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Völuspá

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[[Image:Codex Regius - Voluspa.JPG|thumb|right|Völuspá in the 13th century ''[[wikipedia:Codex Regius|Codex Regius]]''.]]
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'''''Völuspá''''' ("Prophecy of the Seeress") is the first poem of the ''[[Poetic Edda]]'', a collection of [[Old Norse]] poems. [[J.R.R. Tolkien]] was influenced greatly by the saga, and [[Christopher Tolkien]] even suggests that "''those Dwarf-names in The Hobbit provided the whole starting-point for the Mannish languages in Middle-earth''"<ref>{{PM|II}}, Commentary to §58</ref><ref>Charles B. Noad, "[http://www.tolkiensociety.org/tolkien/book_reviews_01.html Review: The Peoples of Middle-earth (The History of Middle-earth XII)]" at Tolkiensociety.org. See section "Dwarvish and Mannish Related". Retrieved 30 August 2010.</ref>
  
[[Völuspá]] is the first poem of the Edda, which is an Icelandic poem collection. Völuspá was written in [[Old Norse]] in the 13th century. Almost all of the names of the [[Dwarves]] of [[Middle-earth]] are taken from Völuspá.  
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In particular almost all of the names of the [[dwarves]] of [[Middle-earth]], as well as [[Gandalf|Gandalf's]], are taken from a section of the Völuspá called the ''Dvergatal'' (the "Catalogue of Dwarves").<ref name="Letter25">{{L|25}}</ref><ref group="note">The ''Dvergatal'' is now considered a later interpolation, and is often omitted from newer editions of ''Völuspá''.</ref> The ''Dvergatal'' is contained in stanzas 10&ndash;16:
  
[[J.R.R. Tolkien]] was influenced greatly by the saga, and [[Christopher Tolkien]] even suggests that "''those Dwarf-names in The Hobbit provided the whole starting-point for the Mannish languages in Middle-earth''".
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{| align=center
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|-
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| align=center | '''Original'''
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| align=center | '''Bellows translation'''
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|-
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| {{blockquote|<poem>
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10. Þar var Móðsognir mæztr of orðinn
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dverga allra, en Durinn annarr;
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þeir mannlíkun mörg of gerðu
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dvergar í jörðu, sem Durinn sagði.
  
Völuspá 9-16 contains a list of dwarves.
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11. Nýi, Niði, Norðri, Suðri,
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Austri, Vestri, Alþjófr, Dvalinn,
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Nár ok Náinn Nípingr, Dáinn
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Bívurr, Bávurr, Bömburr, Nóri,
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Ánn ok Ánarr, Óinn, Mjöðvitnir.
  
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12. Veggr ok Gandalfr, Vindalfr, Þorinn,
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Þrár ok Þráinn, Þekkr, Litr ok Vitr,
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Nýr ok Nýráðr, nú hefi ek dverga,
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Reginn ok Ráðsviðr, rétt of talða.
  
:9.
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13. Fíli, Kíli, Fundinn, Náli,
:Þá gengu regin öll á rökstóla,
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Hefti, Víli, Hannar, Svíurr,
:ginnheilög goð, ok um þat gættusk,
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Billingr, Brúni, Bíldr ok Buri,
:hverir skyldi dverga dróttir skepja
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Frár, Hornbori, Frægr ok Lóni,
:ór Brimis blóði ok ór Bláins leggjum.
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Aurvangr, Jari, Eikinskjaldi.
  
:10.
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14. Mál er dverga í Dvalins liði
:Þar var Móðsognir mæztr of orðinn
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ljóna kindum til Lofars telja,
:dverga allra, en [[Durin (disambiguation)|Durinn]] annarr;
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þeir er sóttu frá salar steini
:þeir mannlíkun mörg of gerðu
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Aurvanga sjöt til Jöruvalla.
:dvergar í jörðu, sem Durinn sagði.
+
  
