Tolkien Gateway

Uncommon words

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Within [[J.R.R. Tolkien]]'s works, there are many '''uncommon''', archaic, obsolete and dialectal words (especially from the dialects of the United Kingdom) which might cause confusion to readers and may make a passage of text appear unwieldy.
 
Within [[J.R.R. Tolkien]]'s works, there are many '''uncommon''', archaic, obsolete and dialectal words (especially from the dialects of the United Kingdom) which might cause confusion to readers and may make a passage of text appear unwieldy.
 
{{CompactTOC}}
 
{{CompactTOC}}
==A==
+
Word Definition
* '''abide''' - put up with, tolerate; await;
+
aba garment of camel or goat hair; camel or goat-hair fabric
* '''abjure''' - renounce, turn away from
+
abacinate to blind by putting red-hot copper basin near the eyes
* '''abroad''' - in the open, at large
+
abactor cattle thief
* '''adamant''' - diamond, or (more generally) any very hard substance
+
abaculus small tile for mosaic
* '''afield''' - away, especially from home
+
abaft toward or at the stern of a ship; further aft
* '''aforetime''' - in earlier times
+
abampere unit equivalent to 10 amperes
* '''aghast''' - terrified, amazed
+
abapical at the lowest point
* '''agin''' - a dialect word meaning "against", "next to"
+
abarticular not connected with the joint
* '''aloof''' - hanging over ones head
+
abasement action of humbling or degrading
* '''amiss''' - not as things should be
+
abasia inability to walk due to lack of muscular coordination
* '''an''' - if
+
abask in genial warmth
* '''anon''' - soon; ever and anon often
+
abatis rampart of felled trees and branches
* '''apace''' - quickly
+
abatjour skylight or device to direct light into a room
* '''argent''' - silver
+
abattoir public slaughterhouse
* '''arrassed''' - covered with arras (rich figured tapestry)
+
abature trail through wood beaten down by a stag
* '''assuage''' - soften, lessen, soothe
+
abb yarn used for warp
* '''astonied''' - stunned, astonished
+
abba Syriac or Coptic bishop
* '''aught''' - anything
+
abbatial of, like or pertaining to abbots or an abbey
 +
abbozzo preliminary sketch
 +
abditive remote; secret; hidden
 +
abdominous having a paunch or big belly
 +
abducent turning away; bearing away from
 +
abeam in a line at right angles to the length of a vessel, on the beam
 +
abear to bear; to comport; to behave
 +
abecedarian of, like or pertaining to the order of the alphabet; rudimentary
 +
abecedism word created from the initials of words in a phrase
 +
abele white poplar tree
 +
aberdevine alternate name for the siskin
 +
aberuncators long tool for pruning tall branches
 +
abessive indicating absence or lack
 +
abiectic of, like or pertaining to fir trees or fir sap
 +
abigail a lady's maid
 +
abigeus cattle rustler
 +
abiogenesis spontaneous generation of living matter
 +
abiotrophy degeneration; loss of physical vitality or ability
 +
abirritate to alleviate irritation; to reduce sensitivity
 +
abiturient pupil leaving school for university
 +
abject humble; miserable; craven
 +
ablactation weaning of a child from its mother's milk
 +
ablative indicating direction from or time when
 +
ablator thermal protection on outside of spacecraft
 +
ablaut variation in root vowel of words to change meaning
 +
ablegate papal envoy or legate
 +
ablepsia blindness
 +
ablow in a blowing state
 +
abluent cleanser or cleansing product
 +
ablutomania mania for washing oneself
 +
abnegate to renounce or repudiate
 +
abodement an omen; a foretelling
 +
aboideau tide gate
 +
abolla Roman military cloak
 +
abomasum ruminant's fourth stomach
 +
aboral away from the mouth
 +
abord to accost; to approach
 +
aborning during birth; while being born
 +
aborticide killing of a fetus; abortion
 +
abortuary anti-abortion term for an abortion clinic
 +
aboulia loss of ability to make decisions
 +
aboulomania pathological indecisiveness
 +
aboutsledge largest blacksmith's hammer
 +
abra narrow mountain pass
 +
abradant a substance that abrades
 +
abraid to awaken or rouse
 +
abraxas gem engraved with mystical word and bearing human-animal figure
 +
abreuvoir joint or gap between two stones in masonry
 +
abroach in a condition to allow liquor to run out
 +
abrosia fasting
 +
abscind to pare, reduce, cut off or away
 +
abscissa horizontal distance from a fixed line to a point
 +
abscission cutting off; cutting away
 +
absconce lantern used in monasteries and night offices
 +
abseil to descend a rock face using a double rope
 +
absentaneous done in absence; pertaining to absence
 +
absinthial of, like or pertaining to wormwood; bitter
 +
absinthism disease resembling alcoholism
 +
absit leave to pass one night away from college
 +
absolutism doctrine of government by a single absolute ruler; autocracy
 +
absolutive indicating subject or object of intransitive verb
 +
absolutory forgiving or absolving
 +
absonant discordant; abhorrent
 +
absorbefacient causing or promoting absorption
 +
absorptiometer instrument for measuring solubility of gases in liquids
 +
absquatulate to decamp; to leave quickly; to flee
 +
absterge wipe clean; expunge; purge; purify
 +
absurdism doctrine that we live in an irrational universe
 +
abterminal going from the end inwards
 +
abthane monastic region of the old Irish church
 +
abulia lack of ability to make decisions; aboulia
 +
abuna Ethiopian patriarch
 +
abusion misuse; outrage; deception
 +
abutment masonry on a wall that supports an arch
 +
abvolt unit of electrical potential equal to one hundred millionth of a volt
 +
aby to make amends; atone; pay a penalty
 +
abyssopelagic of, like or pertaining to the depths of the ocean
 +
academicism doctrine that nothing can be known
 +
acanaceous bearing prickles or thistles; prickly
 +
acantha prickle
 +
acanthous spiny; prickly
 +
acapnia lack or deficiency of carbon dioxide
 +
acapnotic non-smoker; non-smoking
 +
acariasis irritating itching insect infestation
 +
acaricide killer of mites and ticks
 +
acarine of, like or pertaining to ticks or mites
 +
acarology study of mites
 +
acarophobia fear of itching or of insects causing itching
 +
acarpous sterile; not bearing fruit
 +
acatalectic having complete or full number of syllables in a poetic line
 +
acatalepsy the unknowableness of all things to a certainty
 +
acatamathesia inability to understand data presented to the senses
 +
acates provisions that have been purchased
 +
acatour provisioner; quartermaster
 +
acaudate tailless
 +
acaulescent having a very short stem
 +
accelerometer instrument for measuring acceleration or vibrations
 +
accend to kindle
 +
accensor acolyte
 +
accentor songbird
 +
acceptilation remission of debt or liability through fictitious repayment
 +
accessit prize for students in second place; honourable mention
 +
acciaccatura very short note played before a longer one
 +
accidence grammar book; science of inflections in grammar
 +
accidentalism theory that events do not have causes
 +
accidie sloth; physical torpor
 +
accinge to gird
 +
accipiter bandage worn around the nose
 +
accipitral like a bird of prey; rapacious
 +
accipitrine of, like or pertaining to falcons and hawks
 +
accismus in rhetoric, pretending to refuse something
 +
accite to cite; to summon
 +
acclinate sloping upwards
 +
acclivity upward slope
 +
accloy to hobble with a horseshoe nail
 +
accolade curved architectural moulding; vertical line joining two musical staves
 +
accolent neighbouring
 +
accosted in heraldry, two figures placed side by side
 +
accoucheur male midwife
 +
accoucheuse female midwife
 +
accourage to encourage
 +
accourt to entertain
 +
accoy to subdue; to pacify; to soothe
 +
accrementition increase or growth by adding similar material
 +
accretion accumulation; addition of parts to form a whole
 +
accubation reclining as on a couch
 +
accubitum crescent-shaped couch
 +
accusative indicating direct object of a verb
 +
acedia listlessness; sloth
 +
aceldama site or scene of violence or bloodshed
 +
aceology therapeutics
 +
acequia irrigation ditch
 +
acerate of, like or resembling a needle
 +
acerbate to embitter; to irritate
 +
acerous lacking horns or antennae
 +
acersecomic one whose hair has never been cut
 +
acervate heaped; clustered
 +
acervuline like or in small mounds or heaps
 +
acescence becoming sour; souring; turning of milk
 +
acetabulum small anatomical cup or hollow, such as a sucker
 +
acetarious referring to plants that are used in salads
 +
acetimeter instrument for measuring strength of vinegar
 +
achaenocarp any dry indehiscent fruit
 +
acharné furious or desperate (of a battle)
 +
achene small one-seeded fruit or naked seed of plant
 +
achloropsia colour-blindness with respect to green
 +
achor eruption or scab on the head
 +
achromatopsia colour-blindness
 +
achroous colourless
 +
acicular needle-shaped
 +
acidaemia undue acidity of blood
 +
acidimeter instrument for measuring concentration of acids
 +
acidulous sharp or bitter-tasting
 +
acierate to turn into steel
 +
acinaceous full of kernels
 +
acinaciform scimitar-shaped
 +
aciniform shaped like a berry
 +
acinus berry which grows in clusters
 +
acipenser sturgeon
 +
aclinic having no inclination or magnetic dip
 +
acock defiantly
 +
acoemeti ancient monastic order who maintained eternal choir service
 +
acology study of medical remedies
 +
acolous limbless
 +
acolouthic of, like or pertaining to an after-image or other after-sensation
 +
acopic curing or relieving fatigue
 +
acoria pathologically great appetite
 +
acosmism disbelief in existence of eternal universe distinct from God
 +
acouasm ringing noise in head
 +
acquest object which is acquired
 +
acracy government by none; anarchy
 +
acratia impotence
 +
acre-breadth old unit of length of 22 yards
 +
acritochromacy colour-blindness
 +
acroamatic esoteric
 +
acrocephalous having a pointed or peaked skull
 +
acrography the art of making wood blocks in relief
 +
acrolith wooden statue with stone extremities
 +
acrologic of, like or pertaining to initials
 +
acromegaly glandular disorder causing gigantism of extremities
 +
acronical occurring at nightfall or sunset
 +
acronym word formed from initial letters of another word
 +
acronyx ingrown nail
 +
acropathy disease or illness of the extremities
 +
acrophobia fear of heights
 +
acrophonic using a symbol for the initial sound of a thing
 +
acropodium pedestal upon which a statue rests
 +
acroscopic looking or moving towards the apex
 +
acroteleutic phrase or words at the end of a psalm
 +
acroterion pedestal or ornament at the angle of a pediment
 +
acrotism absence of pulsing
 +
actinism action of solar radiation causing chemical change
 +
actinograph instrument used to calculate time of photographic exposure
 +
actinometer instrument for measuring incident radiation
 +
actinotherapy use of ultraviolet rays as medical therapy
 +
actuate communicate motion to; cause
 +
aculeate prickly; pointed; stinging; a stinging insect
 +
aculeiform shaped like a thorn
 +
acultomancy divination using needles
 +
acuminate tapered; pointed; to sharpen
 +
acutiator sharpener of weapons
 +
acutorsion twisting artery with needle to stop bleeding
 +
acyanopsia colour-blindness with respect to blue
 +
acyesis female sterility
 +
acyrology incorrect diction or pronunciation
 +
adactylous lacking fingers or claws
 +
adamantine unbreakable; impenetrable
 +
adamitism nakedness for religious reasons
 +
adaxial next to or towards the axis
 +
addax large African antelope
 +
additament thing added or appended; heraldic ornament
 +
addititious of, pertaining to or resulting from addition
 +
addle putrid; barren; muddled
 +
addorsed turned back to back in heraldry
 +
adduce cite as proof or instance
 +
adeciduate evergreen; coniferous
 +
adeem to cancel a bequest by destruction of the object
 +
adelaster provisional name for a plant whose flowers are unknown
 +
adelphogamy sharing of a wife by two or more brothers
 +
ademption revocation of donation by donor
 +
adenalgia painful swelling of a gland
 +
adenia glandular swelling
 +
adeniform shaped like a gland
 +
adenography descriptive work on the glandular system
 +
adenoid of, like or pertaining to or like a gland
 +
adenology study of glands
 +
adenotomy removal or excision of gland
 +
adespota anonymous works
 +
adessive indicating place where or proximity to
 +
adevism denial of gods of mythology and legend
 +
adharma unrighteousness
 +
adhibit to attach; to admit; to administer
 +
adhocracy government in an unstructured fashion; an unstructured organization
 +
adiabatic without transference of heat
 +
adiaphoresis absence of perspiration; inability to perspire
 +
adiaphorism doctrine of theological indifference or latitudinarianism
 +
adiaphoron tenet or belief on which a theological system is indifferent
 +
adiapneustia defective perspiration
 +
adiathermancy impermeability to radiant energy
 +
adipescent becoming fat or fatty
 +
adipic of, like or pertaining to fatty substances
 +
adipocere fatty substance occurring in corpses left in moist areas
 +
adipsia absence or lack of thirst
 +
adit opening or passage into a mine
 +
adjudge to decide; to award
 +
adjutage nozzle
 +
adjutor helper; assistant
 +
adjuvant substance added to make vaccine more effective
 +
admanuensis one who takes an oath on a religious book
 +
admaxillary connected to or near the jaw
 +
admeasurement the act of measuring or apportioning
 +
adminicle that which supports or aids, especially evidence
 +
adnascent growing on some other thing
 +
adnominal indicating adjective used as a noun
 +
adnomination punning
 +
adnoun adjective serving or used as a noun
 +
adonise to adorn oneself
 +
adoptionism belief that Christ was the adopted and not natural son of God
 +
adoral near the mouth
 +
adosculation impregnation by contact alone or by wind
 +
adoxography good writing on a trivial subject
 +
adoxy beliefs that are neither orthodox nor heterodox
 +
adpress to press together
 +
adrogation adoption of a boy or girl before adolescence
 +
adscititious added; additional
 +
adscript attached or feudally bound to the soil or earth
 +
adsorb to attract and stick to the surface
 +
adumbrate indicate faintly; foreshadow
 +
adunc hooked
 +
aduncate shaped like a hook or crook
 +
adust burnt; scorched
 +
advection horizontal movement of air
 +
advehent bringing inwards
 +
advenient due to outside causes
 +
adventitious accidental; casual
 +
adventive a thing or person coming from outside
 +
adversaria miscellaneous notes; commonplace books
 +
adversative word or phrase expressing opposition
 +
advert refer to in speech or writing
 +
advertorial advertisement presented as if it were editorial material
 +
advesperate darken; become late
 +
advocaat liqueur containing rum and raw eggs
 +
advowson right of presentation to church living
 +
adynamia helplessness; lack of strength
 +
adytum sacred part of a temple or church; church chancel
 +
aedile magistrate in charge of games, markets or buildings
 +
aedoeology science of generative organs
 +
aegilops stye in inner corner of eye
 +
aegis protection; support
 +
aegrotat medical certificate of illness excusing student's sickness
 +
aeneous shining bronze colour
 +
aeolian giving forth a tone as if produced by the wind
 +
aeolipyle hollow ball that turns through steam escaping through valves
 +
aeolistic long-winded
 +
aeolotropy variation in physical properties on basis of position
 +
aeonian lasting for an immeasurably long period of time
 +
aerenchyma respiratory tissue
 +
aeriform of the form or shape of gas; gaseous
 +
aerious of the nature of air; airy
 +
aerobe organism requiring oxygen to survive
 +
aerobiology study of airborne organisms
 +
aerodonetics science or study of gliding
 +
aerogenesis forming or generating gas or air
 +
aerography descriptive work on the atmosphere
 +
aerolite meteorite
 +
aerolith stone that falls from the sky; meteorite
 +
aerolithology study of aerolites; meteorites
 +
aerology study of the atmosphere
 +
aeromancy divination by means of the weather
 +
aerometer instrument for measuring weight or density of gas
 +
aerophane thin crinkled semi-transparent fabric
 +
aerophilately collecting of air-mail stamps
 +
aerophobia fear of flying or draughts
 +
aerophore instrument used to inflate stillborn child's lungs
 +
aeropleustic of, like or pertaining to aerial navigation
 +
aerostat any lighter-than air craft; balloon
 +
aerostatics science of air pressure; art of ballooning
 +
aeruginous of, like or pertaining to copper-rust or verdigris
 +
aerugo rust of any metal
 +
aesc letter used in Old English for 'ae'
 +
aesopian conveying meaning only to those in a secret movement
 +
aesthesia sensibility
 +
aesthesiogenic producing or causing a sensation
 +
aestheticism doctrine that beauty is central to other moral principles
 +
aestival of, like or pertaining to summer
 +
aethrioscope instrument for measuring temperature variations due to sky conditions
 +
aeviternal everlasting; endless
 +
aeviternity eternal existence
 +
afebrile not suffering from fever
 +
affabulation moral of a fable
 +
affeer to assess; to reduce to a fixed sum
 +
afferent bearing, bringing or carrying towards
 +
affiance to trust; to betroth
 +
affine a relation by marriage
 +
afflated inspired
 +
afflatus inspiration; divine impetus
 +
afforce to strengthen a jury by adding skilled people
 +
afforest to cover with forest; to convert into hunting grounds
 +
affranchise to free from slavery or similar obligation
 +
affray an attack or assault; an alarm or fright
 +
affrayer disturber of the peace
 +
affreightment hiring of a vessel
 +
affreux frightening
 +
affricate consonant that begins as a plosive and ends as a fricative
 +
affronté of two heraldic animals, facing one another
 +
affusion pouring on; as of baptismal water
 +
afore before
 +
afterclap unexpected damaging or unsettling after-effect
 +
afterdeck deck behind a ship's bridge
 +
aftergame rematch; means employed after first turn of affairs
 +
afterguard men who work the aft sails on the quarterdeck and poop deck
 +
afterings last milk drawn when milking a cow
 +
afterpiece minor piece after a play
 +
aftershaft second shaft coming out of the quill of a feather
 +
afterwil locking of the barn after the cows have been let out
 +
agacerie allurement; coquetry
 +
agalactia failure or inability to produce milk
 +
agalloch eaglewood
 +
agamist one who opposes marriage
 +
agamogenesis reproduction by non-sexual means
 +
agape selfless Christian love; a feast in celebration of such love
 +
agapeistic characterized by Christian love
 +
agapet lover of women
 +
agapetae churchwomen who live platonically with celibate men
 +
agapism ethics of love
 +
