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{{claimed|[[User:Mthomas|Mthomas]]}}
 
{{race
 
{{race
| image=[[Image:John Howe - In Mordor.jpg|250px]]
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| image=[[Image:John Howe - In Mordor.jpg|300px]]
 
| name= Orcs
 
| name= Orcs
 
| dominions=[[Mordor]], [[Angband]], [[Misty Mountains]], [[Mount Gundabad]], [[Angmar]], [[Utumno]]
 
| dominions=[[Mordor]], [[Angband]], [[Misty Mountains]], [[Mount Gundabad]], [[Angmar]], [[Utumno]]
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| distinctions= Short, sallow
 
| distinctions= Short, sallow
 
| lifespan=
 
| lifespan=
| members= [[Gothmog, Lieutenant of Morgul|Gothmog]], [[Othrond]], [[Gorbag]]
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| members= [[Gothmog, Lieutenant of Morgul|Gothmog]], [[Othrond]], [[Azog]], [[Gorbag]]
 
|}}
 
|}}
'''Orcs''' were the footsoldiers of evil overlords - [[Sauron]], [[Morgoth]] and the [[Witch-king of Angmar]] - but also operated as a seperate faction throughout the Ages of [[Arda]].  
+
'''Orcs''' were the footsoldiers of evil overlords - [[Sauron]], [[Morgoth]] and the [[Witch-king]] of [[Angmar]] - but also operated as a seperate faction throughout the Ages of [[Arda]].  
  
 
==Appearance==
 
==Appearance==
  
In Tolkien's writing, Orcs are described as humanoid, roughly human-sized, ugly and filthy. In Tolkien's letters he gave a description as ''...sallow, squint eyed, and like (to the Europeans) the less-handsome Mongolians...'' (this part is often subject to the critisism of [[racism]]).  Although not dim-witted, they are portrayed as dull and miserable beings, who corrupt words (an insult to a philologist like Tolkien) and are only able to destroy, not to create. They have sour black blood.
+
In Tolkien's writing, Orcs are described as humanoid, roughly human-sized, ugly and filthy. Although not dim-witted, they are portrayed as dull and miserable beings, who corrupt words (an insult to a philologist like Tolkien) and are only able to destroy, not to create. They have sour black blood.
 
Orcs are used as soldiers by both the greater and lesser villains of ''[[The Lord of the Rings]]'' &mdash; [[Sauron]] and [[Saruman]].
 
Orcs are used as soldiers by both the greater and lesser villains of ''[[The Lord of the Rings]]'' &mdash; [[Sauron]] and [[Saruman]].
 
In Tolkien's [[Sindarin]] language, "Orc" is ''orch'', plural ''yrch''. In his late, post-''Lord of the Rings'' writings (published in ''[[The Peoples of Middle-earth]])'', he preferred the spelling "Ork", evidently mainly to avoid the form ''Orcish'', which would be naturally pronounced with the c as /s/ instead of /k/. (In [[Languages|Tolkien's languages]] the letter ''c'' was always pronounced /k/.) It is also possible that the word is a Common Tongue Version of 'orch', the [[Sindarin]] word for Orc. The original sense of the word seems to be "bogey", "bogeyman", that is, something that provokes fear, as seen in the Quenya cognate ''urko'', pl. ''urqui''.
 
In Tolkien's [[Sindarin]] language, "Orc" is ''orch'', plural ''yrch''. In his late, post-''Lord of the Rings'' writings (published in ''[[The Peoples of Middle-earth]])'', he preferred the spelling "Ork", evidently mainly to avoid the form ''Orcish'', which would be naturally pronounced with the c as /s/ instead of /k/. (In [[Languages|Tolkien's languages]] the letter ''c'' was always pronounced /k/.) It is also possible that the word is a Common Tongue Version of 'orch', the [[Sindarin]] word for Orc. The original sense of the word seems to be "bogey", "bogeyman", that is, something that provokes fear, as seen in the Quenya cognate ''urko'', pl. ''urqui''.
  
