna).</ref>
 
| {{tg|k}}
 
| {{tg|k}}
| z > r<br>Ázë > Árë<ref group="notes1">The /z/ sound later changed to /r/ only in the Noldorin dialect, and this letter took the name Áre.</ref>
+
| z > r<br>Ázë > Árë<ref group="1">The /z/ sound later changed to /r/ only in the Noldorin dialect, and this letter took the name Áre.</ref>
 
| {{tg|,}}
 
| {{tg|,}}
| z > r<br>Ázë > Áre nuquerna<ref group="notes1" name="nu"/>
+
| z > r<br>Ázë > Áre nuquerna<ref group="1" name="nu"/>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| {{tg|9}}
 
| {{tg|9}}
 
| hy<br>Hyarmen
 
| hy<br>Hyarmen
| {{tg|l}}<ref group="notes1">Yanta's shape reminds of the Rúmilian letter for ''y''. It might have represented this sound too (Yanta probably written *{{tg|lD4#}}, while this word should read **''ainta'' in 3rd Age spelling). In our attested examples of 3rd Age texts, it occurs only as the -''i'' of dipthongs (in {{tg|lE}}, {{tg|lH}} ''ai'', ''oi'' etc.). Maybe e.g. ''tuilë'' was originally spelled *{{tg|1UlUj$}} (''tuyulë'') like in Rúmilian orthography, before simplified to {{tg|1lUj$}}. Cf. Úre.</ref>
+
| {{tg|l}}<ref group="1">Yanta's shape reminds of the Rúmilian letter for ''y''. It might have represented this sound too (Yanta probably written *{{tg|lD4#}}, while this word should read **''ainta'' in 3rd Age spelling). In our attested examples of 3rd Age texts, it occurs only as the -''i'' of dipthongs (in {{tg|lE}}, {{tg|lH}} ''ai'', ''oi'' etc.). Maybe e.g. ''tuilë'' was originally spelled *{{tg|1UlUj$}} (''tuyulë'') like in Rúmilian orthography, before simplified to {{tg|1lUj$}}. Cf. Úre.</ref>
 
| *y<br>Yanta
 
| *y<br>Yanta
 
| {{tg|.}}
 
| {{tg|.}}
| w<br>?Úrë<ref group="notes1">Besides that in the attested examples of 3rd Age, Úre appeas as the -''u'' of the dipthongs ({{tg|.D}}, {{tg|.F}} ''au'', ''eu'' etc.), its original use and etymological relation to the word ''úrë'' itself are unknown. Since it&rsquo;s attested in diphthongs in our samples like Yanta is, we can suppose it was used for intervocalic ''w'', which later became ''v''. Maybe ''taurë'' was originally spelled *{{tg|1D.D7R}} (''tawarë'') before simplified to {{tg|1.D7R}}, while for initial ''w'', only Wilya was used. Jim Allan suggested that ''úre'' should be written as {{tg|.J7R}}, a function that reminds of the Rúmilian spelling of long ''u''… &ndash; or maybe it was used as ''u'' in Quanta Sarme, like in the Mode of Beleriand? Cf. Yanta.</ref>
+
| w<br>?Úrë<ref group="1">Besides that in the attested examples of 3rd Age, Úre appeas as the -''u'' of the dipthongs ({{tg|.D}}, {{tg|.F}} ''au'', ''eu'' etc.), its original use and etymological relation to the word ''úrë'' itself are unknown. Since it&rsquo;s attested in diphthongs in our samples like Yanta is, we can suppose it was used for intervocalic ''w'', which later became ''v''. Maybe ''taurë'' was originally spelled *{{tg|1D.D7R}} (''tawarë'') before simplified to {{tg|1.D7R}}, while for initial ''w'', only Wilya was used. Jim Allan suggested that ''úre'' should be written as {{tg|.J7R}}, a function that reminds of the Rúmilian spelling of long ''u''… &ndash; or maybe it was used as ''u'' in Quanta Sarme, like in the Mode of Beleriand? Cf. Yanta.</ref>
 