agastopia admiration of part of another's body
 +
agatewear type of ceramic resembling agate stone
 +
agathism belief in ultimate triumph of good despite evil means
 +
agathodaimon one's good genius; the good part of one's conscience
 +
agelast one who never laughs
 +
agennesic sterile; impotent
 +
agenocratia opposition to birth control
 +
agentive indicating agent performing an action
 +
ageotropic moving or turning away from the earth
 +
agersia quality of not growing old
 +
ageusia damage to the sense of taste
 +
agger artificial mound or elevation for military use
 +
aggerose in heaps; piled up
 +
aggiornamento modernization of ideas of the Catholic church
 +
aggrade to raise level of a surface through depositing detritus
 +
aggrandize increase power or rank of; make greater
 +
aggrate to gratify or please
 +
aggry type of West African glass beads
 +
agio premium paid on foreign currency exchange
 +
agiotage playing the stock market; speculation
 +
agist to charge with a public burden; to take in to graze for payment
 +
agistment land tax assessed for cattle pasturing
 +
aglet metal point attached to a lace or string
 +
agma symbol or sound for a velar nasal consonant "ng"
 +
agminate grouped
 +
agnail sore, corn or hangnail on the toe or foot
 +
agname name over and above the ordinary name and surname
 +
agnation kinship
 +
agnize to acknowledge or confess
 +
agnomen additional name; surname; nickname
 +
agnosic unable to recognize familiar objects due to brain damage
 +
agnosticism doctrine that we can know nothing beyond material phenomena
 +
agnosy ignorance
 +
agoge tempo or sequence in melody in ancient Greek music
 +
agogic accenting a musical note by slightly dwelling on it
 +
agomphosis looseness in the teeth
 +
agone ago
 +
agonic making no angle
 +
agonism competition; effort; striving
 +
agonistes someone in the grip of inner conflict
 +
agonistic of, like or pertaining to or being aggressive or argumentative
 +
agonistics art and theory of prize-fighting
 +
agoraphobia fear of open spaces
 +
agowilt sudden sickening and unnecessary fear
 +
agraffe hooked clasp used by masons to hold blocks together
 +
agrapha sayings of Jesus not found in the canonical gospels
 +
agraphia inability to write
 +
agravic having no gravity; pertaining to the condition of zero-gravity
 +
agrestic of the fields; rural; unpolished
 +
agriology the comparative study of primitive peoples
 +
agrize to horrify; to disfigure
 +
agrizoiatry medicine specializing in wild animals
 +
agrobiology study of plant nutrition; soil yields
 +
agrology study of agricultural soils
 +
agromania intense desire to be in open spaces
 +
agronomics study of productivity of land
 +
agrostography writing about grasses
 +
agrostology science or study of grasses
 +
agrypnia insomnia
 +
agrypnotic anything taken to aid wakefulness
 +
aguardiente Spanish or Portuguese brandy
 +
agyiophobia fear of crossing busy streets
 +
agynary lacking female genitals
 +
ahimsa the duty of sparing animal life; non-violence
 +
ahull with sails furled and helm lashed to the lee-side
 +
ai three-toed sloth
 +
aichmophobia fear of sharp or pointed objects
 +
aiger tidal wave occurring in rivers
 +
aigrette a spray of jewels; ornamental feather plume; an egret
 +
aiguille sharp; needle-like peak of rock
 +
aileron flap on airplane wing for lateral balance
 +
ailette plate of armour worn on shoulder
 +
ailuromancy divination by watching cats' movements
 +
ailurophilia love of cats
 +
ailurophobia fear of cats
 +
aioli garlic-flavoured mayonnaise
 +
airscrew aircraft propeller
 +
aischrolatry worship of filth, dirt, or smut
 +
aisling a vision or dream
 +
ait small island in lake or river
 +
aitchbone rump bone of cattle; rump cut of beef
 +
aiué elderly; senior
 +
akeratophorous not horned
 +
akinesia loss of ability to move
 +
ala membranous outgrowth on a plant or animal
 +
alabamine alternate name for the element astatine
 +
alack expression of sorrow or regret
 +
alalia loss of ability to speak
 +
alameda public walkway between rows of poplar trees
 +
alamort half-dead; dejected
 +
alannah term of endearment used with one's child
 +
alar of, like or pertaining to the wing or shoulder
 +
alastrim mild form of smallpox
 +
alate lately
 +
alation state of having wings; position of wings on a creature
 +
alaudine of, like or pertaining to skylarks
 +
alb long white robe worn by priests
 +
albarello cylindrical jar used to hold drugs
 +
albata variety of German silver
 +
albedo whiteness, as of a celestial object
 +
albescent becoming white; whiteness
 +
albicant whitish; becoming white
 +
albificative able to whiten or be whitened
 +
albion medieval astronomical device for finding positions of planets
 +
albocracy government by white people
 +
albolith white cement formed from magnesia and silica
 +
albugineous like the white of an eye or an egg; white-coloured
 +
alcahest alchemical universal solvent
 +
alcatote silly elf
 +
alcine of, like or pertaining to elks; of, like or pertaining to auks
 +
alcoholometer instrument for measuring proportion of alcohol in solutions
 +
alcovinometer instrument to measure strength of wine
 +
aleatoric depending on contingencies or chance
 +
aleberry beverage made from ale, spices, and dried bread
 +
alecost costmary, an herb used in flavouring ale
 +
alectormancy divination by sacrificing a rooster
 +
alectryomachy cock-fighting
 +
alectryomancy divination by watching a rooster gather corn kernels
 +
alee on or toward the lee
 +
alegar vinegar made by turning ale sour
 +
alembicated over-refined
 +
alepine mixed wool and silk or mohair and cotton fabric
 +
alethiology study of truth
 +
aleuromancy divination using flour or meal
 +
alexia inability to read
 +
alexipharmic antidote
 +
alfet cauldron of boiling water used during trials by ordeal
 +
alforge wallet or leather bag
 +
algedonics science of pleasure and pain
 +
algefacient cooling
 +
algetic causing or producing pain
 +
algicide killer of algae
 +
algid cold; chilly
 +
alginuresis painful urination
 +
algolagnia sexual pleasure derived from inflicting pain
 +
algology study of algae
 +
algophobia fear of pain
 +
algor coldness; shivering fit
 +
algraphy art of printing from aluminum plates
 +
alible nourishing
 +
alidade revolving index on astrolabe or other instrument for reading gradations
 +
aliform wing-shaped
 +
aligerous winged
 +
aliped having wings on the feet
 +
aliphatic of, like or pertaining to fat or fats in general
 +
aliquant number dividing into another with a remainder
 +
aliquot number dividing into another without leaving a remainder
 +
aliter requiring a different law or rule to be applied
 +
alk sap or resin from turpentine trees
 +
alkalimeter instrument for measuring strength of alkalines
 +
alkanet reddish plant-based dye
 +
allantiasis food poisoning resulting from inadequate preservation
 +
allantoid shaped like a sausage
 +
allative indicating movement towards
 +
allemain enormous pudding out of which acrobats leap
 +
allemande courtly baroque dance in which the arms are interlaced
 +
alliaceous of, like or pertaining to garlic; garlicky
 +
allicient attracting something else
 +
allision intentional collision of two ships
 +
allocatur amount allowed for costs
 +
allochthonous formed or produced elsewhere or externally
 +
allodic not subject to a superior
 +
allogamy cross-fertilization
 +
allogeneous different
 +
allography writing another individual's signature
 +
allolalia speech disorder featuring randomly spoken words
 +
allonge paper attached to commercial bill requiring signatures
 +
allonym other person's name used by an author
 +
allotheism belief in or worship of strange gods
 +
allotriophagy craving for strange foods
 +
allotropy of an element, having more than one form
 +
alluvion effect of water impacting on shoreline
 +
almacantar circle of altitude, parallel to the horizon
 +
almagest textbook or handbook, especially dealing with astronomy
 +
almandine violet-coloured garnet
 +
almoner giver of alms; social worker in a hospital
 +
almuce cloth or fur hood
 +
alnager inspector of cloth
 +
alogism illogical statement
 +
alomancy divination using salt
 +
alopecia baldness; hair loss
 +
alopecoid of or resembling a fox
 +
alow below
 +
alpaca fine wool made from alpaca hair
 +
alpenglow reddish glow appearing at sunrise or sunset in mountains
 +
alpenstocker mountain climber
 +
alpestrine of, like or pertaining to alpine regions
 +
alphenic sugary candy used in medicine
 +
alphitomancy divination using loaves of barley
 +
alphonsin instrument used to extract bullets from bodies
 +
alt high musical tone
 +
altarage payment to priest for mass; offerings at altar
 +
alterity state of being different
 +
alternatim alternately
 +
altiloquence pompous or high speech
 +
altisonant high-sounding
 +
altitonant thundering on high or loudly
 +
altricial having young requiring care for a lengthy period
 +
aludel pear-shaped pot used in sublimation
 +
aluminiferous bearing aluminum
 +
alveary beehive; area of the ear where wax collects; word-list
 +
alveolate of or like a honeycomb
 +
alveromancy divination using sounds
 +
alviducous purgative
 +
alvine of the belly
 +
ama a Japanese pearl-diver
 +
amadelphous outgoing; gregarious
 +
amain to a high degree; exceedingly; at full speed
 +
amanous lacking hands
 +
amanuensis one employed to write from dictation
 +
amaranth imaginary flower reputed never to fade
 +
amaranthine immortal; undying; deep purple-red colour
 +
amasesis inability to chew
 +
amasthenic focusing light rays to a single point
 +
amathophobia fear of dust
 +
amaxophobia fear of riding in a car
 +
ambages windings; roundabout ways; delays
 +
ambeer juice from chewing tobacco
 +
ambisinistrous awkward in the use of both hands
 +
ambit circuit; scope; compass; confines
 +
ambo early Christian raised reading desk or pulpit
 +
ambry recess for church vessels; cupboard or niche
 +
ambsace bad luck; a low score
 +
ambulatory aisle down the east end of a church
 +
ambulomancy divination by taking a walk
 +
ambulophobia fear of walking
 +
ambustion burn or scald
 +
amende fine or reparation paid
 +
ament a person who fails to develop mentally
 +
amerce to fine; to deprive; to punish
 +
ametropia abnormal optical refraction
 +
amice strip of fine linen worn as cloak or wrap by priest at mass
 +
amicicide murder of a friend
 +
amidships midway between the bow and stern of a ship
 +
ammeter instrument for measuring electrical current
 +
ammophilous sand-loving; preferring to dwell in sand
 +
amnicolist one who lives near a river
 +
amniomancy divination by examining afterbirth
 +
amorce percussion cap for a toy pistol
 +
amoret love sonnet or song
 +
amoretto a cherub or spirit of love
 +
ampelidious of, like or pertaining to vines
 +
ampelography scientific description of the vine
 +
ampere unit for measuring amount of electrical current
 +
amphibiolith fossilized amphibian
 +
amphibolic able to turn both backwards and forwards; double-jointed
 +
amphibology ambiguity in language; dual grammatical meaning
 +
amphigean occurring in both hemispheres of the brain or body
 +
amphigory a nonsense verse
 +
amphimixis interbreeding; intermixing of two individuals' genetic matter
 +
amphipneust animal with both lungs and gills
 +
amphisbaena mythical two-headed serpent or lizard
 +
amphiscian of, like or pertaining to torrid regions
 +
amplexus rutting of frogs and toads
 +
ampliative supplemental; additional
 +
amplivagant stretching far; having a great scope
 +
ampulla vessel for holy oil or wine for coronations or rituals
 +
amrita Hindu ambrosia bestowing immortality
 +
amygdaloid almond-shaped; of, like or pertaining to tonsils
 +
amyloid containing or pertaining to starch; starchy
 +
amyous lacking muscle
 +
an if
 +
ana in equal quantities
 +
anabasis journey leading upwards; first phase of an illness
 +
anabiosis return to life after apparent death
 +
anacampserote something which can bring back a lost love
 +
anacamptic reflecting or reflected light; sound or water
 +
anacardic of, like or pertaining to cashews
 +
anacathartic causing vomiting or expectoration
 +
anachoric foreign or geographically absurd relating to a country
 +
anaclastic refractive; of, like or pertaining to refraction
 +
anaclitic dependent on other phenomenon or ability
 +
anacoluthon moving to new topic of discussion before finishing current one
 +
anacrisis interrogation accompanied by torture
 +
anacrusis syllable prior to the normal rhythm of a verse
 +
anacusic completely deaf
 +
anadem wreath, fillet or band
 +
anadiplosis repeating last word of clause at beginning of next clause
 +
anadromous fish which ascend rivers to spawn
 +
anaerectic destructive
 +
anaesthesiology study of anaesthetics
 +
anagalactic coming from or existing beyond our own galaxy
 +
anaglyph ornament in low relief
 +
anaglyptics art of carving in bas-relief
 +
anaglyptography art of engraving so as to give the subject an embossed appearance
 +
anagnorisis recognition leading to denouement of a play
 +
anagogy mystical interpretation
 +
anagraphy art of constructing catalogues
 +
analects crumbs that fall from the table
 +
analemma sundial
 +
analgia inability to feel pain
 +
anamnesis reminiscence; prayer recalling death and resurrection of Jesus
 +
anamorphic changing to a more complex form
 +
anandrious impotent
 +
ananym name written backward; often used as synonym
 +
anapeiratic caused by excessive use
 +
anapest two short metrical syllables followed by one long one
 +
anaphalantiasis falling out of the eyebrows
 +
anaphia loss of sense of touch
 +
anaphora repetition of a word at beginning of successive phrases for emphasis
 +
anapnea recovery of one's breath; restoration of breath
 +
anastasic convalescent
 +
anastrophe reversing or inverting word order as rhetorical device
 +
anatine of, like or pertaining to ducks
 +
anatocism compound interest
 +
anatreptic overcoming; overturning
 +
anaudia loss of voice
 +
anbury soft fleshy tumour in horses
 +
anchorite one withdrawn from the world for religious reasons
 +
ancillary auxiliary; secondary
 +
ancipitous two-edged and flattened
 +
ancistroid hook-shaped
 +
ancon elbow
 +
anconoid of, like or pertaining to the elbow
 +
ancoral of, shaped like or resembling an anchor
 +
ancress female religious recluse
 +
andiron iron bar used to support the end of a log in a fire
 +
andragogy science of teaching adults
 +
androcracy government by men
 +
androlepsia governmental kidnapping for political purposes
 +
andromania nymphomania
 +
androphagy cannibalism
 +
aneabil single; unmarried
 +
anele to administer extreme unction to
 +
anemocracy government by the wind or by whim
 +
anemograph instrument for measuring pressure and velocity of wind
 +
anemography treatise on the winds
 +
anemology study of winds
 +
anemometer instrument for measuring wind velocity
 +
anemophilous pollinated by wind
 +
anencephalic lacking a brain
 +
anent about; concerning
 +
anergia failure of immune system; loss of energy
 +
anesis tuning to a lower musical pitch
 +
aneuria lack of nervous energy
 +
anfractuous full of windings and intricate turnings
 +
angary the right of a belligerent to seize neutral property
 +
angelocracy government by angels
 +
angelolatry worship of or belief in angels
 +
angelology study of angels
 +
angelus prayer said in morning, at noon and at sunset
 +
angiogenesis production of blood vessels
 +
angiology study of blood flow and lymphatic system
 +
anglomania craze or obsession with England and the English
 +
anglophilia love or fondness for England or the English
 +
anglophobia fear of England or the English
 +
angora silk-like fabric made from wool of angora goats
 +
angstrom unit of one ten-billionth of a meter
 +
anguiform shaped like a snake
 +
anguilliform shaped like an eel
 +
anguine of, like or pertaining to snakes
 +
anguine of, like or pertaining to snakes
 +
anhedonia an unresponsiveness to pleasure
 +
anhelation shortness of breath
 +
anhidrosis absence of perspiration
 +
aniconic symbolizing without aiming at resemblance
 +
anicular like an old woman
 +
anile imbecilic; senile; like a very old woman
 +
animadvert to comment critically on; to censure
 +
animastic spiritual; animate
 +
animism attribution of soul to inanimate objects
 +
anion positively charged ion
 +
anisothenic being of unequal strength
 +
anker liquid measure of 8 1/2 gallons
 +
ankus spiked elephant goad
 +
ankyroid hook-shaped
 +
anlace short two-edged dagger
 +
anneal to heat and cool metal gradually to temper
 +
annectent having intermediate features between two taxa
 +
annihilationism doctrine that the wicked are utterly destroyed after death
 +
annodated shaped like the letter S
 +
annomination pun; play on words
 +
annuent nodding or moving of the head
 +
annulet small ring around a classical column
 +
annulose ringed; composed of rings
 +
anocathartic emetic; causing vomiting or expectoration
 +
anodontia toothlessness
 +
anodyne something that relieves pain or suffering
 +
anoesis sensation not accompanied by understanding of it
 +
anogenic formed from below or beneath
 +
anomia inability to remember names
 +
anomic in a state lacking social order and norms
 +
anomie condition of lacking accepted social values or standards
 +
anomphalous without a navel
 +
anon at once; immediately
 +
anonym person whose name is not given; pseudonym
 +
anopheline of, like or pertaining to malarial mosquitoes
 +
anopisthographic bearing writing or inscription only on one side
 +
anopsia blindness
 +
anorchous lacking testicles
 +
anosmia lack or loss of sense of smell
 +
anotic lacking ears
 +
ansate having a handle or hand-like shape
 +
anserine of, like or pertaining to geese
 +
anta pier produced by thickening wall at one end
 +
antalgic alleviating or relieving pain
 +
antanaclasis repetition of key word of phrase as a play on words
 +
antapology response to an apology
 +
antarchy opposition to government; anarchy
 +
anteambulo usher
 +
antechapel anteroom to a chapel or church
 +
antejentacular before breakfast
 +
anteloquy a preface
 +
antelucan before dawn or daylight
 +
antemundane before one's own birth; before the creation of the world
 +
antenniferous bearing antennae
 +
antepast foretaste
 +
antependium covering or cloth over pulpit or altar
 +
antephialtic preventing nightmares
 +
antepone to put before; to prefer
 +
anteprandial before dinner
 +
antevenient preceding
 +
anthelion luminous ring seen on a cloud opposite the sun
 +
anthelminthic destroying or expelling worms
 +
anthesis full bloom
 +
anthomancy divination using flowers
 +
anthomania obsession with flowers
 +
anthophilous loving or frequenting flowers
 +
anthorism counter-definition
 +
