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Editing The Lord of the Rings

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A dispute with his publishers, [[Allen and Unwin]], led to the book being offered to [[HarperCollins|Collins]] in 1950.  He intended ''the Silmarillion'' (itself largely unrevised at this point) to be published along with ''The Lord of the Rings'', but Allen and Unwin were unwilling to do this.  After his contact at Collins, [[Milton Waldman]], expressed the belief that ''The Lord of the Rings'' itself 'urgently needed cutting', he eventually demanded that they publish the book in 1952.  They did not do so, and so Tolkien wrote to Allen and Unwin, saying "I would gladly consider the publication of any part of the stuff".
 
A dispute with his publishers, [[Allen and Unwin]], led to the book being offered to [[HarperCollins|Collins]] in 1950.  He intended ''the Silmarillion'' (itself largely unrevised at this point) to be published along with ''The Lord of the Rings'', but Allen and Unwin were unwilling to do this.  After his contact at Collins, [[Milton Waldman]], expressed the belief that ''The Lord of the Rings'' itself 'urgently needed cutting', he eventually demanded that they publish the book in 1952.  They did not do so, and so Tolkien wrote to Allen and Unwin, saying "I would gladly consider the publication of any part of the stuff".
 
Some locations and characters were inspired by Tolkien's childhood in [[Sarehole]], then a [[Warwickshire]] village, now part of [[Birmingham]], and in Birmingham itself.
 
  
 
===Publication===
 
===Publication===
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Four of  the titles, ''[[The Return of the Shadow]]'', ''[[The Treason of Isengard]]'', ''[[The War of the Ring]]'' and ''[[The End of the Third Age]]'', were used by [[Christopher Tolkien]] for ''[[The History of The Lord of the Rings]]''.
 
Four of  the titles, ''[[The Return of the Shadow]]'', ''[[The Treason of Isengard]]'', ''[[The War of the Ring]]'' and ''[[The End of the Third Age]]'', were used by [[Christopher Tolkien]] for ''[[The History of The Lord of the Rings]]''.
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Some locations and characters were inspired by Tolkien's childhood in [[Sarehole]], then a [[Warwickshire]] village, now part of [[Birmingham]], and in Birmingham itself.
  
 
== Publication history ==
 
== Publication history ==
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In the early 1960s, Donald A. Wollheim, science fiction editor of the paperback publisher [[Ace Books]], realized that ''The Lord of the Rings'' was not protected in the United States under American copyright law because the US hardcover edition had been bound from pages printed in the UK for the British edition. Ace Books proceeded to publish an edition, unauthorized by Tolkien and without compensation to him. Tolkien made this plain to US fans who wrote to him.  Grass-roots pressure became so great that Ace books withdrew their edition and made a nominal payment to Tolkien, well below what he might have been due in an appropriate publication. However, this poor beginning was overshadowed when an authorized edition followed from [[Ballantine Books]] to tremendous commercial success. By the mid-1960s the books, due to their wide exposure on the American public stage, had become a true cultural phenomenon. The Second Edition of ''The Lord of the Rings'' dates from this time — Tolkien undertook various textual revisions to produce a version of the book that would have a valid U.S. copyright.
 
In the early 1960s, Donald A. Wollheim, science fiction editor of the paperback publisher [[Ace Books]], realized that ''The Lord of the Rings'' was not protected in the United States under American copyright law because the US hardcover edition had been bound from pages printed in the UK for the British edition. Ace Books proceeded to publish an edition, unauthorized by Tolkien and without compensation to him. Tolkien made this plain to US fans who wrote to him.  Grass-roots pressure became so great that Ace books withdrew their edition and made a nominal payment to Tolkien, well below what he might have been due in an appropriate publication. However, this poor beginning was overshadowed when an authorized edition followed from [[Ballantine Books]] to tremendous commercial success. By the mid-1960s the books, due to their wide exposure on the American public stage, had become a true cultural phenomenon. The Second Edition of ''The Lord of the Rings'' dates from this time — Tolkien undertook various textual revisions to produce a version of the book that would have a valid U.S. copyright.
  
The books have been translated, with various degrees of success, into dozens of other languages.
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The books have been translated, with various degrees of success, into dozens of other languages.
 
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Tolkien, an expert in philology, examined many of these translations, and had comments on each that illuminate both the translation process and his work.
 
Tolkien, an expert in philology, examined many of these translations, and had comments on each that illuminate both the translation process and his work.
  

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