| {{tg|&#189;}}
 
| {{tg|&#189;}}
| h<ref group="notes1">'''Halla''' represented an archaic breath ''h'', that survived from primitive H only in Amanye languages, while Charma represented ''ch'', that derived from Primitive KH. The problem is that the ''h'' of the word ''halla'' evolved from the latter sound: KHAL > ''*khallâ > halla'', therefore pronounced ''*challa'' in Fëanor&rsquo;s time. We are lead to the conclusion that there must be another ancient unrecorded name for this letter that had the breath sound ''h''!</ref><br>?Halla
+
| h<ref group="1">'''Halla''' represented an archaic breath ''h'', that survived from primitive H only in Amanye languages, while Charma represented ''ch'', that derived from Primitive KH. The problem is that the ''h'' of the word ''halla'' evolved from the latter sound: KHAL > ''*khallâ > halla'', therefore pronounced ''*challa'' in Fëanor&rsquo;s time. We are lead to the conclusion that there must be another ancient unrecorded name for this letter that had the breath sound ''h''!</ref><br>?Halla
 
| {{tg|`}}
 
| {{tg|`}}
 
| *(short carrier)<br>?Telco
 
| *(short carrier)<br>?Telco
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==== Notes ====
 
==== Notes ====
<small><references group="notes1" /></small>
+
<small><references group="1" /></small>
 +
 
 
===Later evolution===
 
===Later evolution===
 
Some changes occurred in Noldorin phonology, already in Valinor, that differentiated it from the dialect of the Vanyar: ''th'' merged with ''s'', initial ''ch'' with ''h'' and maybe later, ''z'' with ''r''. Those changes were inherited to Exilic Quenya which slowly evolved further.
 
Some changes occurred in Noldorin phonology, already in Valinor, that differentiated it from the dialect of the Vanyar: ''th'' merged with ''s'', initial ''ch'' with ''h'' and maybe later, ''z'' with ''r''. Those changes were inherited to Exilic Quenya which slowly evolved further.
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! colspan="2" | Parmatéma
 
! colspan="2" | Parmatéma
 
! colspan="2" | Tincotéma
 
! colspan="2" | Tincotéma
! colspan="2" | Tyelpetéma<ref group="notes2">Some changes<ref>this is a test</ref> took place in Quenya and consisted Tyelpetéma obsoleted as a separate series. The palatalised sounds will be now shown with its remnant, the “following ''y''” underdots.</ref>
+
! colspan="2" | Tyelpetéma<ref group="notes2">Some changes took place in Quenya and consisted Tyelpetéma obsoleted as a separate series. The palatalised sounds will be now shown with its remnant, the “following ''y''” underdots.</ref>
 
! colspan="2" | Calmatéma
 
! colspan="2" | Calmatéma
 
! colspan="2" | Quessetéma
 
! colspan="2" | Quessetéma
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| s<br>Silmë
 
| s<br>Silmë
 
| {{tg|k}}
 
| {{tg|k}}
| r – ss<br>Árë - Essë<ref>This letter was used even after ''z'' became ''r'' for orthographic reasons. Since there was already Rómen for intervocalic ''r'', (''aurel'' should still be written {{tg|.D,Rj}}, but also as {{tg|.D7Rj}}) Árë was renamed Essë and took the value of long ''s''. Maybe the application of value ''ss'' was an influence from the earlier Mode of Beleriand.</ref>
+
| r – ss<br>Árë - Essë<ref group="notes2">This letter was used even after ''z'' became ''r'' for orthographic reasons. Since there was already Rómen for intervocalic ''r'', (''aurel'' should still be written {{tg|.D,Rj}}, but also as {{tg|.D7Rj}}) Árë was renamed Essë and took the value of long ''s''. Maybe the application of value ''ss'' was an influence from the earlier Mode of Beleriand.</ref>
 
| {{tg|9}}
 
| {{tg|9}}
 
| hy<br>Hyarmen
 
| hy<br>Hyarmen
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{{references}}
 
{{references}}
 +
[[Category:tengwar]]

Revision as of 19:56, 3 March 2012

Ryszard Derdzinski - Feanor.jpg
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This article displays one of J.R.R. Tolkien's writing systems. For optimal viewing, install the following font:

Tengwar Parmaite by Måns Björkman
Main article: Tengwar

Quenya mode is a name of the writing method of Quenya using Tengwar.