anthracomancy divination using burning coals
 +
anthrophobia fear of humans
 +
anthropobiology study of human biology
 +
anthropogenesis origin of human beings
 +
anthropoglot animal with human tongue; animal capable of speech
 +
anthropolatry worship of human beings
 +
anthropolith fossilized human skeleton
 +
anthropomancy divination using human entrails
 +
anthropopathy ascription of human feelings to inanimate object
 +
anthropophaginian cannibal
 +
anthropophagous eating humans
 +
anthroposophy knowledge of the nature of humanity; human wisdom
 +
anthropotheism belief that gods are only deified men
 +
antibasilican opposed to monarchic principle
 +
antiblastic providing natural immunity against harmful substances
 +
antibromic eliminating offensive odours
 +
antichresis enjoyment of mortgaged property in lieu of interest payments
 +
antichthon hypothetical second Earth on the opposite side of the sun
 +
anticryptic camouflaged; having protective resemblance to environment
 +
antidisestablishmentarianism doctrine opposed to removing Church of England's official religion status
 +
antigalactic preventing the secretion of milk
 +
antigropelos waterproof leggings
 +
antilapsarianism denial of doctrine of the fall of humanity
 +
antilegomena books of the New Testament not part of early Christian Bible
 +
antilogarithm number of which a given number is the logarithm
 +
antilogism statement of three propositions containing contradiction
 +
antilogy contradiction
 +
antimnemonic damaging the memory; eliminating memories
 +
antimony brittle, bluish-white metallic element
 +
antinomianism doctrine of the rejection of moral law
 +
antinomy contradiction between two logical conclusions
 +
antipedobaptism denial of validity of infant baptism
 +
antiperistasis opposition or resistance
 +
antiphon anthem sung as a response during church service
 +
antiphrasis use of words in a sense opposite to literal
 +
antipudic concealing private parts of the body
 +
antiscian dweller on the exact opposite side of the world
 +
antistrophe repetition of words in reverse order
 +
antithalian opposed to mirth or fun
 +
antithesis contrast of ideas by means of parallel arrangement of words or clauses
 +
antitypy resistance to being penetrated
 +
antonomasia use of descriptive phrase or epithet instead of proper name
 +
antre cave
 +
antrorse turned upward and forward
 +
anuptaphobia fear of staying single
 +
anuresis inability to urinate
 +
anurous tailless
 +
anzactile army biscuit
 +
aorist expressing simple past time with no continuance
 +
apaesthesia numbness or loss of sensation in a limb
 +
apagoge proof by showing the falsehood of the opposite
 +
apanage privilege of office; especially one given to younger offspring
 +
apantomancy divination using objects at hand
 +
apatetic of an animal's coloration or markings
 +
apay to satisfy
 +
apercu brief outline; glimpse; intuitive insight
 +
aperient laxative
 +
aphagia inability to eat or swallow
 +
aphemia loss of ability to produce articulate speech
 +
apheresis taking away a sound or syllable at the beginning of a word
 +
aphesis loss of initial unaccented vowel from beginning of a word
 +
aphicide killer of aphids
 +
aphidicide killer of aphids
 +
aphnology science of wealth
 +
aphologistic flameless
 +
aphotic lightless
 +
aphrasia inability to speak
 +
aphrodisiomania abnormal sexual interest
 +
aphthong silent letter
 +
apian of, like or pertaining to bees
 +
apiarian of, like or pertaining to bees or beekeeping
 +
apical of or at the apex
 +
apiculture beekeeping
 +
apiology study of bees
 +
apistia faithlessness in marriage
 +
apivorous eating bees
 +
aplanatic a lens free of spherical aberration
 +
apocalypticism doctrine of the imminent end of the world
 +
apocarteresis suicide by starvation
 +
apocatastasis final restitution of all things at the appearance of the Messiah
 +
apocatastisis reversion or restoration to original position
 +
apocope cutting off the last sound of a word
 +
apocrisiary papal secretary
 +
apodal lacking feet
 +
apodictic necessarily true beyond contradiction
 +
apodosis main clause in a conditional sentence
 +
apodysophilia feverish desire to undress
 +
apograph exact copy; facsimile
 +
apolaustic dedicated to the search for enjoyment
 +
apologetics defense and proof of Christianity or other doctrine
 +
aponia painlessness
 +
apopemptic valedictory
 +
apophasis saying something by stating that you will not mention it
 +
apophoret a gift given to celebrate a new year
 +
apophthegm brief saying; proverb; epigram
 +
aporia professed but false doubt of what to say or choose
 +
aposiopesis suddenly stopping in the middle of a speech for emphasis
 +
apositia dislike of or distaste for food
 +
apostasy renunciation of former beliefs
 +
apostil marginal note
 +
apostrophe addressing of a personified thing rhetorically
 +
apotelesm casting of a horoscope
 +
apothegm a short, instructive saying or formula
 +
apotheosis elevation to divine status; a perfect example
 +
apotropaic designed to turn away evil
 +
apparitor officer in court who attends to execute orders; harbinger
 +
appendant attached to; hanging from; adjunct
 +
apperception mind's perception of itself as a conscious agent
 +
appersonation irrational belief that one is another person
 +
appetence strong craving or powerful desire
 +
applanate flat; flattened; compressed
 +
apport to transport objects without material agency
 +
appose to place in juxtaposition or proximity
 +
apposite appropriate
 +
approbation approval; consent
 +
apprompt to borrow
 +
appropinquity nearness
 +
appui to support militarily
 +
appulse a striking against something
 +
appurtenance a subordinate or adjunct part of
 +
apricate to bask in the sun
 +
aprique sunny
 +
apse rounded extension of church or other building
 +
apselophesia loss of sense of touch
 +
apsidal shaped like an apse
 +
apterygial wingless; finless
 +
aptotic uninflected; indeclinable
 +
aptronym name that suits its owner
 +
apyrexy period of intermission in a fever
 +
aquamanile ewer in the form of a human or animal figure for ceremonial handwashing
 +
aquaphobia fear of water
 +
aquarelle watercolour painting
 +
aquifer a rock formation containing water
 +
aquiform watery; liquid
 +
aquiline of, like or pertaining to eagles; hooked like an eagle's beak
 +
araba wheeled Middle Eastern carriage
 +
arachibutyrophobia fear of peanut butter sticking to roof of mouth
 +
arachnivorous feeding on spiders
 +
arachnology study of spiders
 +
arachnophobia fear of spiders
 +
araneidan of, like or pertaining to spiders
 +
araneiform shaped like a spider
 +
araneous transparent; delicate; like a spider's web
 +
araphorostic seamless
 +
aration ploughing
 +
arbalest type of crossbow
 +
arborescent branched; branching; tree-shaped
 +
arboricolous growing on or living in trees
 +
arboriform shaped like a tree
 +
arbrolatry worship of start
 +
arbuscle dwarf or shrub-like tree
 +
arbustum orchard; copse of trees
 +
arcanna red chalk used to mark trees
 +
arcate bow-shaped
 +
archaeolatry worship of archaic things or old customs
 +
archelogy the study of first principles
 +
archet violin box
 +
archididascalian of, like or pertaining to headmasters
 +
archididascalos school principal
 +
archimandrite head of a monastery or convent
 +
archimime chief buffoon or mimic
 +
architectonics of, like or pertaining to the arrangement of knowledge
 +
architrave parts surrounding a door or window, especially the top
 +
archology science of the origins of government
 +
arciform shaped like a bow
 +
arctician one skilled in navigating arctic regions
 +
arctogaeal of the arctic regions of the earth
 +
arctoid bear-like
 +
arctophile collector of teddy bears
 +
arctophily study of teddy bears
 +
arcuate arched; bow-shaped
 +
ard plough used to scratch top surface of soil
 +
ardass fine silk
 +
arefy to dry up; to wither
 +
arenaceous like, growing in or consisting of sand
 +
arenoid sandy; like sand
 +
areology study of Mars
 +
areometer instrument used for measuring specific gravity
 +
areopagitic of, like or pertaining to tribunals or courts
 +
aret to assign or allot
 +
aretaics the science of virtue
 +
arete sharp mountain ridge
 +
argand gas or oil lamp
 +
argent the heraldic colour silver or white
 +
argentiferous bearing silver
 +
argentocracy government by money
 +
argil clay used in making pottery
 +
argillaceous clayey; of or resembling clay
 +
argol crust formed on wine kept too long or improperly
 +
argol dried cow dung used as fuel
 +
argosy a large merchant ship; a rich supply
 +
arguria silver poisoning
 +
argute shrill; keen; shrewd
 +
argyll silver gravy dish
 +
arietine of, like or pertaining to rams
 +
arietinous shaped like a ram's head
 +
aright right; correctly
 +
ariolation divination in general
 +
aristarch a severe critic
 +
aristarchy government by the best
 +
aristology the science or art of dining
 +
arithmancy divination using numbers
 +
arithmocracy government by simple majority
 +
arithmogram number composed of numerical values of letters in a word
 +
arithmomania obsessive preoccupation with numbers
 +
armamentarium collective equipment available to a doctor
 +
armigerous entitled to bear arms
 +
armillary like or composed of rings
 +
armipotent having strong weapons; militarily potent
 +
armisonant resounding with noises of battle or weapons
 +
armomancy divination by examining one's shoulders
 +
armure twilled woollen or silk fabric
 +
aroint begone
 +
arpent unit of land area slightly smaller than an acre
 +
arpenteur land surveyor
 +
arrant downright; unmitigated
 +
arras tapestry covering a wall
 +
arrasene embroidery fabric of wool and silk
 +
arrect attentive; erect; raised up
 +
arrendator one who rents or farms at a yearly rent
 +
arreptitious ecstatic; frantic; hasty or hurried
 +
arrestant substance causing an insect to stop moving
 +
arrhizal lacking roots
 +
arris sharp edge on stone; meeting of two surfaces
 +
arrogate to claim unduly as one's own; to ascribe
 +
arrosive gnawing; chewing; corroding
 +
arthrology study of joints
 +
arthroscope instrument for examining interior of a joint
 +
arundiferous bearing or producing reeds
 +
arundinaceous like or having the properties of a reed
 +
arval of, like or pertaining to ploughed land
 +
ascesis the practice of disciplining oneself; asceticism
 +
asceticism doctrine that self-denial of the body permits spiritual enlightenment
 +
ascham box for keeping bows and arrows dry
 +
ascian inhabitant of the equatorial zone
 +
aseity self-origination
 +
ashlar squared stone used in building walls
 +
ashplant walking stick
 +
asinine of, like or pertaining to asses; stupid
 +
asitia lack of appetite
 +
askefise one who blows on ashes to bring them to flame
 +
asomatous lacking a body; incorporeal
 +
asonia deafness to specific pitches of sound
 +
asperge to sprinkle
 +
aspergilliform shaped like a brush
 +
aspergillum vessel for sprinkling holy water
 +
asperity roughness of surface or sound
 +
asperse slander; disparage
 +
aspersory vessel for holding holy water
 +
aspheterism denial of the right to private property
 +
aspidate shield-shaped
 +
aspidomancy divination by sitting and chanting within a circle
 +
asportation to carry property away wrongfully
 +
assart to reclaim for agriculture by clearing away trees
 +
assecuration marine insurance
 +
assentation insincere or glib assent
 +
asseveration positive or earnest affirmation
 +
assibilate to pronounce with a hiss or sibilant
 +
assiduity persevering application to a pursuit
 +
assizer officer or judge in charge of weights and measures
 +
assocative indicating association with or accompaniment by
 +
assoil to absolve; to acquit
 +
assot to befool; to besot
 +
assuefaction habituation
 +
assuetude accustomedness; habit
 +
assurgent ascending; rising; curving upward
 +
astacology the science of crayfish
 +
astatic in equilibrium
 +
asteism refined irony
 +
asterism three asterisks used to direct attention to a passage
 +
astern at the stern of a ship
 +
astheniology study of diseases of weakening and aging
 +
asthenopia muscular weakening of the eyes
 +
astichous not in rows
 +
astragal small semicircular moulding; dice
 +
astragalomancy divination using dice or knucklebones
 +
astraphobia fear of being struck by lightning
 +
astrapophobia fear of thunder and lightning
 +
astriction binding obligation
 +
astringe to draw together; to tighten
 +
astrionics electronics as applied to space flight
 +
astrobleme scar on the earth's surface from meteorite impact
 +
astrobolism sun-stroke
 +
astrogeology study of extraterrestrial geology
 +
astrognosy knowledge of fixed stars
 +
astrogony theory of the origin of stars
 +
astrolatry worship of stars
 +
astrologaster a foolish or petty astrologer
 +
astromancy divination using stars
 +
astrometeorology study of effect of stars on climate
 +
astronomical unit unit of distance equal to the distance from the earth to the sun
 +
astrophile person interested in astronomy
 +
astroseismology study of star oscillations
 +
astrut protrudingly; distendedly
 +
asynartetic having two members with different rhythms
 +
asyndeton rhetorical device of omitting conjunctions
 +
atactic irregular
 +
ataraxia tranquility; freedom from anxiety; stoicism
 +
atavism reversion to early or ancestral type
 +
ateknia childlessness
 +
atelier artist's studio or workshop
 +
ateliosis imperfect development; developmental irregularity
 +
athanasy deathlessness
 +
athanor alchemist's self-feeding digesting furnace
 +
atheling Anglo-Saxon prince or nobleman
 +
athenaeum literary or scientific association
 +
athermic lacking heat
 +
athetesis rejection of a passage as spurious
 +
athetosis nervous twitching of digits and extremities
 +
athwart across; in opposition to; sideways; transversely
 +
athymia melancholy
 +
atimy loss of honour; disgrace
 +
atlantes male figures used as columns
 +
atlas rich satin fabric
 +
atmatertera great-grandfather's grandmother's sister
 +
atmology the science of aqueous vapour
 +
atmometer instrument for measuring evaporating capacity of air
 +
atocia female sterility
 +
atokous lacking offspring
 +
atomism belief that the universe consists of small indivisible particles
 +
atony muscular weakness
 +
atpatruus great-grandfather's grandfather's brother
 +
atrabiliary melancholy; hypochondriac
 +
atrabilious melancholy; splenetic; acrimonious
 +
atrament blacking; ink; black dye
 +
atresia absence or irregular closure of a passage in the body
 +
atrichia baldness
 +
atrous jet black
 +
attainder the loss of civil rights for high treason
 +
attaint disgrace; sully; infect; taint
 +
attemper to adapt or alter quality by adding to something
 +
attenuate make thin; reduce in value
 +
atticism expression characterized by conciseness and elegance
 +
attingent touching
 +
attollent lifting up; raising
 +
attorn to transfer to another
 +
attrahent attracting or drawing
 +
attrist to sadden
 +
attrite repentant through fear of punishment
 +
attuition operation between sensation and perception
 +
aubade musical announcement of dawn; sunrise song
 +
aubergine eggplant
 +
aubin horse's gait between an amble and a gallop
 +
auceps hawker or bird-tender
 +
aucupate to hunt birds; to pursue prey with vigilance
 +
audile person more attuned to sound than the other senses
 +
audiology study of hearing
 +
audiometer instrument for measuring acuity of hearing
 +
audiophile one who loves accurately reproduced recorded sound
 +
augean filthy; difficult
 +
augend number to which another number is added
 +
aught at all
 +
aularian of, like or pertaining to a hall in a university
 +
aulete flautist
 +
aulic courtly; ceremonious; genteel
 +
auncel crude balance for weighing
 +
aurantiaceous of, like or pertaining or pertaining to oranges or orange trees
 +
aureity property of being golden in colour or substance
 +
aureole radiant light around head or body of holy personage
 +
auricomous having golden or blond hair
 +
auricular of, like or pertaining to the ear; spoken secretly
 +
auriferous bearing gold
 +
aurifex goldsmith
 +
auriform shaped like an ear
 +
aurigation charioteering
 +
aurilave instrument for cleaning the ear
 +
auriphrygia gold embroidery
 +
auriscope instrument for examining the ear
 +
aurochs extinct wild ox
 +
aurulent gold-coloured
 +
auscultation listening to sounds arising within organs
 +
auslaut final sound of a word or syllable
 +
austringer keeper of goshawks
 +
austromancy divination using wind
 +
autarchy government by an absolute ruler
 +
autarkic self-sufficient; independent
 +
autecology study of ecology of one species
 +
autocephality ecclesiastical self-government
 +
autocoprophagy eating one's own feces
 +
autocracy government by one individual
 +
auto-da-fe burning of a heretic
 +
autodidact self-taught person
 +
autogenesis spontaneous generation
 +
autognosis knowledge of or about oneself
 +
autolatry self-worship
 +
autology scientific study of oneself
 +
automorphism ascription to others of one's own characteristics
 +
automysophobia fear of being dirty
 +
autonym a writer's real name; work published under writer's own name
 +
autophagy feeding on body's own tissues
 +
autophanous self-luminous
 +
autophobia fear of solitude
 +
autoschediasm anything extemporized
 +
autosoterism belief that one can obtain salvation through oneself
 +
autotelic being an end in itself
 +
autothaumaturgist person pretending to be mystical or mysterious
 +
autotheism belief that one is God incarnate or that one is Christ
 +
autotropic growing in a straight line
 +
auxanometer instrument for measuring growth of plants
 +
auxesis increase in size; hyperbole
 +
auxology science of growth
 +
auxometer instrument for measuring magnifying power
 +
aval of, like or pertaining to a grandparent
 +
avalement allowing knees to flex while skiing
 +
avaunt away; hence
 +
avaunt to boast
 +
aveniform shaped like oats
 +
averruncate to ward off; to uproot
 +
averruncator pole for pruning trees
 +
avicide killing of birds
 +
avicular of, like or pertaining to birds
 +
avinosis air sickness
 +
avionics the science of electronic devices for aircraft
 +
avital ancestral
 +
avizandum private consideration of a case by a judge
 +
avolitional involuntary
 +
avulse to pluck or tear away by force
 +
avuncular like an uncle; of, like or pertaining to uncles
 +
awn beard or similar bristly growth on stalk of grain
 +
axilla armpit
 +
axiniform shaped like an axe-head
 +
axinomancy divination using an axe or hatchet
 +
axiology the science of the ultimate nature of values
 +
azimuth arc of the horizon
 +
azoth alchemical name for mercury
 +
azuline blue
 +
azure light or sky blue; the heraldic colour blue
 +
azymous unleavened
 +
 