== Origin==  
+
==History==
 
+
===Orgins and early Years===
 
The origin of Orcs is an open question. In Tolkien's writings, evil is not capable of independent creation, making it unlikely that the [[Valar|Vala]] [[Morgoth|Melkor]], who was obviously the first to produce them, could do that ''ex nihilo''.
 
The origin of Orcs is an open question. In Tolkien's writings, evil is not capable of independent creation, making it unlikely that the [[Valar|Vala]] [[Morgoth|Melkor]], who was obviously the first to produce them, could do that ''ex nihilo''.
According to the oldest "theory" proposed by Tolkien, Orcs were made of stone and slime through the sorcery of Morgoth. But, Tolkien later changed the legendarium so that Morgoth could no longer produce life on his own, and amended the origins to the "theory" that would eventually be published in ''[[The Silmarillion]]'': that the Orcs were transformed from Elves &mdash; the purest form of life on [[Arda]] (the Earth) &mdash; by means of torture and mutilation; and this "theory" would then become the most popular. Moreover, if Orcs were in fact Elves at their core, this could perhaps mean that they were also immortal &mdash; a fact which, if true, would seem inconsistent with Tolkien's treatment of Orcs, though the books do not openly confirm or deny it. If Orcs indeed were immortal, it holds no doubt that their [[Fëa and hröa|''fëar'']] would not be allowed reincarnation by [[Mandos]], if they even answered the calling. Most Orcs would probably fear the calling of Mandos, and therefore would see their ''fëar'' diminished to evil spirits. These may have been some of the evil spirits occasionally described in the books, such as the spirit which tempted [[Gorlim]] of [[Barahir]]'s company, or the [[Barrow-wights]]. There is some evidence for the immortality, or otherwise long life of Orcs in ''[[The Two Towers]]'': [[Gorbag]] and [[Shagrat]], during the conversation which Sam overheard, mention the "Great Siege" of the Last Alliance. It is possible to interpret from the sentence that they were actually there and remembered it themselves: an event which lay millennia in the past.  Another interpretation of this conversation is that this "Great Siege" could have instead been merely the current siege ongoing at Minas Tirith or that they were refereing to the seige out of a knowlege of history.  This is consistent with a statement made in the "Myths Transformed" essay of ''[[Morgoth's Ring]]'' that the orcs had short lifespans in relation to the Numenoreans.
+
In the ''[[The Silmarillion]]'' is mentioned that the Orcs were transformed from Elves &mdash; the purest form of life on [[Arda]] (the Earth) &mdash; by means of torture and mutilation; and this "theory" would then become the most popular.
 +
There are hints in the ''[[The History of Middle-earth|History of Middle-earth]]'' series of books, (especially in ''[[Morgoth's Ring]]'' in the section "Myths Transformed"), that some Orc leaders, such as the First Age's [[Boldog]], or the [[Great Goblin]] encountered by [[Bilbo Baggins|Bilbo]] and the Dwarves, may in fact have been fallen [[Maiar]] which had taken Orc form
  
Another hint for a long livespan, respectively immortality, lies in the story of two of the most famous Orc-chieftains: [[Azog]] and [[Bolg]]. Bolg, being the son of Azog, was the chieftain of the Orcs who attacked [[Erebor]] in the [[Battle of Five Armies]] in [[Third Age 2941|T.A. 2941]]. Azog himself was killed in the [[Battle of Azanulbizar]] in [[Third Age 2799|T.A. 2799]], so Bolg was aproximately 150 years old.
+
Later under Morgoth's lieutenant, [[Sauron]], it has been suggested that Men were cross-bred with the Orcs. This process was later repeated during the [[War of the Ring]], creating the fierce Orcs known as [[Uruk-hai]].
  
There are hints in the ''[[The History of Middle-earth|History of Middle-earth]]'' series of books, (especially in ''[[Morgoth's Ring]]'' in the section "Myths Transformed"), that some Orc leaders, such as the First Age's [[Boldog]], or the [[Great Goblin]] encountered by [[Bilbo Baggins|Bilbo]] and the Dwarves, may in fact have been fallen [[Maiar]] which had taken Orc form:
+
Yet other Orcs may have begun as animals of vaguely humanoid shapes, empowered by the will of the Dark Lord (first [[Morgoth]], later Sauron): this may explain the references to their "beaks and feathers" in Tolkien's writings.
  