Contents

Origin

Fëanor invented the tengwar on the Valian Year 1250 strongly influenced by the Sarati of Rúmil the Loremaster.[1][2] Fëanor constructed the Tengwar both as a general phonetic alphabet, and devised special arrangements to fit the characteristics of all languages of Valinor[3]

Unlike Rúmil, Fëanor considered vowels as indepedent sounds and not just “colours” of the consonants, so he devised the “full writing” (Quanta Sarmë).[2]

However Fëanor also used a more 'conservative' system which seem to have been proved far more popular; he held Rúmil's idea of syllabic analysis of the words by the Sarati, and made also use of tehtar (instead of the full letters).[2].

Although Fëanor was a speaker of Quenya it is possible that he did not invent the Tengwar with Quenya specifically in mind, since the strict Quenya phonology didn't fit absolutely consistently. It's more probable that the Tengwar was created as a general phonological template[4], onto which he later "fit" the Quenya sounds as consistently as possible

History and evolution

First Age

Despite Fëanor is said to prefer the Quanta Sarme, he also used a more 'conservative' system which (judging by the majority of the subsequent samples) seem to have been proved far more popular. Fëanor held the idea of syllabic analysis of the words by the Sarati, and made also use of signs (tehtar) for vowels (instead of the full letters), placed over the preceding tengwar/consonants, indicating their “colour”. A consonant followed by a vowel was concidered as a “full letter” (ñávëa or ñáva-tengwë). The sarat was imported from the previous system, and when a vowel had no preceding consonant, it was used as a carrier for convenience in writing. This system however was used by Fëanor mainly for tradition and brevity, favoring the Quanta Sarme instead.

Apart of the standard consistent characters, there were also additional tengwar which don't fit in the structure. These are usually modifications of the standard tengwar. Hyarmen is a modification of Charma, Úre is of Wilya, and Anna derived from an earlier sarat.

Table

The following table attempts to display how the sounds of archaic Quenya[5], of Feanor's time would be represented with the earliest known Tengwar.

The names are known only from the 3rd Age table composed in Gondor so it is not known if this arrangement existed since Fëanor’s days. It is possible that some of the known names may have replaced earlier, unrecorded forms.

Tincotéma Tyelpetéma[1 1] Parmatéma Calmatéma Quessetéma
1 t
Tinco
ty
Tyelpë
q p
Parma
a k
Calma
z kw
Quessë
! th
extended grade[1 2]
th
extended grade
Q ph
extended grade
A kh
extended grade
Z khw
extended grade
2 nd
Ando
ndy
Indyo
w mb
Umbar
s ng
Anga
x ngw
Ungwë
3 th > s
Thúle[1 3] > Súle
sty
Istyar
e f
Formen
d ch
Charma
c chw
Chwesta
4 nt
Anto
nty
Intya
r mp
Ampa
f nk
Anca
v nkw
Unquë
5 n
Númen
ny
Nyellë
t m
Malta
g ñg-
Ñgoldo[1 4]
b ñgw-
Ñgwalmë[1 4]
6 ɹ
?Óre[1 5]
ry?
?Arya[1 6]
y v
Vala
h ȝ > -
Anna[1 7]
n w
Wilya
Additional Tengwar:
7 r
Rómen
ry
?Arya
u rd
Arda
j l
Lambë
ly
Alya
m ld
Alda
8 s
Silmë
I s
Silmë nuquerna[1 8]
k z > r
Ázë > Árë[1 9]
, z > r
Ázë > Áre nuquerna[1 8]
9 hy
Hyarmen
l

[1 10]

*y
Yanta
. w
?Úrë[1 11]
½ h[1 12]
?Halla
` *(short carrier)
?Telco
~ (long carrier)