:11.
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15. Þar var Draupnir ok Dolgþrasir,
:Nýi, Niði, Norðri, Suðri,
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Hár, Haugspori, Hlévangr, Glóinn,
:Austri, Vestri, Alþjófr, [[Dvalinn]],
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Dóri, Óri Dúfr, Andvari
:Nár ok [[Náinn]] Nípingr, [[Dáinn]]
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Skirfir, Virfir, Skáfiðr, Ái.
:[[Bifur|Bívurr]], [[Bávurr]], [[Bömburr]], [[Nóri]],
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:Ánn ok Ánarr, [[Óinn]], Mjöðvitnir.
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:12.
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16. Alfr ok Yngvi, Eikinskjaldi,
:Veggr ok [[Gandalfr]], Vindalfr, [[Þorinn]],
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Fjalarr ok Frosti, Finnr ok Ginnarr;
:[[Þrár]] ok [[Þráinn]], Þekkr, Litr ok Vitr,
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þat mun æ uppi meðan öld lifir,
:Nýr ok Nýráðr, nú hefi ek dverga,
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langniðja tal Lofars hafat.
:Reginn ok Ráðsviðr, rétt of talða.
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</poem>}}
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| {{blockquote|<poem>
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10. There was Motsognir | the mightiest made
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Of all the dwarfs, | and [[Durin]] next;
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Many a likeness | of men they made,
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The dwarfs in the earth, | as Durin said.
  
:13.
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11. Nyi and Nithi, | Northri and Suthri,
:[[Fíli]], [[Kíli]], [[Fundinn]], Náli,
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Austri and Vestri, | Althjof, [[Dwalin|Dvalin]],
:Hefti, Víli, Hannar, Svíurr,
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[[Nár|Nar]] and [[Nain]], | Niping, [[Dain]],
:Billingr, Brúni, Bíldr ok Buri,
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[[Bifur]], [[Bofur]], | [[Bombur]], [[Nori]],
:[[Frár]], Hornbori, Frægr ok Lóni,
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An and Onar, | [[Oi|Ai]], Mjothvitnir.
:Aurvangr, Jari, [[Eikinskjaldi]].
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:14.
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12. Vigg and [[Gandalf]] | Vindalf, [[Thrain]],
:Mál er dverga í Dvalins liði
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Thekk and [[Thorin]], | [[Thror]], Vit and Lit,
:ljóna kindum til Lofars telja,
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Nyr and Nyrath,-- | now have I told--
:þeir er sóttu frá salar steini
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Regin and Rathsvith-- | the list aright.
:Aurvanga sjöt til Jöruvalla.
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:15.
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13. [[Fíli|Fili]], [[Kíli|Kili]], | [[Fundin]], [[Náli|Nali]],
:Þar var Draupnir ok Dolgþrasir,
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Hepti, Vili, | [[Hannar]], Sviur,
:Hár, Haugspori, Hlévangr, [[Glóinn]],
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(Billing, Bruni, | Bildr and Buri,)
:[[Dóri]], [[Óri]] Dúfr, Andvari
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[[Frar]], Hornbori, | Fræg and [[Loni]],
:Skirfir, Virfir, Skáfiðr, Ái.
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Aurvang, Jari, | Eikinskjaldi.
  
:16.
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14. The race of the dwarfs | in [[Dwalin|Dvalin]]'s throng
:Alfr ok Yngvi, Eikinskjaldi,
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Down to [[Lofar]] | the list must I tell;
:Fjalarr ok Frosti, Finnr ok Ginnarr;
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The rocks they left, | and through wet lands
:þat mun æ uppi meðan öld lifir,
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They sought a home | in the fields of sand.
:langniðja tal Lofars hafat.  
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15. There were Draupnir | and Dolgthrasir,
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Hor, Haugspori, | Hlevang, [[Gloin]],
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[[Dori]], [[Ori]], | Duf, Andvari,
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Skirfir, Virfir, | Skafith, Ai.
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16. Alf and [[Ingwe|Yngvi]], | Eikinskjaldi,
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Fjalar and Frosti, | Finn and Ginnar;
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So for all time | shall the tale be known,
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The list of all | the forbears of [[Lofar]].
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</poem>}}
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|}
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==Notes==
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<references group="note" />
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{{references}}
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==External links==
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* [[wikipedia:Völuspá|Völuspá]] at Wikipedia.
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* [http://etext.old.no/Bugge/voluspa/ Völuspá] (Old Norse full text)
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* [http://cybersamurai.net/Mythology/nordic_gods/LegendsSagas/Edda/PoeticEdda/Voluspo.htm Völuspá] (English translation by Henry Adams Bellows)
  
 
[[Category:Poems]]
 
[[Category:Poems]]

Revision as of 21:53, 3 December 2012

Völuspá in the 13th century Codex Regius.