: ''Some of these things may have been delusions and phantoms but some were no doubt shapes taken by the servants of Melkor, mocking and degrading the very forms of the children. For Melkor had in his service great numbers of Maiar, who had the power, as their Master, of taking visible and tangible shape in Arda.'' (''Morgoth's Ring'', "Myths transformed", text X')
+
: ''The Orcs were beasts of humanized shape (&#8230;).'' ('Morgoth's Ring', "Myths transformed", text VIII')  
  
: ''Boldog (&#8230;) is a name that occurs many times in the tales of the War. But it is possible that Boldog was not a personal name, and either a title, or else the name of a kind of creature: the Orc-formed Maiar, only less formidable than the Balrogs'' (Author's footnote to the text X)
+
It is certain all Orcs were dependent on the Dark Lord in various ways: after their leader was defeated, the Orcs were confused and dismayed, and easily scattered by their enemies. In the millennia after Morgoth's defeat and banishment from Arda, they were without a leader they degenerated to small, quarrelsome tribes hiding in the [[Misty Mountains]]. Only when Sauron returned to power did they begin to reclaim some of their old power. The same happened after Sauron's defeat by the [[Last Alliance of Elves and Men]]: only when Sauron returned as the Necromancer of [[Mirkwood]] did the Orcs become a real danger for Middle-earth again.
  
: ''Melkor had corrupted many spirits - some great as Sauron, or less as Balrogs. The least could have been primitive Orcs.'' (Author's note to text)
+
It is interesting to note that to an extent, Tolkien did not regard Orcs as evil in their own right, but only as tools of Melkor and Sauron.
 +
He wrote once that "we were all orcs in the [[World War I|Great War]]", indicating perhaps that an orc for him was not an inherent build-up of personality, but rather a state of mind bound upon destruction.
  
Later under Morgoth's lieutenant, the necromancer Sauron, it has been suggested that Men were cross-bred with the Orcs. This process was later repeated during the [[War of the Ring]], creating the fierce Orcs known as [[Uruk-hai]].
+
After their cration during the [[War for Sake of the Elves]], Orcs were used in every battle fought agains Morgoth. Orcs were the primary force of [[Morgoth]] in the [[Siege of Utumno]]. Although most of them were killed, some survived and entered the lands of [[Beleriand]] during Morgoth's imprisonment in [[Valinor]].
 +
When [[Morgoth]] returned to [[Angband]] he created new hordes of Orcs and invaded [[Beleriand]], where the [[First Battle of Beleriand]] took place. Orcs fought also in [[Dagor-nuin-Giliath]].
  
Yet other Orcs may have begun as animals of vaguely humanoid shapes, empowered by the will of the Dark Lord (first [[Morgoth]], later Sauron): this may explain the references to their "beaks and feathers" in Tolkien's writings.
+
===First Age===
 +
Orcs appear in the [[First Age]] as the core force of [[Morgoth]]. Hundreds of thousands of Orcs were bred in [[Angmar]] to participate in the [[Battles of Beleriand]], which lasted 587 years.
  
: ''The Orcs were beasts of humanized shape (&#8230;).'' ('Morgoth's Ring', "Myths transformed", text VIII')
+
Orcs first appear in the [[First Age]] in the [[Battle of the Lammoth]], where they were defeated by [[Fingolfin]] and his [[Noldor]]. Orcs participated in battles such as  the [[Dagor Aglareb]], [[Dagor Bragollach]], [[Nirnaeth Arnoediad]], [[Fall of the Falas]], and finally in the [[War of Wrath]], were they were almost extinguished.
  