 
==B==
 
==B==
 
* '''bade''' - old past tense of "bid", pronounced "bad"
 
* '''bade''' - old past tense of "bid", pronounced "bad"

Revision as of 17:58, 17 November 2011

Within J.R.R. Tolkien's works, there are many uncommon, archaic, obsolete and dialectal words (especially from the dialects of the United Kingdom) which might cause confusion to readers and may make a passage of text appear unwieldy.

Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Word Definition aba garment of camel or goat hair; camel or goat-hair fabric abacinate to blind by putting red-hot copper basin near the eyes abactor cattle thief abaculus small tile for mosaic abaft toward or at the stern of a ship; further aft abampere unit equivalent to 10 amperes abapical at the lowest point abarticular not connected with the joint abasement action of humbling or degrading abasia inability to walk due to lack of muscular coordination abask in genial warmth abatis rampart of felled trees and branches abatjour skylight or device to direct light into a room abattoir public slaughterhouse abature trail through wood beaten down by a stag abb yarn used for warp abba Syriac or Coptic bishop abbatial of, like or pertaining to abbots or an abbey abbozzo preliminary sketch abditive remote; secret; hidden abdominous having a paunch or big belly abducent turning away; bearing away from abeam in a line at right angles to the length of a vessel, on the beam abear to bear; to comport; to behave abecedarian of, like or pertaining to the order of the alphabet; rudimentary abecedism word created from the initials of words in a phrase abele white poplar tree aberdevine alternate name for the siskin aberuncators long tool for pruning tall branches abessive indicating absence or lack abiectic of, like or pertaining to fir trees or fir sap abigail a lady's maid abigeus cattle rustler abiogenesis spontaneous generation of living matter abiotrophy degeneration; loss of physical vitality or ability abirritate to alleviate irritation; to reduce sensitivity abiturient pupil leaving school for university abject humble; miserable; craven ablactation weaning of a child from its mother's milk ablative indicating direction from or time when ablator thermal protection on outside of spacecraft ablaut variation in root vowel of words to change meaning ablegate papal envoy or legate ablepsia blindness ablow in a blowing state abluent cleanser or cleansing product ablutomania mania for washing oneself abnegate to renounce or repudiate abodement an omen; a foretelling aboideau tide gate abolla Roman military cloak abomasum ruminant's fourth stomach aboral away from the mouth abord to accost; to approach aborning during birth; while being born aborticide killing of a fetus; abortion abortuary anti-abortion term for an abortion clinic aboulia loss of ability to make decisions aboulomania pathological indecisiveness aboutsledge largest blacksmith's hammer abra narrow mountain pass abradant a substance that abrades abraid to awaken or rouse abraxas gem engraved with mystical word and bearing human-animal figure abreuvoir joint or gap between two stones in masonry abroach in a condition to allow liquor to run out abrosia fasting abscind to pare, reduce, cut off or away abscissa horizontal distance from a fixed line to a point abscission cutting off; cutting away absconce lantern used in monasteries and night offices abseil to descend a rock face using a double rope absentaneous done in absence; pertaining to absence absinthial of, like or pertaining to wormwood; bitter absinthism disease resembling alcoholism absit leave to pass one night away from college absolutism doctrine of government by a single absolute ruler; autocracy absolutive indicating subject or object of intransitive verb absolutory forgiving or absolving absonant discordant; abhorrent absorbefacient causing or promoting absorption absorptiometer instrument for measuring solubility of gases in liquids absquatulate to decamp; to leave quickly; to flee absterge wipe clean; expunge; purge; purify absurdism doctrine that we live in an irrational universe abterminal going from the end inwards abthane monastic region of the old Irish church abulia lack of ability to make decisions; aboulia abuna Ethiopian patriarch abusion misuse; outrage; deception abutment masonry on a wall that supports an arch abvolt unit of electrical potential equal to one hundred millionth of a volt aby to make amends; atone; pay a penalty abyssopelagic of, like or pertaining to the depths of the ocean academicism doctrine that nothing can be known acanaceous bearing prickles or thistles; prickly acantha prickle acanthous spiny; prickly acapnia lack or deficiency of carbon dioxide acapnotic non-smoker; non-smoking acariasis irritating itching insect infestation acaricide killer of mites and ticks acarine of, like or pertaining to ticks or mites acarology study of mites acarophobia fear of itching or of insects causing itching acarpous sterile; not bearing fruit acatalectic having complete or full number of syllables in a poetic line acatalepsy the unknowableness of all things to a certainty acatamathesia inability to understand data presented to the senses acates provisions that have been purchased acatour provisioner; quartermaster acaudate tailless acaulescent having a very short stem accelerometer instrument for measuring acceleration or vibrations accend to kindle accensor acolyte accentor songbird acceptilation remission of debt or liability through fictitious repayment accessit prize for students in second place; honourable mention acciaccatura very short note played before a longer one accidence grammar book; science of inflections in grammar accidentalism theory that events do not have causes accidie sloth; physical torpor accinge to gird accipiter bandage worn around the nose accipitral like a bird of prey; rapacious accipitrine of, like or pertaining to falcons and hawks accismus in rhetoric, pretending to refuse something accite to cite; to summon acclinate sloping upwards acclivity upward slope accloy to hobble with a horseshoe nail accolade curved architectural moulding; vertical line joining two musical staves accolent neighbouring accosted in heraldry, two figures placed side by side accoucheur male midwife accoucheuse female midwife accourage to encourage accourt to entertain accoy to subdue; to pacify; to soothe accrementition increase or growth by adding similar material accretion accumulation; addition of parts to form a whole accubation reclining as on a couch accubitum crescent-shaped couch accusative indicating direct object of a verb acedia listlessness; sloth aceldama site or scene of violence or bloodshed aceology therapeutics acequia irrigation ditch acerate of, like or resembling a needle acerbate to embitter; to irritate acerous lacking horns or antennae acersecomic one whose hair has never been cut acervate heaped; clustered acervuline like or in small mounds or heaps acescence becoming sour; souring; turning of milk acetabulum small anatomical cup or hollow, such as a sucker acetarious referring to plants that are used in salads acetimeter instrument for measuring strength of vinegar achaenocarp any dry indehiscent fruit acharné furious or desperate (of a battle) achene small one-seeded fruit or naked seed of plant achloropsia colour-blindness with respect to green achor eruption or scab on the head achromatopsia colour-blindness achroous colourless acicular needle-shaped acidaemia undue acidity of blood acidimeter instrument for measuring concentration of acids acidulous sharp or bitter-tasting acierate to turn into steel acinaceous full of kernels acinaciform scimitar-shaped aciniform shaped like a berry acinus berry which grows in clusters acipenser sturgeon aclinic having no inclination or magnetic dip acock defiantly acoemeti ancient monastic order who maintained eternal choir service acology study of medical remedies acolous limbless acolouthic of, like or pertaining to an after-image or other after-sensation acopic curing or relieving fatigue acoria pathologically great appetite acosmism disbelief in existence of eternal universe distinct from God acouasm ringing noise in head acquest object which is acquired acracy government by none; anarchy acratia impotence acre-breadth old unit of length of 22 yards acritochromacy colour-blindness acroamatic esoteric acrocephalous having a pointed or peaked skull acrography the art of making wood blocks in relief acrolith wooden statue with stone extremities acrologic of, like or pertaining to initials acromegaly glandular disorder causing gigantism of extremities acronical occurring at nightfall or sunset acronym word formed from initial letters of another word acronyx ingrown nail acropathy disease or illness of the extremities acrophobia fear of heights acrophonic using a symbol for the initial sound of a thing acropodium pedestal upon which a statue rests acroscopic looking or moving towards the apex acroteleutic phrase or words at the end of a psalm acroterion pedestal or ornament at the angle of a pediment acrotism absence of pulsing actinism action of solar radiation causing chemical change actinograph instrument used to calculate time of photographic exposure actinometer instrument for measuring incident radiation actinotherapy use of ultraviolet rays as medical therapy actuate communicate motion to; cause aculeate prickly; pointed; stinging; a stinging insect aculeiform shaped like a thorn acultomancy divination using needles acuminate tapered; pointed; to sharpen acutiator sharpener of weapons acutorsion twisting artery with needle to stop bleeding acyanopsia colour-blindness with respect to blue acyesis female sterility acyrology incorrect diction or pronunciation adactylous lacking fingers or claws adamantine unbreakable; impenetrable adamitism nakedness for religious reasons adaxial next to or towards the axis addax large African antelope additament thing added or appended; heraldic ornament addititious of, pertaining to or resulting from addition addle putrid; barren; muddled addorsed turned back to back in heraldry adduce cite as proof or instance adeciduate evergreen; coniferous adeem to cancel a bequest by destruction of the object adelaster provisional name for a plant whose flowers are unknown adelphogamy sharing of a wife by two or more brothers ademption revocation of donation by donor adenalgia painful swelling of a gland adenia glandular swelling adeniform shaped like a gland adenography descriptive work on the glandular system adenoid of, like or pertaining to or like a gland adenology study of glands adenotomy removal or excision of gland adespota anonymous works adessive indicating place where or proximity to adevism denial of gods of mythology and legend adharma unrighteousness adhibit to attach; to admit; to administer adhocracy government in an unstructured fashion; an unstructured organization adiabatic without transference of heat adiaphoresis absence of perspiration; inability to perspire adiaphorism doctrine of theological indifference or latitudinarianism adiaphoron tenet or belief on which a theological system is indifferent adiapneustia defective perspiration adiathermancy impermeability to radiant energy adipescent becoming fat or fatty adipic of, like or pertaining to fatty substances adipocere fatty substance occurring in corpses left in moist areas adipsia absence or lack of thirst adit opening or passage into a mine adjudge to decide; to award adjutage nozzle adjutor helper; assistant adjuvant substance added to make vaccine more effective admanuensis one who takes an oath on a religious book admaxillary connected to or near the jaw admeasurement the act of measuring or apportioning adminicle that which supports or aids, especially evidence adnascent growing on some other thing adnominal indicating adjective used as a noun adnomination punning adnoun adjective serving or used as a noun adonise to adorn oneself adoptionism belief that Christ was the adopted and not natural son of God adoral near the mouth adosculation impregnation by contact alone or by wind adoxography good writing on a trivial subject adoxy beliefs that are neither orthodox nor heterodox adpress to press together adrogation adoption of a boy or girl before adolescence adscititious added; additional adscript attached or feudally bound to the soil or earth adsorb to attract and stick to the surface adumbrate indicate faintly; foreshadow adunc hooked aduncate shaped like a hook or crook adust burnt; scorched advection horizontal movement of air advehent bringing inwards advenient due to outside causes adventitious accidental; casual adventive a thing or person coming from outside adversaria miscellaneous notes; commonplace books adversative word or phrase expressing opposition advert refer to in speech or writing advertorial advertisement presented as if it were editorial material advesperate darken; become late advocaat liqueur containing rum and raw eggs advowson right of presentation to church living adynamia helplessness; lack of strength adytum sacred part of a temple or church; church chancel aedile magistrate in charge of games, markets or buildings aedoeology science of generative organs aegilops stye in inner corner of eye aegis protection; support aegrotat medical certificate of illness excusing student's sickness aeneous shining bronze colour aeolian giving forth a tone as if produced by the wind aeolipyle hollow ball that turns through steam escaping through valves aeolistic long-winded aeolotropy variation in physical properties on basis of position aeonian lasting for an immeasurably long period of time aerenchyma respiratory tissue aeriform of the form or shape of gas; gaseous aerious of the nature of air; airy aerobe organism requiring oxygen to survive aerobiology study of airborne organisms aerodonetics science or study of gliding aerogenesis forming or generating gas or air aerography descriptive work on the atmosphere aerolite meteorite aerolith stone that falls from the sky; meteorite aerolithology study of aerolites; meteorites aerology study of the atmosphere aeromancy divination by means of the weather aerometer instrument for measuring weight or density of gas aerophane thin crinkled semi-transparent fabric aerophilately collecting of air-mail stamps aerophobia fear of flying or draughts aerophore instrument used to inflate stillborn child's lungs aeropleustic of, like or pertaining to aerial navigation aerostat any lighter-than air craft; balloon aerostatics science of air pressure; art of ballooning aeruginous of, like or pertaining to copper-rust or verdigris aerugo rust of any metal aesc letter used in Old English for 'ae' aesopian conveying meaning only to those in a secret movement aesthesia sensibility aesthesiogenic producing or causing a sensation aestheticism doctrine that beauty is central to other moral principles aestival of, like or pertaining to summer aethrioscope instrument for measuring temperature variations due to sky conditions aeviternal everlasting; endless aeviternity eternal existence afebrile not suffering from fever affabulation moral of a fable affeer to assess; to reduce to a fixed sum afferent bearing, bringing or carrying towards affiance to trust; to betroth affine a relation by marriage afflated inspired afflatus inspiration; divine impetus afforce to strengthen a jury by adding skilled people afforest to cover with forest; to convert into hunting grounds affranchise to free from slavery or similar obligation affray an attack or assault; an alarm or fright affrayer disturber of the peace affreightment hiring of a vessel affreux frightening affricate consonant that begins as a plosive and ends as a fricative affronté of two heraldic animals, facing one another affusion pouring on; as of baptismal water afore before afterclap unexpected damaging or unsettling after-effect afterdeck deck behind a ship's bridge aftergame rematch; means employed after first turn of affairs afterguard men who work the aft sails on the quarterdeck and poop deck afterings last milk drawn when milking a cow afterpiece minor piece after a play aftershaft second shaft coming out of the quill of a feather afterwil locking of the barn after the cows have been let out agacerie allurement; coquetry agalactia failure or inability to produce milk agalloch eaglewood agamist one who opposes marriage agamogenesis reproduction by non-sexual means agape selfless Christian love; a feast in celebration of such love agapeistic characterized by Christian love agapet lover of women agapetae churchwomen who live platonically with celibate men agapism ethics of love agastopia admiration of part of another's body agatewear type of ceramic resembling agate stone agathism belief in ultimate triumph of good despite evil means agathodaimon one's good genius; the good part of one's conscience agelast one who never laughs agennesic sterile; impotent agenocratia opposition to birth control agentive indicating agent performing an action ageotropic moving or turning away from the earth agersia quality of not growing old ageusia damage to the sense of taste agger