Völuspá ("Prophecy of the Seeress") is the first poem of the Poetic Edda, a collection of Old Norse poems. J.R.R. Tolkien was influenced greatly by the saga, and Christopher Tolkien even suggests that "those Dwarf-names in The Hobbit provided the whole starting-point for the Mannish languages in Middle-earth"[1][2]

In particular almost all of the names of the dwarves of Middle-earth, as well as Gandalf's, are taken from a section of the Völuspá called the Dvergatal (the "Catalogue of Dwarves").[3][note 1] The Dvergatal is contained in stanzas 10–16:

Original Bellows translation

10. Þar var Móðsognir mæztr of orðinn
dverga allra, en Durinn annarr;
þeir mannlíkun mörg of gerðu
dvergar í jörðu, sem Durinn sagði.

11. Nýi, Niði, Norðri, Suðri,
Austri, Vestri, Alþjófr, Dvalinn,
Nár ok Náinn Nípingr, Dáinn
Bívurr, Bávurr, Bömburr, Nóri,
Ánn ok Ánarr, Óinn, Mjöðvitnir.

12. Veggr ok Gandalfr, Vindalfr, Þorinn,
Þrár ok Þráinn, Þekkr, Litr ok Vitr,
Nýr ok Nýráðr, nú hefi ek dverga,
Reginn ok Ráðsviðr, rétt of talða.

13. Fíli, Kíli, Fundinn, Náli,
Hefti, Víli, Hannar, Svíurr,
Billingr, Brúni, Bíldr ok Buri,
Frár, Hornbori, Frægr ok Lóni,
Aurvangr, Jari, Eikinskjaldi.

14. Mál er dverga í Dvalins liði
ljóna kindum til Lofars telja,
þeir er sóttu frá salar steini
Aurvanga sjöt til Jöruvalla.

15. Þar var Draupnir ok Dolgþrasir,
Hár, Haugspori, Hlévangr, Glóinn,
Dóri, Óri Dúfr, Andvari
Skirfir, Virfir, Skáfiðr, Ái.

16. Alfr ok Yngvi, Eikinskjaldi,
Fjalarr ok Frosti, Finnr ok Ginnarr;
þat mun æ uppi meðan öld lifir,
langniðja tal Lofars hafat.

10. There was Motsognir | the mightiest made
Of all the dwarfs, | and Durin next;
Many a likeness | of men they made,
The dwarfs in the earth, | as Durin said.

11. Nyi and Nithi, | Northri and Suthri,
Austri and Vestri, | Althjof, Dvalin,
Nar and Nain, | Niping, Dain,
Bifur, Bofur, | Bombur, Nori,
An and Onar, | Ai, Mjothvitnir.

12. Vigg and Gandalf | Vindalf, Thrain,
Thekk and Thorin, | Thror, Vit and Lit,
Nyr and Nyrath,-- | now have I told--
Regin and Rathsvith-- | the list aright.

13. Fili, Kili, | Fundin, Nali,
Hepti, Vili, | Hannar, Sviur,
(Billing, Bruni, | Bildr and Buri,)
Frar, Hornbori, | Fræg and Loni,
Aurvang, Jari, | Eikinskjaldi.

14. The race of the dwarfs | in Dvalin's throng
Down to Lofar | the list must I tell;
The rocks they left, | and through wet lands
They sought a home | in the fields of sand.

15. There were Draupnir | and Dolgthrasir,
Hor, Haugspori, | Hlevang, Gloin,
Dori, Ori, | Duf, Andvari,
Skirfir, Virfir, | Skafith, Ai.

16. Alf and Yngvi, | Eikinskjaldi,
Fjalar and Frosti, | Finn and Ginnar;
So for all time | shall the tale be known,
The list of all | the forbears of Lofar.

Notes

  1. The Dvergatal is now considered a later interpolation, and is often omitted from newer editions of Völuspá.

References

  1. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "The Appendix on Languages", Commentary to §58
  2. Charles B. Noad, "Review: The Peoples of Middle-earth (The History of Middle-earth XII)" at Tolkiensociety.org. See section "Dwarvish and Mannish Related". Retrieved 30 August 2010.
  3. J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 25, (dated February 1938)

External links