It is certain all Orcs were dependent on the Dark Lord in various ways: after their leader was defeated, the Orcs were confused and dismayed, and easily scattered by their enemies. In the millennia after Morgoth's defeat and banishment from Arda, they were without a leader they degenerated to small, quarrelsome tribes hiding in the [[Misty Mountains]]. Only when Sauron returned to power did they begin to reclaim some of their old power. The same happened after Sauron's defeat by the [[Last Alliance of Elves and Men]]: only when Sauron returned as the Necromancer of [[Mirkwood]] did the Orcs become a real danger for Middle-earth again.
+
===Second Age===
 +
Orcs do not play a major role in the [[Second Age]], as [[Sauron]] dominated over [[Middle-earth]] for short periods. Even though, Orcs participated in the [[War of the Elves and Sauron]], in [[Second Age 1700|S.A.1700]]. Moreover, the [[Orcs of the Misty Mountains]] started a war agains the [[Dwarves]], resulting in the [[First Sack of Gundabad]] ind its occupation by the Orcs. Finally, Orcs were the core force of [[Sauron]] during the [[War of the Last Alliance]], and fougth in great battles such as the [[Battle of Dagorlad]] and the [[Siege of Barad-dûr]].
  
While Tolkien originally saw all Orcs as descended from tortured Elves, later comments of his indicate, according to [[Christopher Tolkien]] in ''Morgoth's Ring'' ("Myths Transformed, text X"), that he began to feel uncomfortable with this theory. At about the same time he removed the references to the [[Thrall-Noldorin|Thrall-Ñoldorin]], he also began searching for a new origin for the Orcs. The Orc origin question may have been one of the problems Tolkien tried to solve by completely changing the cosmology and prehistory of Arda. By setting the origin of Men back to almost the same time as the Elves, he possibly allowed for Men to be the origin of Orcs all along. However, Tolkien died before he could complete this upheaval of the cosmology, and in the published version of ''The Silmarillion'', the Elf origin of Orcs was adopted.
+
===Third Age===
 +
During the [[Third Age]], Orcs were the standard troops of the [[Witch-king]] of [[Angmar]] and [[Sauron]] (both in [[Mordor]] and in [[Dol Guldur]]).  
  
It is interesting to note that to an extent, Tolkien did not regard Orcs as evil in their own right, but only as tools of Melkor and Sauron.
+
In [[Angmar]], Orcs fought in the [[Angmar War]]. Years Later, they invaded [[Eriador]] under the leadership of the [[Necromancer]].  
He wrote once that "we were all orcs in the [[World War I|Great War]]", indicating perhaps that an orc for him was not an inherent build-up of personality, but rather a state of mind bound upon destruction.
+
  
==Orcs and goblins==
+
The [[Orcs of the Misty Mountains]], one of the few independent Orcish societies, and their leader [[Azog]] started out the [[War of the Dwarves and Orcs]], and after their defeat they retreated in their caves. They appeared again in [[Third Age 2941|T.A. 2941]], when the [[Battle of Five Armies]] took place.
[[Image:Roger Thomasson - Orc.jpg|thumb|''Orc'' by [[Roger Thomasson]].]]
+
 
In ''[[The Hobbit]]'', Tolkien used the word "[[Goblins|goblin]]" for Orcs, because he had not yet identified the world of ''The Hobbit'' with Middle-earth (which predated ''The Hobbit'' by several decades, in early writings which would later become ''The Silmarillion''). Fortunately Tolkien did include some references to his mythology in the ''Hobbit'', which later allowed him to identify the lands of the Hobbit with his Middle-earth.
+
The [[Orcs of Mordor]] fought in major battles during the [[War of the Ring]], such as the [[Battle of the Pelennor Fields]], but the entire [[Mordor]] force was destroyed in the [[Battle of the Morannon]].
In ''The Lord of the Rings'', "Orc" is used predominantly, and "goblin" mostly in the [[Hobbits]]' speech.
+
 