Notes

  1. Quenya also made use of a palatal series, the Tyelpetéma. Christopher Tolkien, who made the names known, notes that the names are given in a number of different formulations, and he cannot determine which were the standard ones. The only difference from the Tincotéma was the underposed (for tengwar with raised stems) and overposed (for tengwar with lowered stems) dots. Those tengwar, not included in the tables, must have been ommited from the standard letters.
  2. The original Fëanorean alphabet contained a Grade of “extended” stems, both raised and lowered. The usage of those tengwar (whose names, if they had, are of course unknown) was to represent spirant sounds. As we know, no Amanya language possessed spirant sounds, since the Primitive spirants th, ph, and kh had already became th, f and ch in Quenya. It is possible that they were used for recording Valarin or maybe archaic forms.
  3. In Noldorin Quenya the sound th had merged with s since very early. The word thúlë thus became súlë.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Those sounds were found only initially. Sometimes written ng- and ngw-, but not to be confused with Anga/Ungwe, which are used only medially.
  5. Óre is given as /ɹ/: “weak (untrilled) r, originally occurring in Quenya”. This quote suggests that Quenya originally contrasted /ɹ/ and /r/, since there would be no need for independent letters if the two sounds were merely allophones of each other. In this case, however, the original distribution of the letters Óre and Rómen must have been different from the one we observe at the end of the Third Age, where both letters are in perfectly complementary distribution, no contrast being possible. If Óre is the original name of this letter, this could mean that it is one of the words with original /ɹ/.
  6. This tengwa is given as Arya, and is attested either as a Rómen or as an Óre with the overdots. Since the sound ry derives from original sy > zy (still present in Vanyarin), the form of the letter should be Áze with the dots, changed after z merged with r. But then this tengwa should be placed among the Additional Tengwar, for it is not consisted of a telco and a lúva.
  7. Anna originally represented ȝ, a sound from primitive g (cf. *galadâ > *galda > *ȝalda > alda). The ȝ sound was early lost, and Anna was used as an initial vowel carrier to indicate an assuming “vanished” initial consonant wherever words begun with a vowel (note that its "ancestor", the sarat ', was also used for ȝ before being used as a carrier. It was inherited as a carrier by Fëanor, and later it replaced initial Anna). This usage tried to explain the relation of words between Noldorin words starting with a vowel where Telerin had g- (cf. Quenya alda vs. Telerin galla), but did not explain all the cases of words without an initial consonant (alca, according to this, should be spelled *hDjaE that time, although it had never been **galka before). The problem with the name is that Anna is given as derived from the root AN, and not *GAN (although there is some evidence that the latter root is the correct, and therefore its archaic form was *ȝanna).
  8. 8.0 8.1 The inverted forms of Silmë and Ázë, which were used when followed by a vowel (since they were too tall to receive a tehta). It is not known if these forms were invented by Fëanor or by later users, but Silmë Nuquerna was used in the Mode of Beleriand (as a vocalic y), which makes it possible to be already present in Valinor. If the original form of Arya was an Ázë with dots, there must also have been an inverted form of it (Arya Nuquerna).
  9. The /z/ sound later changed to /r/ only in the Noldorin dialect, and this letter took the name Áre.
  10. Yanta's shape reminds of the Rúmilian letter for y. It might have represented this sound too (Yanta probably written *lD4# , while this word should read **ainta in 3rd Age spelling). In our attested examples of 3rd Age texts, it occurs only as the -i of dipthongs (in lE , lH ai, oi etc.). Maybe e.g. tuilë was originally spelled *1UlUj$ (tuyulë) like in Rúmilian orthography, before simplified to 1lUj$ . Cf. Úre.
  11. Besides that in the attested examples of 3rd Age, Úre appeas as the -u of the dipthongs (.D , .F au, eu etc.), its original use and etymological relation to the word úrë itself are unknown. Since it’s attested in diphthongs in our samples like Yanta is, we can suppose it was used for intervocalic w, which later became v. Maybe taurë was originally spelled *1D.D7R (tawarë) before simplified to 1.D7R , while for initial w, only Wilya was used. Jim Allan suggested that úre should be written as .J7R , a function that reminds of the Rúmilian spelling of long u… – or maybe it was used as u in Quanta Sarme, like in the Mode of Beleriand? Cf. Yanta.
  12. Halla represented an archaic breath h, that survived from primitive H only in Amanye languages, while Charma represented ch, that derived from Primitive KH. The problem is that the h of the word halla evolved from the latter sound: KHAL > *khallâ > halla, therefore pronounced *challa in Fëanor’s time. We are lead to the conclusion that there must be another ancient unrecorded name for this letter that had the breath sound h!