artificial mound or elevation for military use aggerose in heaps; piled up aggiornamento modernization of ideas of the Catholic church aggrade to raise level of a surface through depositing detritus aggrandize increase power or rank of; make greater aggrate to gratify or please aggry type of West African glass beads agio premium paid on foreign currency exchange agiotage playing the stock market; speculation agist to charge with a public burden; to take in to graze for payment agistment land tax assessed for cattle pasturing aglet metal point attached to a lace or string agma symbol or sound for a velar nasal consonant "ng" agminate grouped agnail sore, corn or hangnail on the toe or foot agname name over and above the ordinary name and surname agnation kinship agnize to acknowledge or confess agnomen additional name; surname; nickname agnosic unable to recognize familiar objects due to brain damage agnosticism doctrine that we can know nothing beyond material phenomena agnosy ignorance agoge tempo or sequence in melody in ancient Greek music agogic accenting a musical note by slightly dwelling on it agomphosis looseness in the teeth agone ago agonic making no angle agonism competition; effort; striving agonistes someone in the grip of inner conflict agonistic of, like or pertaining to or being aggressive or argumentative agonistics art and theory of prize-fighting agoraphobia fear of open spaces agowilt sudden sickening and unnecessary fear agraffe hooked clasp used by masons to hold blocks together agrapha sayings of Jesus not found in the canonical gospels agraphia inability to write agravic having no gravity; pertaining to the condition of zero-gravity agrestic of the fields; rural; unpolished agriology the comparative study of primitive peoples agrize to horrify; to disfigure agrizoiatry medicine specializing in wild animals agrobiology study of plant nutrition; soil yields agrology study of agricultural soils agromania intense desire to be in open spaces agronomics study of productivity of land agrostography writing about grasses agrostology science or study of grasses agrypnia insomnia agrypnotic anything taken to aid wakefulness aguardiente Spanish or Portuguese brandy agyiophobia fear of crossing busy streets agynary lacking female genitals ahimsa the duty of sparing animal life; non-violence ahull with sails furled and helm lashed to the lee-side ai three-toed sloth aichmophobia fear of sharp or pointed objects aiger tidal wave occurring in rivers aigrette a spray of jewels; ornamental feather plume; an egret aiguille sharp; needle-like peak of rock aileron flap on airplane wing for lateral balance ailette plate of armour worn on shoulder ailuromancy divination by watching cats' movements ailurophilia love of cats ailurophobia fear of cats aioli garlic-flavoured mayonnaise airscrew aircraft propeller aischrolatry worship of filth, dirt, or smut aisling a vision or dream ait small island in lake or river aitchbone rump bone of cattle; rump cut of beef aiué elderly; senior akeratophorous not horned akinesia loss of ability to move ala membranous outgrowth on a plant or animal alabamine alternate name for the element astatine alack expression of sorrow or regret alalia loss of ability to speak alameda public walkway between rows of poplar trees alamort half-dead; dejected alannah term of endearment used with one's child alar of, like or pertaining to the wing or shoulder alastrim mild form of smallpox alate lately alation state of having wings; position of wings on a creature alaudine of, like or pertaining to skylarks alb long white robe worn by priests albarello cylindrical jar used to hold drugs albata variety of German silver albedo whiteness, as of a celestial object albescent becoming white; whiteness albicant whitish; becoming white albificative able to whiten or be whitened albion medieval astronomical device for finding positions of planets albocracy government by white people albolith white cement formed from magnesia and silica albugineous like the white of an eye or an egg; white-coloured alcahest alchemical universal solvent alcatote silly elf alcine of, like or pertaining to elks; of, like or pertaining to auks alcoholometer instrument for measuring proportion of alcohol in solutions alcovinometer instrument to measure strength of wine aleatoric depending on contingencies or chance aleberry beverage made from ale, spices, and dried bread alecost costmary, an herb used in flavouring ale alectormancy divination by sacrificing a rooster alectryomachy cock-fighting alectryomancy divination by watching a rooster gather corn kernels alee on or toward the lee alegar vinegar made by turning ale sour alembicated over-refined alepine mixed wool and silk or mohair and cotton fabric alethiology study of truth aleuromancy divination using flour or meal alexia inability to read alexipharmic antidote alfet cauldron of boiling water used during trials by ordeal alforge wallet or leather bag algedonics science of pleasure and pain algefacient cooling algetic causing or producing pain algicide killer of algae algid cold; chilly alginuresis painful urination algolagnia sexual pleasure derived from inflicting pain algology study of algae algophobia fear of pain algor coldness; shivering fit algraphy art of printing from aluminum plates alible nourishing alidade revolving index on astrolabe or other instrument for reading gradations aliform wing-shaped aligerous winged aliped having wings on the feet aliphatic of, like or pertaining to fat or fats in general aliquant number dividing into another with a remainder aliquot number dividing into another without leaving a remainder aliter requiring a different law or rule to be applied alk sap or resin from turpentine trees alkalimeter instrument for measuring strength of alkalines alkanet reddish plant-based dye allantiasis food poisoning resulting from inadequate preservation allantoid shaped like a sausage allative indicating movement towards allemain enormous pudding out of which acrobats leap allemande courtly baroque dance in which the arms are interlaced alliaceous of, like or pertaining to garlic; garlicky allicient attracting something else allision intentional collision of two ships allocatur amount allowed for costs allochthonous formed or produced elsewhere or externally allodic not subject to a superior allogamy cross-fertilization allogeneous different allography writing another individual's signature allolalia speech disorder featuring randomly spoken words allonge paper attached to commercial bill requiring signatures allonym other person's name used by an author allotheism belief in or worship of strange gods allotriophagy craving for strange foods allotropy of an element, having more than one form alluvion effect of water impacting on shoreline almacantar circle of altitude, parallel to the horizon almagest textbook or handbook, especially dealing with astronomy almandine violet-coloured garnet almoner giver of alms; social worker in a hospital almuce cloth or fur hood alnager inspector of cloth alogism illogical statement alomancy divination using salt alopecia baldness; hair loss alopecoid of or resembling a fox alow below alpaca fine wool made from alpaca hair alpenglow reddish glow appearing at sunrise or sunset in mountains alpenstocker mountain climber alpestrine of, like or pertaining to alpine regions alphenic sugary candy used in medicine alphitomancy divination using loaves of barley alphonsin instrument used to extract bullets from bodies alt high musical tone altarage payment to priest for mass; offerings at altar alterity state of being different alternatim alternately altiloquence pompous or high speech altisonant high-sounding altitonant thundering on high or loudly altricial having young requiring care for a lengthy period aludel pear-shaped pot used in sublimation aluminiferous bearing aluminum alveary beehive; area of the ear where wax collects; word-list alveolate of or like a honeycomb alveromancy divination using sounds alviducous purgative alvine of the belly ama a Japanese pearl-diver amadelphous outgoing; gregarious amain to a high degree; exceedingly; at full speed amanous lacking hands amanuensis one employed to write from dictation amaranth imaginary flower reputed never to fade amaranthine immortal; undying; deep purple-red colour amasesis inability to chew amasthenic focusing light rays to a single point amathophobia fear of dust amaxophobia fear of riding in a car ambages windings; roundabout ways; delays ambeer juice from chewing tobacco ambisinistrous awkward in the use of both hands ambit circuit; scope; compass; confines ambo early Christian raised reading desk or pulpit ambry recess for church vessels; cupboard or niche ambsace bad luck; a low score ambulatory aisle down the east end of a church ambulomancy divination by taking a walk ambulophobia fear of walking ambustion burn or scald amende fine or reparation paid ament a person who fails to develop mentally amerce to fine; to deprive; to punish ametropia abnormal optical refraction amice strip of fine linen worn as cloak or wrap by priest at mass amicicide murder of a friend amidships midway between the bow and stern of a ship ammeter instrument for measuring electrical current ammophilous sand-loving; preferring to dwell in sand amnicolist one who lives near a river amniomancy divination by examining afterbirth amorce percussion cap for a toy pistol amoret love sonnet or song amoretto a cherub or spirit of love ampelidious of, like or pertaining to vines ampelography scientific description of the vine ampere unit for measuring amount of electrical current amphibiolith fossilized amphibian amphibolic able to turn both backwards and forwards; double-jointed amphibology ambiguity in language; dual grammatical meaning amphigean occurring in both hemispheres of the brain or body amphigory a nonsense verse amphimixis interbreeding; intermixing of two individuals' genetic matter amphipneust animal with both lungs and gills amphisbaena mythical two-headed serpent or lizard amphiscian of, like or pertaining to torrid regions amplexus rutting of frogs and toads ampliative supplemental; additional amplivagant stretching far; having a great scope ampulla vessel for holy oil or wine for coronations or rituals amrita Hindu ambrosia bestowing immortality amygdaloid almond-shaped; of, like or pertaining to tonsils amyloid containing or pertaining to starch; starchy amyous lacking muscle an if ana in equal quantities anabasis journey leading upwards; first phase of an illness anabiosis return to life after apparent death anacampserote something which can bring back a lost love anacamptic reflecting or reflected light; sound or water anacardic of, like or pertaining to cashews anacathartic causing vomiting or expectoration anachoric foreign or geographically absurd relating to a country anaclastic refractive; of, like or pertaining to refraction anaclitic dependent on other phenomenon or ability anacoluthon moving to new topic of discussion before finishing current one anacrisis interrogation accompanied by torture anacrusis syllable prior to the normal rhythm of a verse anacusic completely deaf anadem wreath, fillet or band anadiplosis repeating last word of clause at beginning of next clause anadromous fish which ascend rivers to spawn anaerectic destructive anaesthesiology study of anaesthetics anagalactic coming from or existing beyond our own galaxy anaglyph ornament in low relief anaglyptics art of carving in bas-relief anaglyptography art of engraving so as to give the subject an embossed appearance anagnorisis recognition leading to denouement of a play anagogy mystical interpretation anagraphy art of constructing catalogues analects crumbs that fall from the table analemma sundial analgia inability to feel pain anamnesis reminiscence; prayer recalling death and resurrection of Jesus anamorphic changing to a more complex form anandrious impotent ananym name written backward; often used as synonym anapeiratic caused by excessive use anapest two short metrical syllables followed by one long one anaphalantiasis falling out of the eyebrows anaphia loss of sense of touch anaphora repetition of a word at beginning of successive phrases for emphasis anapnea recovery of one's breath; restoration of breath anastasic convalescent anastrophe reversing or inverting word order as rhetorical device anatine of, like or pertaining to ducks anatocism compound interest anatreptic overcoming; overturning anaudia loss of voice anbury soft fleshy tumour in horses anchorite one withdrawn from the world for religious reasons ancillary auxiliary; secondary ancipitous two-edged and flattened ancistroid hook-shaped ancon elbow anconoid of, like or pertaining to the elbow ancoral of, shaped like or resembling an anchor ancress female religious recluse andiron iron bar used to support the end of a log in a fire andragogy science of teaching adults androcracy government by men androlepsia governmental kidnapping for political purposes andromania nymphomania androphagy cannibalism aneabil single; unmarried anele to administer extreme unction to anemocracy government by the wind or by whim anemograph instrument for measuring pressure and velocity of wind anemography treatise on the winds anemology study of winds anemometer instrument for measuring wind velocity anemophilous pollinated by wind anencephalic lacking a brain anent about; concerning anergia failure of immune system; loss of energy anesis tuning to a lower musical pitch aneuria lack of nervous energy anfractuous full of windings and intricate turnings angary the right of a belligerent to seize neutral property angelocracy government by angels angelolatry worship of or belief in angels angelology study of angels angelus prayer said in morning, at noon and at sunset angiogenesis production of blood vessels angiology study of blood flow and lymphatic system anglomania craze or obsession with England and the English anglophilia love or fondness for England or the English anglophobia fear of England or the English angora silk-like fabric made from wool of angora goats angstrom unit of one ten-billionth of a meter anguiform shaped like a snake anguilliform shaped like an eel anguine of, like or pertaining to snakes anguine of, like or pertaining to snakes anhedonia an unresponsiveness to pleasure anhelation shortness of breath anhidrosis absence of perspiration aniconic symbolizing without aiming at resemblance anicular like an old woman anile imbecilic; senile; like a very old woman animadvert to comment critically on; to censure animastic spiritual; animate animism attribution of soul to inanimate objects anion positively charged ion anisothenic being of unequal strength anker liquid measure of 8 1/2 gallons ankus spiked elephant goad ankyroid hook-shaped anlace short two-edged dagger anneal to heat and cool metal gradually to temper annectent having intermediate features between two taxa annihilationism doctrine that the wicked are utterly destroyed after death annodated shaped like the letter S annomination pun; play on words annuent nodding or moving of the head annulet small ring around a classical column annulose ringed; composed of rings anocathartic emetic; causing vomiting or expectoration anodontia toothlessness anodyne something that relieves pain or suffering anoesis sensation not accompanied by understanding of it anogenic formed from below or beneath anomia inability to remember names anomic in a state lacking social order and norms anomie condition of lacking accepted social values or standards anomphalous without a navel anon at once; immediately anonym person whose name is not given; pseudonym anopheline of, like or pertaining to malarial mosquitoes anopisthographic bearing writing or inscription only on one side anopsia blindness anorchous lacking testicles anosmia lack or loss of sense of smell anotic lacking ears ansate having a handle or hand-like shape anserine of, like or pertaining to geese anta pier produced by thickening wall at one end antalgic alleviating or relieving pain antanaclasis repetition of key word of phrase as a play on words antapology response to an apology antarchy opposition to government; anarchy anteambulo usher antechapel anteroom to a chapel or church antejentacular before breakfast anteloquy a preface antelucan before dawn or daylight antemundane before one's own birth; before the creation of the world antenniferous bearing antennae antepast foretaste antependium covering or cloth over pulpit or altar antephialtic preventing nightmares antepone to put before; to prefer anteprandial before dinner antevenient preceding anthelion luminous ring seen on a cloud opposite the sun anthelminthic destroying or expelling worms anthesis full bloom anthomancy divination using flowers anthomania obsession with flowers anthophilous loving or frequenting flowers anthorism counter-definition anthracomancy divination using burning coals anthrophobia fear of humans anthropobiology study of human biology anthropogenesis origin of human beings anthropoglot animal with human tongue; animal capable of speech anthropolatry