This change can be seen either as a part of the shift towards the use of Elvish words that occurred during the period between the writing of ''The Hobbit'' and the writing of ''The Lord of the Rings'', or a translation of the Hobbits' more colloquial manner (if we "accept" the books' authenticity and regard Tolkien merely as a translator).  So essentially the race is correctly named "Orc", and "Goblin" is a colloquial "slang term" for Orcs used by Hobbits and sometimes picked up by Men and Elves. It is possible that "goblin" refers to the those of the orcish race who are not under the control of Sauron (or Morgoth), whereas using "orc" directly would refer to servants of (whichever) Dark Lord. Tolkien did mention several times that orcs were not inherently evil, something this theory would partly emphasize.
+
The Orcs in [[Dol Guldur]] remaind in [[Mirkwood]] until the [[Fall of Dol Guldur]], one of the lsat battles of the War of the Ring.
 +
 
 +
===Fourth Age and beyond===
 +
Although the entire force of [[Sauron]] was destroyed after the [[War of the Ring]], it is assumed that many Orcs continiued to live beneath the [[Misty Mountains]] and cause little trouble.
  
The original edition of the Hobbit and early drafts of ''The Lord of the Rings'' first used 'goblin' everywhere and used '[[Hobgoblins|hobgoblin]]' for larger, more evil goblins: when goblins were replaced with Orcs Tolkien invented the term [[Uruk-hai]] for his more evil Orcs.
 
 
==Kinds of Orcs==
 
==Kinds of Orcs==
  
Tolkien loosely implies that there are actually several different breeds of Orcs, not simply in the wide variety in clans, but strains of Orc that were specifically bred for certain tasks.  The Fellowship usually encounters the large soldier-Orcs bred for war, and sometimes the "snaga" variety which were more geared towards being laborers.  However, a strong hint at the variety of Orc breeds is when Frodo and Sam are in Mordor, and realize that they are being followed by two Orcs, then hide to observe them.  One of the Orcs is a normal soldier-Orc, but the other is described as a "Snuffler", a breed specifically geared towards being a tracker.  This tracker-Orc was, compared to the soldier-Orc, physically unimposing, but had vastly overdeveloped sensory organs, particularly a single giant nostril.  While physically weak compared to the soldier-Orc, the "snuffler" was able to skillfully kill the soldier-orc when they got into a disagreement.
+
Tolkien loosely implies that there are actually several different breeds of Orcs, not simply in the wide variety in clans, but strains of Orc that were specifically bred for certain tasks.   
 +
:The Fellowship usually encounters the large soldier-Orcs bred for war, and sometimes the "snaga" variety which were more geared towards being laborers.  However, a strong hint at the variety of Orc breeds is when Frodo and Sam are in Mordor, and realize that they are being followed by two Orcs, then hide to observe them.  One of the Orcs is a normal soldier-Orc, but the other is described as a "Snuffler", a breed specifically geared towards being a tracker.  This tracker-Orc was, compared to the soldier-Orc, physically unimposing, but had vastly overdeveloped sensory organs, particularly a single giant nostril.  While physically weak compared to the soldier-Orc, the "snuffler" was able to skillfully kill the soldier-orc when they got into a disagreement.
 
*[[Snaga]]
 
*[[Snaga]]
 
*[[Orcs of Mordor]]
 
*[[Orcs of Mordor]]
Line 64: Line 73:
 
*[[Uruk-hai]]
 
*[[Uruk-hai]]
 
*[[Hobgoblins]] (perhaps same as Uruk-hai)
 
*[[Hobgoblins]] (perhaps same as Uruk-hai)
 
==Inspirations==
 
It is possible that the Orcs at [[Helm's Deep]] were inspired by apes in Tolkien's childhood years.
 
{{quote|and Orcs sprang up them [walls] like apes in the dark forests of the South|[[Helm's Deep]], [[The Lord of the Rings]]}}
 
{{quote|One day a neighbour’s pet monkeys climbed over the wall and chewed up three of the baby’s [Tolkien’s] pinafores.|[[J.R.R. Tolkien: A Biography]]}}
 
  
 
==Controversery==
 
==Controversery==
 +
Tolkien's Orcs have been a subject of criticism of [[racism]] as they are described as ''less-handsome Mongolians...'', black-skinned and monkey-resembling. Another possible offensive theme present in orcs (though not necessarily racist), is the fact that when the orcs talk, they often use the same phrases and accents that the English working-class is known to use.
  