Later evolution

Some changes occurred in Noldorin phonology, already in Valinor, that differentiated it from the dialect of the Vanyar: th merged with s, initial ch with h and maybe later, z with r. Those changes were inherited to Exilic Quenya which slowly evolved further.

During the Second Age, Quenya was spoken and written in Númenor.[6]

Table

Parmatéma Tincotéma Tyelpetéma[notes2 1] Calmatéma Quessetéma
q p
Parma
1 t
Tinco
ty
Tyelpë
a k
Calma
z kw
Quessë
w mb
Umbar
2 nd
Ando
ny
Inyo[notes2 2]
s ng
Anga
x ngw
Ungwë
e f
Formen
3 s[notes2 3]
Súlë
sty
Istar
d h-, -ch-[notes2 4]
Harma-Acha
c hw
Hwesta
r mp
Ampa
4 nt
Anto
nty
Intya
f nk
Anca
v nkw
Unquë
t m
Malta
5 n
Númen
ny
Nyellë
g ñ-
Ñoldo
b ñw-
Ñwalmë
y v
Vala
6 r [preconsonantal]
Órë
ry
Arya[notes2 5]
h -[notes2 6]
Anna
n w-
Wilya
Additional Tengwar:
7 r [intervocalic]
Rómen
u rd
Arda
j l
Lambë
m ld
Alda
ly
Alya
8 s
Silmë
k r – ss
Árë - Essë[notes2 7]
9 hy
Hyarmen
l

[notes2 8]

y
Yanta
. w
?Úrë
½ h
Halla[notes2 9]
` (carrier)
Telco
~ (carrier)
Ára
i s
Silmë nuqu.
, r
Árë nuqu.

Notes

  1. Some changes took place in Quenya and consisted Tyelpetéma obsoleted as a separate series. The palatalised sounds will be now shown with its remnant, the “following y” underdots.
  2. The Noldor simplified ndy > ny. So Indyo must became *Inyo, making the letter useless and replaced by Nyellë
  3. It is known that for orthographic reasons, Súlë was used for s in words that once were th (eg. thanga and later sanga would be written 3Ds# , not **iEs# ). One can wonder why it didn’t get another useful value, like Árë did, since Súlë was confused with Silmë.
  4. Initial ch was softened and merged with h, and Charma became "Harma". Harma might still be used initially, but it seems that it was eventually replaced by Hyarmen. Harma was renamed Acha and was used now only medially where the hard sound ch remained unchanged.
  5. As z merged with r and zy became ry. It seems that when Arya was obsoleted: Árë was renamed as Essë, and the ry sound began to be indicated by Rómen/Órë letters.
  6. The 3 sound had been disappeared and the Telco was now solely used to carry the tehtar. But Anna was now used with the “following y” nuntixi to represent the y consonant since it seems Yanta was now used only to represent –i in diphtongs.
  7. This letter was used even after z became r for orthographic reasons. Since there was already Rómen for intervocalic r, (aurel should still be written .D,Rj , but also as .D7Rj ) Árë was renamed Essë and took the value of long s. Maybe the application of value ss was an influence from the earlier Mode of Beleriand.
  8. This sound was simplified to h, maybe because of Sindarin influence, and later displaced Halla (and maybe Harma) completely. Its old hy value was restored when borrowing the “following y” nuntixi.
  9. This letter was replaced by Hyarmen, but it was still used to indicate the soft initial hl and hr (hrívë, ½7~ByR )

Classical mode

Table

Notes

References

  1. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Jewels, The Annals of Valinor
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Vinyar Tengwar 39, Appendix D to Quendi and Eldar
  3. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Treason of Isengard, Appendix on Runes
  4. Observations made by Jim Allan's An Introduction to Elvish, The Evolution of the Tengwar - Theoretical Tengwar values
  5. The Evolution of Primitive Elvish to Quenya: Valinorean
  6. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Sauron Defeated, The Notion Club Papers. Alwin Lowdham writes some Quenya Númenorian names in Tengwar