worship of human beings anthropolith fossilized human skeleton anthropomancy divination using human entrails anthropopathy ascription of human feelings to inanimate object anthropophaginian cannibal anthropophagous eating humans anthroposophy knowledge of the nature of humanity; human wisdom anthropotheism belief that gods are only deified men antibasilican opposed to monarchic principle antiblastic providing natural immunity against harmful substances antibromic eliminating offensive odours antichresis enjoyment of mortgaged property in lieu of interest payments antichthon hypothetical second Earth on the opposite side of the sun anticryptic camouflaged; having protective resemblance to environment antidisestablishmentarianism doctrine opposed to removing Church of England's official religion status antigalactic preventing the secretion of milk antigropelos waterproof leggings antilapsarianism denial of doctrine of the fall of humanity antilegomena books of the New Testament not part of early Christian Bible antilogarithm number of which a given number is the logarithm antilogism statement of three propositions containing contradiction antilogy contradiction antimnemonic damaging the memory; eliminating memories antimony brittle, bluish-white metallic element antinomianism doctrine of the rejection of moral law antinomy contradiction between two logical conclusions antipedobaptism denial of validity of infant baptism antiperistasis opposition or resistance antiphon anthem sung as a response during church service antiphrasis use of words in a sense opposite to literal antipudic concealing private parts of the body antiscian dweller on the exact opposite side of the world antistrophe repetition of words in reverse order antithalian opposed to mirth or fun antithesis contrast of ideas by means of parallel arrangement of words or clauses antitypy resistance to being penetrated antonomasia use of descriptive phrase or epithet instead of proper name antre cave antrorse turned upward and forward anuptaphobia fear of staying single anuresis inability to urinate anurous tailless anzactile army biscuit aorist expressing simple past time with no continuance apaesthesia numbness or loss of sensation in a limb apagoge proof by showing the falsehood of the opposite apanage privilege of office; especially one given to younger offspring apantomancy divination using objects at hand apatetic of an animal's coloration or markings apay to satisfy apercu brief outline; glimpse; intuitive insight aperient laxative aphagia inability to eat or swallow aphemia loss of ability to produce articulate speech apheresis taking away a sound or syllable at the beginning of a word aphesis loss of initial unaccented vowel from beginning of a word aphicide killer of aphids aphidicide killer of aphids aphnology science of wealth aphologistic flameless aphotic lightless aphrasia inability to speak aphrodisiomania abnormal sexual interest aphthong silent letter apian of, like or pertaining to bees apiarian of, like or pertaining to bees or beekeeping apical of or at the apex apiculture beekeeping apiology study of bees apistia faithlessness in marriage apivorous eating bees aplanatic a lens free of spherical aberration apocalypticism doctrine of the imminent end of the world apocarteresis suicide by starvation apocatastasis final restitution of all things at the appearance of the Messiah apocatastisis reversion or restoration to original position apocope cutting off the last sound of a word apocrisiary papal secretary apodal lacking feet apodictic necessarily true beyond contradiction apodosis main clause in a conditional sentence apodysophilia feverish desire to undress apograph exact copy; facsimile apolaustic dedicated to the search for enjoyment apologetics defense and proof of Christianity or other doctrine aponia painlessness apopemptic valedictory apophasis saying something by stating that you will not mention it apophoret a gift given to celebrate a new year apophthegm brief saying; proverb; epigram aporia professed but false doubt of what to say or choose aposiopesis suddenly stopping in the middle of a speech for emphasis apositia dislike of or distaste for food apostasy renunciation of former beliefs apostil marginal note apostrophe addressing of a personified thing rhetorically apotelesm casting of a horoscope apothegm a short, instructive saying or formula apotheosis elevation to divine status; a perfect example apotropaic designed to turn away evil apparitor officer in court who attends to execute orders; harbinger appendant attached to; hanging from; adjunct apperception mind's perception of itself as a conscious agent appersonation irrational belief that one is another person appetence strong craving or powerful desire applanate flat; flattened; compressed apport to transport objects without material agency appose to place in juxtaposition or proximity apposite appropriate approbation approval; consent apprompt to borrow appropinquity nearness appui to support militarily appulse a striking against something appurtenance a subordinate or adjunct part of apricate to bask in the sun aprique sunny apse rounded extension of church or other building apselophesia loss of sense of touch apsidal shaped like an apse apterygial wingless; finless aptotic uninflected; indeclinable aptronym name that suits its owner apyrexy period of intermission in a fever aquamanile ewer in the form of a human or animal figure for ceremonial handwashing aquaphobia fear of water aquarelle watercolour painting aquifer a rock formation containing water aquiform watery; liquid aquiline of, like or pertaining to eagles; hooked like an eagle's beak araba wheeled Middle Eastern carriage arachibutyrophobia fear of peanut butter sticking to roof of mouth arachnivorous feeding on spiders arachnology study of spiders arachnophobia fear of spiders araneidan of, like or pertaining to spiders araneiform shaped like a spider araneous transparent; delicate; like a spider's web araphorostic seamless aration ploughing arbalest type of crossbow arborescent branched; branching; tree-shaped arboricolous growing on or living in trees arboriform shaped like a tree arbrolatry worship of start arbuscle dwarf or shrub-like tree arbustum orchard; copse of trees arcanna red chalk used to mark trees arcate bow-shaped archaeolatry worship of archaic things or old customs archelogy the study of first principles archet violin box archididascalian of, like or pertaining to headmasters archididascalos school principal archimandrite head of a monastery or convent archimime chief buffoon or mimic architectonics of, like or pertaining to the arrangement of knowledge architrave parts surrounding a door or window, especially the top archology science of the origins of government arciform shaped like a bow arctician one skilled in navigating arctic regions arctogaeal of the arctic regions of the earth arctoid bear-like arctophile collector of teddy bears arctophily study of teddy bears arcuate arched; bow-shaped ard plough used to scratch top surface of soil ardass fine silk arefy to dry up; to wither arenaceous like, growing in or consisting of sand arenoid sandy; like sand areology study of Mars areometer instrument used for measuring specific gravity areopagitic of, like or pertaining to tribunals or courts aret to assign or allot aretaics the science of virtue arete sharp mountain ridge argand gas or oil lamp argent the heraldic colour silver or white argentiferous bearing silver argentocracy government by money argil clay used in making pottery argillaceous clayey; of or resembling clay argol crust formed on wine kept too long or improperly argol dried cow dung used as fuel argosy a large merchant ship; a rich supply arguria silver poisoning argute shrill; keen; shrewd argyll silver gravy dish arietine of, like or pertaining to rams arietinous shaped like a ram's head aright right; correctly ariolation divination in general aristarch a severe critic aristarchy government by the best aristology the science or art of dining arithmancy divination using numbers arithmocracy government by simple majority arithmogram number composed of numerical values of letters in a word arithmomania obsessive preoccupation with numbers armamentarium collective equipment available to a doctor armigerous entitled to bear arms armillary like or composed of rings armipotent having strong weapons; militarily potent armisonant resounding with noises of battle or weapons armomancy divination by examining one's shoulders armure twilled woollen or silk fabric aroint begone arpent unit of land area slightly smaller than an acre arpenteur land surveyor arrant downright; unmitigated arras tapestry covering a wall arrasene embroidery fabric of wool and silk arrect attentive; erect; raised up arrendator one who rents or farms at a yearly rent arreptitious ecstatic; frantic; hasty or hurried arrestant substance causing an insect to stop moving arrhizal lacking roots arris sharp edge on stone; meeting of two surfaces arrogate to claim unduly as one's own; to ascribe arrosive gnawing; chewing; corroding arthrology study of joints arthroscope instrument for examining interior of a joint arundiferous bearing or producing reeds arundinaceous like or having the properties of a reed arval of, like or pertaining to ploughed land ascesis the practice of disciplining oneself; asceticism asceticism doctrine that self-denial of the body permits spiritual enlightenment ascham box for keeping bows and arrows dry ascian inhabitant of the equatorial zone aseity self-origination ashlar squared stone used in building walls ashplant walking stick asinine of, like or pertaining to asses; stupid asitia lack of appetite askefise one who blows on ashes to bring them to flame asomatous lacking a body; incorporeal asonia deafness to specific pitches of sound asperge to sprinkle aspergilliform shaped like a brush aspergillum vessel for sprinkling holy water asperity roughness of surface or sound asperse slander; disparage aspersory vessel for holding holy water aspheterism denial of the right to private property aspidate shield-shaped aspidomancy divination by sitting and chanting within a circle asportation to carry property away wrongfully assart to reclaim for agriculture by clearing away trees assecuration marine insurance assentation insincere or glib assent asseveration positive or earnest affirmation assibilate to pronounce with a hiss or sibilant assiduity persevering application to a pursuit assizer officer or judge in charge of weights and measures assocative indicating association with or accompaniment by assoil to absolve; to acquit assot to befool; to besot assuefaction habituation assuetude accustomedness; habit assurgent ascending; rising; curving upward astacology the science of crayfish astatic in equilibrium asteism refined irony asterism three asterisks used to direct attention to a passage astern at the stern of a ship astheniology study of diseases of weakening and aging asthenopia muscular weakening of the eyes astichous not in rows astragal small semicircular moulding; dice astragalomancy divination using dice or knucklebones astraphobia fear of being struck by lightning astrapophobia fear of thunder and lightning astriction binding obligation astringe to draw together; to tighten astrionics electronics as applied to space flight astrobleme scar on the earth's surface from meteorite impact astrobolism sun-stroke astrogeology study of extraterrestrial geology astrognosy knowledge of fixed stars astrogony theory of the origin of stars astrolatry worship of stars astrologaster a foolish or petty astrologer astromancy divination using stars astrometeorology study of effect of stars on climate astronomical unit unit of distance equal to the distance from the earth to the sun astrophile person interested in astronomy astroseismology study of star oscillations astrut protrudingly; distendedly asynartetic having two members with different rhythms asyndeton rhetorical device of omitting conjunctions atactic irregular ataraxia tranquility; freedom from anxiety; stoicism atavism reversion to early or ancestral type ateknia childlessness atelier artist's studio or workshop ateliosis imperfect development; developmental irregularity athanasy deathlessness athanor alchemist's self-feeding digesting furnace atheling Anglo-Saxon prince or nobleman athenaeum literary or scientific association athermic lacking heat athetesis rejection of a passage as spurious athetosis nervous twitching of digits and extremities athwart across; in opposition to; sideways; transversely athymia melancholy atimy loss of honour; disgrace atlantes male figures used as columns atlas rich satin fabric atmatertera great-grandfather's grandmother's sister atmology the science of aqueous vapour atmometer instrument for measuring evaporating capacity of air atocia female sterility atokous lacking offspring atomism belief that the universe consists of small indivisible particles atony muscular weakness atpatruus great-grandfather's grandfather's brother atrabiliary melancholy; hypochondriac atrabilious melancholy; splenetic; acrimonious atrament blacking; ink; black dye atresia absence or irregular closure of a passage in the body atrichia baldness atrous jet black attainder the loss of civil rights for high treason attaint disgrace; sully; infect; taint attemper to adapt or alter quality by adding to something attenuate make thin; reduce in value atticism expression characterized by conciseness and elegance attingent touching attollent lifting up; raising attorn to transfer to another attrahent attracting or drawing attrist to sadden attrite repentant through fear of punishment attuition operation between sensation and perception aubade musical announcement of dawn; sunrise song aubergine eggplant aubin horse's gait between an amble and a gallop auceps hawker or bird-tender aucupate to hunt birds; to pursue prey with vigilance audile person more attuned to sound than the other senses audiology study of hearing audiometer instrument for measuring acuity of hearing audiophile one who loves accurately reproduced recorded sound augean filthy; difficult augend number to which another number is added aught at all aularian of, like or pertaining to a hall in a university aulete flautist aulic courtly; ceremonious; genteel auncel crude balance for weighing aurantiaceous of, like or pertaining or pertaining to oranges or orange trees aureity property of being golden in colour or substance aureole radiant light around head or body of holy personage auricomous having golden or blond hair auricular of, like or pertaining to the ear; spoken secretly auriferous bearing gold aurifex goldsmith auriform shaped like an ear aurigation charioteering aurilave instrument for cleaning the ear auriphrygia gold embroidery auriscope instrument for examining the ear aurochs extinct wild ox aurulent gold-coloured auscultation listening to sounds arising within organs auslaut final sound of a word or syllable austringer keeper of goshawks austromancy divination using wind autarchy government by an absolute ruler autarkic self-sufficient; independent autecology study of ecology of one species autocephality ecclesiastical self-government autocoprophagy eating one's own feces autocracy government by one individual auto-da-fe burning of a heretic autodidact self-taught person autogenesis spontaneous generation autognosis knowledge of or about oneself autolatry self-worship autology scientific study of oneself automorphism ascription to others of one's own characteristics automysophobia fear of being dirty autonym a writer's real name; work published under writer's own name autophagy feeding on body's own tissues autophanous self-luminous autophobia fear of solitude autoschediasm anything extemporized autosoterism belief that one can obtain salvation through oneself autotelic being an end in itself autothaumaturgist person pretending to be mystical or mysterious autotheism belief that one is God incarnate or that one is Christ autotropic growing in a straight line auxanometer instrument for measuring growth of plants auxesis increase in size; hyperbole auxology science of growth auxometer instrument for measuring magnifying power aval of, like or pertaining to a grandparent avalement allowing knees to flex while skiing avaunt away; hence avaunt to boast aveniform shaped like oats averruncate to ward off; to uproot averruncator pole for pruning trees avicide killing of birds avicular of, like or pertaining to birds avinosis air sickness avionics the science of electronic devices for aircraft avital ancestral avizandum private consideration of a case by a judge avolitional involuntary avulse to pluck or tear away by force avuncular like an uncle; of, like or pertaining to uncles awn beard or similar bristly growth on stalk of grain axilla armpit axiniform shaped like an axe-head axinomancy divination using an axe or hatchet axiology the science of the ultimate nature of values azimuth arc of the horizon azoth alchemical name for mercury azuline blue azure light or sky blue; the heraldic colour blue azymous unleavened