==See Also==
+
==Other Versions==
*[[:Category:Images of Orcs|Images of Orcs]]
+
===Orgin===
 +
According to the oldest "theory" proposed by Tolkien, Orcs were made of stone and slime through the sorcery of Morgoth. But, Tolkien later changed the legendarium so that Morgoth could no longer produce life on his own.
  
 +
While Tolkien originally saw all Orcs as descended from tortured Elves, later comments of his indicate, according to [[Christopher Tolkien]] in ''Morgoth's Ring'' ("Myths Transformed, text X"), that he began to feel uncomfortable with the theory that orcs were descending from Elves. However, Tolkien died before he could complete his upheaval of the cosmology, and in the published version of ''The Silmarillion'', the Elf origin of Orcs was adopted.
  
 +
===Orcs and goblins===
 +
[[Image:Roger Thomasson - Orc.jpg|thumb|''Orc'' by [[Roger Thomasson]].]]
 +
In ''[[The Hobbit]]'', Tolkien used the word "[[Goblins|goblin]]" for Orcs, because he had not yet identified the world of ''The Hobbit'' with Middle-earth (which predated ''The Hobbit'' by several decades, in early writings which would later become ''The Silmarillion''). Fortunately Tolkien did include some references to his mythology in the ''Hobbit'', which later allowed him to identify the lands of the Hobbit with his Middle-earth.
 +
In ''The Lord of the Rings'', "Orc" is used predominantly, and "goblin" mostly in the [[Hobbits]]' speech.
 +
This change can be seen either as a part of the shift towards the use of Elvish words that occurred during the period between the writing of ''The Hobbit'' and the writing of ''The Lord of the Rings'', or a translation of the Hobbits' more colloquial manner (if we "accept" the books' authenticity and regard Tolkien merely as a translator).  So essentially the race is correctly named "Orc", and "Goblin" is a colloquial "slang term" for Orcs used by Hobbits and sometimes picked up by Men and Elves. It is possible that "goblin" refers to the those of the orcish race who are not under the control of Sauron (or Morgoth), whereas using "orc" directly would refer to servants of (whichever) Dark Lord. Tolkien did mention several times that orcs were not inherently evil, something this theory would partly emphasize.
 +
 +
The original edition of the Hobbit and early drafts of ''The Lord of the Rings'' first used 'goblin' everywhere and used '[[Hobgoblins|hobgoblin]]' for larger, more evil goblins: when goblins were replaced with Orcs Tolkien invented the term [[Uruk-hai]] for his more evil Orcs.
 +
==See Also==
 +
*[[:Category:Images of Orcs|Images of Orcs]]
 +
*[[Lifespan of Orcs]]
 +
*[[Orcs of the Misty Mountains]]
 
[[de:Orks]]
 
[[de:Orks]]

Latest revision as of 09:06, 15 July 2011

"I oughtn't to interrupt you, I know. [...] You are very busy, I'm sure." — Mr. Parish
Mthomas is currently busy with major revisions to this article. Before editing, discuss your intentions on this article's talk page.
John Howe - In Mordor.jpg
Orcs
Race
DominionsMordor, Angband, Misty Mountains, Mount Gundabad, Angmar, Utumno
LanguagesBlack Speech
Average heightprobably just above 5'
Skin colorSallow
DistinctionsShort, sallow
MembersGothmog, Othrond, Azog, Gorbag

Orcs were the footsoldiers of evil overlords - Sauron, Morgoth and the Witch-king of Angmar - but also operated as a seperate faction throughout the Ages of Arda.

Contents

[edit] Appearance

In Tolkien's writing, Orcs are described as humanoid, roughly human-sized, ugly and filthy. Although not dim-witted, they are portrayed as dull and miserable beings, who corrupt words (an insult to a philologist like Tolkien) and are only able to destroy, not to create. They have sour black blood. Orcs are used as soldiers by both the greater and lesser villains of The Lord of the RingsSauron and Saruman. In Tolkien's Sindarin language, "Orc" is orch, plural yrch. In his late, post-Lord of the Rings writings (published in The Peoples of Middle-earth), he preferred the spelling "Ork", evidently mainly to avoid the form Orcish, which would be naturally pronounced with the c as /s/ instead of /k/. (In Tolkien's languages the letter c was always pronounced /k/.) It is also possible that the word is a Common Tongue Version of 'orch', the Sindarin word for Orc. The original sense of the word seems to be "bogey", "bogeyman", that is, something that provokes fear, as seen in the Quenya cognate urko, pl. urqui.

[edit] History

[edit] Orgins and early Years

The origin of Orcs is an open question. In Tolkien's writings, evil is not capable of independent creation, making it unlikely that the Vala Melkor, who was obviously the first to produce them, could do that ex nihilo. In the The Silmarillion is mentioned that the Orcs were transformed from Elves — the purest form of life on Arda (the Earth) — by means of torture and mutilation; and this "theory" would then become the most popular. There are hints in the History of Middle-earth series of books, (especially in Morgoth's Ring in the section "Myths Transformed"), that some Orc leaders, such as the First Age's Boldog, or the Great Goblin encountered by Bilbo and the Dwarves, may in fact have been fallen Maiar which had taken Orc form

Later under Morgoth's lieutenant, Sauron, it has been suggested that Men were cross-bred with the Orcs. This process was later repeated during the War of the Ring, creating the fierce Orcs known as Uruk-hai.

Yet other Orcs may have begun as animals of vaguely humanoid shapes, empowered by the will of the Dark Lord (first Morgoth, later Sauron): this may explain the references to their "beaks and feathers" in Tolkien's writings.

The Orcs were beasts of humanized shape (…). ('Morgoth's Ring', "Myths transformed", text VIII')

It is certain all Orcs were dependent on the Dark Lord in various ways: after their leader was defeated, the Orcs were confused and dismayed, and easily scattered by their enemies. In the millennia after Morgoth's defeat and banishment from Arda, they were without a leader they degenerated to small, quarrelsome tribes hiding in the Misty Mountains. Only when Sauron returned to power did they begin to reclaim some of their old power. The same happened after Sauron's defeat by the Last Alliance of Elves and Men: only when Sauron returned as the Necromancer of Mirkwood did the Orcs become a real danger for Middle-earth again.

It is interesting to note that to an extent, Tolkien did not regard Orcs as evil in their own right, but only as tools of Melkor and Sauron. He wrote once that "we were all orcs in the Great War", indicating perhaps that an orc for him was not an inherent build-up of personality, but rather a state of mind bound upon destruction.

After their cration during the War for Sake of the Elves, Orcs were used in every battle fought agains Morgoth. Orcs were the primary force of Morgoth in the Siege of Utumno. Although most of them were killed, some survived and entered the lands of Beleriand during Morgoth's imprisonment in Valinor. When Morgoth returned to Angband he created new hordes of Orcs and invaded Beleriand, where the First Battle of Beleriand took place. Orcs fought also in Dagor-nuin-Giliath.

[edit] First Age

Orcs appear in the First Age as the core force of Morgoth. Hundreds of thousands of Orcs were bred in Angmar to participate in the Battles of Beleriand, which lasted 587 years.

Orcs first appear in the First Age in the Battle of the Lammoth, where they were defeated by Fingolfin and his Noldor. Orcs participated in battles such as the Dagor Aglareb, Dagor Bragollach, Nirnaeth Arnoediad, Fall of the Falas, and finally in the War of Wrath, were they were almost extinguished.

[edit] Second Age

Orcs do not play a major role in the Second Age, as Sauron dominated over Middle-earth for short periods. Even though, Orcs participated in the War of the Elves and Sauron, in S.A.1700. Moreover, the Orcs of the Misty Mountains started a war agains the Dwarves, resulting in the First Sack of Gundabad ind its occupation by the Orcs. Finally, Orcs were the core force of Sauron during the War of the Last Alliance, and fougth in great battles such as the Battle of Dagorlad and the Siege of Barad-dûr.

[edit] Third Age

During the Third Age, Orcs were the standard troops of the Witch-king of Angmar and Sauron (both in Mordor and in Dol Guldur).