B

  • bade - old past tense of "bid", pronounced "bad"
  • baldric - a shoulder-belt for carrying horns, swords, etc
  • bannock - flat bread-cake
  • barrel - the long, cylindrical part of a key
  • baseborn - ignoble, illegitimate
  • bason - formerly a common spelling of basin
  • bay - (of a dog) bark or howl
  • bebother - bring trouble upon
  • befall - happen, occur
  • belie - give a false impression
  • benighted - in, or overtaken by, darkness
  • bent - open place covered with grass
  • beset - attacked, assaulted by enemies
  • besom - a stiff broom made out of sticks and twigs
  • besotted - made drunk
  • besotted2 - obsessed, entranced
  • besought - old past tense of beseech
  • bier - platform for carrying a coffin or body
  • billow - (large) wave
  • bivouac - temporary camp, without tents
  • blazoned - painted or inscribed (an heraldic term)
  • bond - storage of wine, etc, until duty has been paid; out of bond released from this
  • booby - stupid person
  • boon - favour, gift
  • brakes - thickets
  • brazen - made of brass
  • brood - children
  • brood2 - related creatures
  • brook - tolerate, accept
  • buckler - a small round shield, held in one hand
  • bulwark - a defensive structure
  • burg - walled and fortified town[1]
  • burgeon - come forth, bud, begin to grow quickly
  • burnished - polished

C

  • cairn - a mound of stones or rocks, used as a marker, memorial or tomb
  • carcanet - jeweled necklace
  • carouse - drink heavily
  • carven - old form of 'carved'
  • cataract - waterfall
  • cesspool - a pool of waste-water or sewage
  • chalcedony - a precious form of quartz onyx, agate and cornelian are all types of chalcedony
  • champ - (of a horse) munch on the bit, showing eagerness
  • charger large dish
  • chime - agree with, be in harmony with
  • circlet - a thin band of precious metal, worn on the head
  • clamant - clamorous, noisy
  • clave - old past tense of cleave, in the sense 'stick, adhere'
  • clomb - old past tense of climb
  • cloven - split into two
  • cob - spider (the name survives in the term 'cobweb')
  • coëval - born at the same time
  • coffer - strongbox, especially for holding valuables
  • comely - pleasant-looking
  • commons - shared food; short commons insufficient food
  • compass - accomplish, achieve
  • conclave - a meeting, or the place where a meeting is held
  • concourse - large group of people; crowd
  • confines - borders; borderlands
  • confusticate - a nonsense word, probably not intended to have a meaning (though its Latin roots can be interpreted "beat with a cudgel")
  • constellate formed into a constellation
  • cony - rabbit
  • cools - coolnesses
  • coomb - short valley in the side of a hill or mountain
  • coop - cage, imprison
  • corbel basket
  • corslet - a piece of armour covering the body, but not the arms or legs
  • cot - a small cottage[1]
  • counsels - words of advice
  • covet - be jealous of, desire
  • covetice - (inordinate) desire, covetousness
  • cozen - lie to, cheat, deceive
  • craven - coward
  • crocks - items of crockery plates, dishes, etc.
  • culvert - a channel carrying water beneath a thoroughfare
  • cumbrous - awkward, inconvenient
  • cunning-handed - deft, artful, dexterous
  • curdle - turn sour

D

  • dainty - morsel, delicacy
  • damask - steel and iron specially welded to make a serpentine pattern
  • darkling - dark (poetical)
  • daunt - intimidate
  • declaim - speak or recite passionately
  • deem - consider, conclude
  • defile - ruin, corrupt
  • defray - pay for
  • dell - small valley
  • descry - catch sight of, especially something difficult to see
  • devices - things, especially situations, devised or engineered
  • dingle - deep hollow, usually shaded with trees
  • dissemble - hide one's true intentions
  • divers - numerous and various
  • dolven - delved, dug out
  • doom - fate (as opposed to modern usage, doom in this sense is not necessarily bad)
  • dotard - a person who has lost their wits, especially through old age
  • doughty - strong, powerful
  • draught - drawing or pulling force
  • draught2 - a drink drawn from a barrel or storage jar
  • drear - dismal, gloomy
  • dregs - sediment found at the bottom of wine, tea, etc. To "drink to the dregs" is to completely drain a cup or (metaphorically) fully involve oneself
  • dry - (of bricks or stone) laid without mortar
  • durstn't - dare not
  • dwimmer-crafty - skilled in the arts of magic

E

  • eaves - the fringe of a forest (from the resemblance of the overhanging forest canopy to the eaves of a house)
  • eld - old age
  • ell - a measure of length, usually equivalent to 45 inches or 114 cm
  • embattled - of a fortress, having battlements
  • embattled2 - of an army, fortified against attack (this is the dictionary definition, but in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien's usage seems to mean simply "in battle")
  • embrasure - beveled door or window frame cut into a wall
  • encompass - surround
  • ere - before
  • errantry - journeying in search of adventure
  • espy - catch sight of
  • essay - attempt
  • esteem - consider to be of worth; esteem too lightly underestimate
  • et - a variation of "ate", common in British rural dialects
  • etten - eaten - see "et"
  • ewer - pitcher for water[1]
  • eyot - a small island[1]