In Angmar, Orcs fought in the Angmar War. Years Later, they invaded Eriador under the leadership of the Necromancer.

The Orcs of the Misty Mountains, one of the few independent Orcish societies, and their leader Azog started out the War of the Dwarves and Orcs, and after their defeat they retreated in their caves. They appeared again in T.A. 2941, when the Battle of Five Armies took place.

The Orcs of Mordor fought in major battles during the War of the Ring, such as the Battle of the Pelennor Fields, but the entire Mordor force was destroyed in the Battle of the Morannon.

The Orcs in Dol Guldur remaind in Mirkwood until the Fall of Dol Guldur, one of the lsat battles of the War of the Ring.

[edit] Fourth Age and beyond

Although the entire force of Sauron was destroyed after the War of the Ring, it is assumed that many Orcs continiued to live beneath the Misty Mountains and cause little trouble.

[edit] Kinds of Orcs

Tolkien loosely implies that there are actually several different breeds of Orcs, not simply in the wide variety in clans, but strains of Orc that were specifically bred for certain tasks.

The Fellowship usually encounters the large soldier-Orcs bred for war, and sometimes the "snaga" variety which were more geared towards being laborers. However, a strong hint at the variety of Orc breeds is when Frodo and Sam are in Mordor, and realize that they are being followed by two Orcs, then hide to observe them. One of the Orcs is a normal soldier-Orc, but the other is described as a "Snuffler", a breed specifically geared towards being a tracker. This tracker-Orc was, compared to the soldier-Orc, physically unimposing, but had vastly overdeveloped sensory organs, particularly a single giant nostril. While physically weak compared to the soldier-Orc, the "snuffler" was able to skillfully kill the soldier-orc when they got into a disagreement.

[edit] Controversery

Tolkien's Orcs have been a subject of criticism of racism as they are described as less-handsome Mongolians..., black-skinned and monkey-resembling. Another possible offensive theme present in orcs (though not necessarily racist), is the fact that when the orcs talk, they often use the same phrases and accents that the English working-class is known to use.

[edit] Other Versions

[edit] Orgin

According to the oldest "theory" proposed by Tolkien, Orcs were made of stone and slime through the sorcery of Morgoth. But, Tolkien later changed the legendarium so that Morgoth could no longer produce life on his own.

While Tolkien originally saw all Orcs as descended from tortured Elves, later comments of his indicate, according to Christopher Tolkien in Morgoth's Ring ("Myths Transformed, text X"), that he began to feel uncomfortable with the theory that orcs were descending from Elves. However, Tolkien died before he could complete his upheaval of the cosmology, and in the published version of The Silmarillion, the Elf origin of Orcs was adopted.

[edit] Orcs and goblins

In The Hobbit, Tolkien used the word "goblin" for Orcs, because he had not yet identified the world of The Hobbit with Middle-earth (which predated The Hobbit by several decades, in early writings which would later become The Silmarillion). Fortunately Tolkien did include some references to his mythology in the Hobbit, which later allowed him to identify the lands of the Hobbit with his Middle-earth. In The Lord of the Rings, "Orc" is used predominantly, and "goblin" mostly in the Hobbits' speech. This change can be seen either as a part of the shift towards the use of Elvish words that occurred during the period between the writing of The Hobbit and the writing of The Lord of the Rings, or a translation of the Hobbits' more colloquial manner (if we "accept" the books' authenticity and regard Tolkien merely as a translator). So essentially the race is correctly named "Orc", and "Goblin" is a colloquial "slang term" for Orcs used by Hobbits and sometimes picked up by Men and Elves. It is possible that "goblin" refers to the those of the orcish race who are not under the control of Sauron (or Morgoth), whereas using "orc" directly would refer to servants of (whichever) Dark Lord. Tolkien did mention several times that orcs were not inherently evil, something this theory would partly emphasize.

The original edition of the Hobbit and early drafts of The Lord of the Rings first used 'goblin' everywhere and used 'hobgoblin' for larger, more evil goblins: when goblins were replaced with Orcs Tolkien invented the term Uruk-hai for his more evil Orcs.

[edit] See Also