F

  • faggot - bundle of sticks used as firewood
  • fain gladly; disposed, desirous; fain of well-pleased with
  • falter - waver, lose courage
  • fane temple
  • fare - travel, go on a journey
  • fastness - secure fortress
  • fawn - cringe, grovel
  • fealty - allegiance and service to a lord
  • feign - pretend
  • fell - merciless, terrifying
  • fell2 - animal's hide
  • fell3 - moorland hill
  • fender - a metal frame placed around a fireplace
  • fetter - chain, shackle
  • fey -The old senses were ‘fated, approaching death; presaging death’. It seems very unlikely that the later sense ‘possessing or displaying magical, fairylike, or unearthly qualities’ (O.E.D. Supplement) was intended.
  • field - background color on a flag or shield in heraldry.
  • figured - marked with drawings or writing
  • firth - An inlet of the sea at a wide river estuary
  • flagon - large jug or mug, usually used to hold wine or beer
  • flammifer - in Latin, flammifer means "fiery", but Tolkien's usage is likely meant to suggest "flame-bearer", as a reference to the blazing Silmaril borne by Eärendil.
  • flank - the exposed side of an attacking or marching army
  • flittermice - bats
  • flotsam - floating wreckage; flotsam and jetsam items washed up by the sea, or a flood (also used figuratively)
  • flummoxed - bewildered, disconcerted
  • footpad - a thief (historically, a "footpad" was a highwayman who had no horse)
  • forbear - hold back from
  • forebode - foresee (especially something that is evil)
  • forespeak - foretell, predict
  • foreswear - swear not to do something
  • forgo - let go, do without
  • forlorn - abandoned, desolate
  • forsake - desert, turn away from (the past tense is forsook)
  • forsooth - in truth, actually
  • fortnight - a period of two weeks
  • fosse - a defensive trench or ditch; pit[1]
  • founder - sink, after taking on water
  • fraught - full (of)
  • freshet - a stream, or (strictly) a flood of fresh water
  • furlong - one eighth of a mile (220 yards), or about one fifth of a kilometre

G

  • gaffer - a word meaning both "old man" and "foreman"* its use as the nickname of Hamfast Gamgee is probably mean to combine both meanings.
  • gainsay - contradict
  • gallop - boil and bubble
  • game - crippled
  • gammer - old woman
  • garth - an enclosed garden or yard
  • ghyll - deep ravine
  • gibbet - A gallows built to display the body of an executed criminal
  • gimlet - A sharp boring tool, similar in general design to a corkscrew; see like gimlets see sharply
  • girdle - belt or cord used especially to confine clothing
  • girdle2 - something which surrounds or encircles; girdle of Arda the central regions of Arda, equidistant from the far north and south
  • girt - bound or attached with a belt
  • glede - burning coal or cinder
  • gloaming - the twilight of evening
  • glower - scowl, frown
  • goggle - stare with round eyes
  • gorcrow - carrion crow
  • graven - engraved, carved
  • greened - made green from the mosses and lichens on a tree's trunk
  • grot - old form of "grotto"; an ornamental or picturesque cavern
  • guileful - treacherous, deceitful
  • gunwale - the top edge of a boat's side, pronounced (and sometimes spelt) 'gunnel'

H

  • habergeon - a mail-coat without sleeves
  • hale - robust, strong of body
  • hame - hide, pelt
  • hang - to leave food, especially game, in the open until it becomes "high" or tender
  • harbour - succor, assistance
  • hardly - with great difficulty
  • hardly2 - only just
  • harry - ravage
  • haste - hurry, rush
  • hauberk - mail-coat
  • headstall - a covering for a horse's head, used as an alternative to bridle and bit
  • hearken - listen, pay attention
  • heed - thought, consideration
  • heedless - careless of danger
  • hence - from here
  • hew - chop, slice
  • hither - to here, to this place; hither and thither in various directions
  • hither2 - nearer, closer
  • hoar - grey- or white-haired
  • hobble - limp, walk with difficulty
  • hock - the middle joint of a horse's or pony's leg
  • houseleek - a fleshy plant that grows on the walls and roofs of houses
  • hue - form or shape
  • hummock - a small hill or knoll (in The Lord of the Rings, "hummock" is used metaphorically to describe the shape made by the palantír beneath Gandalf's cloak)
  • hundredweight - the pun in Tolkien's description of Bilbo's 112th birthday as a "Hundredweight Feast" is based on the fact that in Britain a hundredweight is 112 pounds. [2][3]
  • hunter's moon - the full moon of mid- to late October
  • hythe - a small harbour or haven, especially on a river

I

  • ill - evil, wrong
  • inaureoled surrounded with a halo, (the word is only recorded in the O.E.D. in a poem by Francis Thompson, 1897).

J

  • jacinth - blue[1]
  • jetsam - items thrown overboard from a ship, and later washed ashore

K

  • keen - sharp
  • kerb - a raised edge to a road or path
  • kindle - set fire to, begin to burn

L

  • lampads - The word is only recorded in the O.E.D. (first used by Coleridge) of the seven lamps of fire burning before the throne of God in the Book of Revelation, chapter 4 verse 5.
  • lave - wash, bathe
  • lay - a poem that is meant to be sung
  • league - a measure of distance, about three miles[1]
  • leaguer - an encampment or encampments, especially for defensive purposes
  • leave - permission
  • lee - shelter, especially from wind and weather
  • leech - healer
  • leechcraft - the practice of magical medicine. The name is based on the Celtic word for stone. The animal leech (Latin: sanguisuga, literally: blood sucker) is named for the healer (leech), rather than the other way around. [4]
  • legendarium - term coined by Tolkien to mean the entirety of his works concerning his imagined world of
  • lets upon gives on to, opens on to
  • lief gladly, willingly
  • liever more gladly, more willingly, rather
  • lissom - lithe, supple
  • loath - reluctant
  • lob - spider (seen, for example, in the name Shelob)
  • loth - reluctant [a variation on loath above]
  • louver - a domed structure built on a roof with side-openings to allow smoke to escape
  • lustihead vigour

M

  • malefactor - one who commits an evil act
  • mantle - cloak, cover
  • mar - spoil or damage beyond repair
  • march - share borders
  • marchwarden - border guard
  • mark - notice, detect
  • marshal - place in proper order
  • mattock - a primitive weapon, originally a farming tool, perhaps best described as a double-headed battle-hoe
  • maw - jaws and throat, especially of a ferocious animal
  • mayhap - perhaps
  • mead - an alcoholic drink made from honey
  • mead2 - meadow
  • meed - requital
  • mere - lake or pond
  • mew - a type of gull
  • midge - tiny airborne biting insect; not unlike a mosquito, but much smaller
  • minished reduced, diminished
  • mischance - accident
  • misgive - fill with doubt or suspicion
  • moonshine - fantastic ideas
  • muster - collect, assemble

N

  • nethermost - lowest, deepest
  • nicety - precision, exactness; weigh to a nicety measure exactly
  • nigh - near; well nigh, wellnigh almost, very nearly
  • nightshade - probably simply "darkness" (the literal use of this word appears to be unique to Tolkien - in * historical English, it is only used figuratively as the name of a poisonous plant)
  • noisome - foul-smelling, poisonous
  • nook - corner, recess

O

  • obeisance - bowing or kneeling in submission
  • oft - often
  • or ... or - either ... or[1]
  • or yet - apparently means "already",
  • ostler - stable-keeper
  • ousel blackbird, 43 (now spelled ouzel, in Ring-ouzel and other bird-names).
  • oust - take possession of another's lands, property, title, etc.
  • outworn - exhausted
  • overbear - defeat by weight of numbers

P

  • pallid - pale
  • panoply - full suit of armour
  • parapet - defensive wall built to protect troops
  • parley - discuss terms of peace or cease-fire
  • passward - something granting passage of a guard
  • pate - head, mind
  • pent - restricted, confined
  • penthouse - the area beneath a sloping roof, especially as a later extension to an existing building
  • perforce - having no choice, being forced
  • pinion - a bird's wing, and especially the tip
  • plash - splash
  • pleasance - "A pleasure-ground, usually attached to a mansion; sometimes a secluded part of a garden, but more often a separate enclosure laid out with shady walks, trees and shrubs..." (O.E.D.)
  • pled old past tense of plead, 186
  • plenilune - the time of full moon (see Letters p. 310).
  • portage - transporting a boat overland
  • portent - omen, sign
  • postern - a back- or side-entrance
  • pricks - (spurs his horse), rides fast. Oromë pricks over the plain echoes the first line of The Faerie Queene, A Gentle Knight was pricking on the plaine.
  • profound - deep
  • prosy - dull, contented with the commonplace
  • provender - food
  • puissant - powerful[1]
  • purloin - steal

Q

  • quaff - drink deeply
  • quail - give way to, be intimidated by

R

  • raiment - clothing
  • rearguard - that part of an army set to cover its rear ranks, especially in retreat
  • recked - troubled, cared
  • rede - counsel, advice; plan; redes counsels
  • redound - contribute to, advance
  • redress - setting right
  • reft - past tense of the old word reave, to take by force
  • rent - past tense of rend, to tear or split
  • repair - make one's way, go[1]
  • respite - relief, calm interval
  • revelry - merrymaking
  • rick - a stack, especially of hay
  • rill - a small stream
  • rondured - (in golden-rondured). Rondure "circle, rounded form"; rondured is not recorded.
  • rude - simple, primitive
  • rue - regret, repent of
  • rumour - sound
  • ruth - matter of sorrow, calamity; distress, grief; remorse

S

  • sable - heraldic term for black
  • sallow - having yellow or pale brown skin
  • saps - deep diggings
  • sate - old past tense of sit
  • save - except
  • seamews - seagulls
  • selenites - inhabitants of the Moon
  • semblance - appearance
  • shade - ghost or phantasm
  • shallop - This word had precise applications to particular kinds of boat, but here apparently means "open boat propelled by oars and sail".
  • shank - leg; especially that part between the knee and ankle
  • share - share=ploughshare, but used here of the blade of a scythe.
  • sheaf - bundle or cluster of stalks
  • shoal - a particularly shallow part of a river- or sea-bed
  • shore - slice, tear (an old past tense of "shear")
  • shun - refuse
  • sister-son - nephew
  • sledge-blows blows as of a sledge, a large heavy hammer
  • slot - track of an animal[1]
  • slowcoach - someone who moves slowly, or is often late
  • sluggard - slow or lazy person
  • smite - strike, attack (the past tense is smote)
  • snuff - sniff deeply
  • sojourn - temporary stay
  • sooth - true, truthful
  • sortie - an attack launched by a besieged force
  • spinney - group of trees, or small wood
  • sprent - past participle of the lost verb sprenge "sprinkle, scatter"
  • sprite(s) - spirit(s)
  • stead - place, position
  • stem - block, hold back
  • stock - the trunk or stump of a tree; stock and stone inanimate things
  • stoop - in falconry, to swoop on prey
  • straightway - immediately, directly
  • strait - narrowly confining
  • straitly - narrowly, tightly
  • strand - shore, shoreline, especially a beach
  • stricken - struck, beaten;[1] (as an adjective) damaged, broken
  • suaded - persuaded
  • succour - give aid
  • sunder - divide, separate
  • surname - an additional name indicating some quality or ability (as distinct from modern usage, surname in this context has no connection with family)
  • sward - region of short grass, lawn
  • swart - dark-skinned
  • swarthy - dark-skinned
  • swath - a strip of grass that has been flattened or mown
  • swoon - faint

T

  • tarn - mountain lake
  • tarry - pause, wait
  • thanksgiving- festival of giving thanks, as in a prayer
  • thenceforward - from that time on
  • thither - to or in that place
  • thraldom - slavery
  • thrall - slave
  • thrawn - twisted, misshapen
  • thrawn2 - obstinate, stubborn
  • throe - violent agony
  • throve - old past tense of 'thrive'
  • thwart - foil, stop
  • tidings - news
  • tipsy - slightly drunk
  • tithe - tenth part[1]
  • toils - trap, snare
  • toothsome - pleasantly appetising
  • tors - rocky hill-tops
  • toss-pot - drunkard
  • tracery - complex interlinked ornamentation
  • traffic - trade
  • trammels - nets, traps
  • traverse - travel through or across
  • trillups, trillaping - Unknown
  • trove - found treasure
  • truncheon - a wooden shaft used as a weapon, or part of a weapon
  • tryst - a prearranged meeting; break tryst fail to appear at the agreed upon time and place
  • tumult - noisy disturbance
  • tunic - a loose, short-sleeved garment
  • tuppence - two pence, a very small amount of money; not care tuppence have no interest
  • turnkey - jailer
  • tussock - clump of grass
  • twine - twist strands together into a rope

U

  • umbel - long flower, as in hemlock or parsley
  • unblazoned - an heraldic term, plain, undecorated
  • umbraged - (in wide-umbraged) Umbraged "shaded, shadowed", but here in the sense "shadowing", "casting a shade".
  • ungentle - rough, coarse
  • unquiet - anxious, concerned
  • unsated - unsatisfied
  • unsullied - pure, uncorrupted
  • upbraid - criticise
  • upheave - push or force upwards

V

  • vale - the valley of a river
  • varmint - pest, bothersome person or animal
  • vassal - servant, bondsman
  • vie - struggle with, be rival to
  • vigil - watchfulness; hold vigil make devotion
  • viol - an old instrument, usually with six strings, similar to a violin but held in a vertical position like a 'cello

W

  • waif - homeless person
  • wain - wagon; The Wain the constellation of the Plough or Big Dipper
  • wan - pale
  • wards - the "teeth" of a key
  • ware - old form of aware
  • waver - shimmer, flicker
  • waver2 - show indecision
  • wax - grow stronger; increase
  • waylay - intercept, prevent from going forward
  • wayward - uncontrollable, unpredictable
  • web(s) - woven fabric
  • wellnigh - almost, very nearly
  • weregild - a payment in compensation for a death (literally "man-money")
  • wheedle - coax, persuade
  • whelm - engulf, cover
  • whence - from where
  • whereat - for which reason
  • wherefore - for what (or which) reason
  • whet - sharpen
  • whickering - The verb whicker meant to laugh or titter, or of a horse to whinny, but the O.E.D. cites a line from Masefield the wall-top grasses whickered in the breeze, and the 1920 Supplement to the Dictionary gives a meaning "to make a hurtling sound", with a single citation where the word is used of a thunderbolt "whickering through the sky". In the 1962 version of The Man in the Moon the word flickering occurs in this verse.
  • whitethorn - hawthorn
  • whither - to which place
  • wildered - perplexed, bewildered
  • wile - trick, deceit
  • wizened - of shriveled appearance
  • wold - an upland region of moorland
  • wont - customarily, regularly; wont to err thus regularly make mistakes of this kind
  • worrit - worry
  • worst - defeat
  • wrack - devastation, downfall, ruin, (compare with rack and ruin)[1]
  • wrack2 - clouds being driven by a strong wind?
  • wraith - ghost, apparition
  • wreathe - engulf, surround (especially of vapour or fire)
  • wrest - take by force
  • writhen - writhing, twisting
  • wroth - angry

Y

  • yammer - wail, weep, cry
  • yoke - wooden harness for oxen; under the yoke under complete control
  • yonder - over there
  • yore - long ago

Z

  • zenith - highest point

References

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Book of Lost Tales Part Two, "Short Glossary of Obsolete, Archaic and Rare Words"
  2. Wayne G. Hammond, Christina Scull, The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, p. 74.
  3. Mark T. Hooker, The Hobbitonian Anthology, pp. 160-164.
  4. Mark T. Hooker, The Hobbitonian Anthology, pp. 165-172.

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