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Völuspá

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[[Image:Codex Regius - Voluspa.JPG|thumb|right|Völuspá in the 13th century ''[[wikipedia:Codex Regius|Codex Regius]]''.]]
 
[[Image:Codex Regius - Voluspa.JPG|thumb|right|Völuspá in the 13th century ''[[wikipedia:Codex Regius|Codex Regius]]''.]]
'''''Völuspá''''' ("Prophecy of the Seeress") is the first poem of the ''[[Poetic Edda]]'', a collection of [[Old Norse]] poems. [[J.R.R. Tolkien]] was influenced greatly by the saga, and [[Christopher Tolkien]] even suggests that "''those Dwarf-names in The Hobbit provided the whole starting-point for the Mannish languages in Middle-earth''"<ref>{{PM|II}}, Commentary to §58</ref><ref>Charles B. Noad, "[http://www.tolkiensociety.org/tolkien/book_reviews_01.html Review: The Peoples of Middle-earth (The History of Middle-earth XII)]" at Tolkiensociety.org. See section "Dwarvish and Mannish Related". Retrieved 30 August 2010.</ref>
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'''''Völuspá''''' ("Prophecy of the Seeress") is the first poem of the ''[[Poetic Edda]]'', a collection of [[Old Norse]] poems. It is preserved whole in two manuscripts, the Codex Regius and the Hauksbók, and partially in Snorri Sturleson's Prose Edda. [[J.R.R. Tolkien]] was influenced greatly by the saga, most obviously in the fact that most of the names of his Dwarves were drawn from it. [[Christopher Tolkien]] suggests that "''those Dwarf-names in The Hobbit provided the whole starting-point for the Mannish languages in Middle-earth.''"<ref>{{PM|II}}, Commentary to §58</ref><ref>Charles B. Noad, "[http://www.tolkiensociety.org/tolkien/book_reviews_01.html Review: The Peoples of Middle-earth (The History of Middle-earth XII)]" at Tolkiensociety.org. See section "Dwarvish and Mannish Related". Retrieved 30 August 2010.</ref>
  
In particular almost all of the names of the [[dwarves]] of [[Middle-earth]], as well as [[Gandalf|Gandalf's]], are taken from a section of the Völuspá called the ''Dvergatal'' (the "Catalogue of Dwarves").<ref name="Letter25">{{L|25}}</ref><ref group="note">The ''Dvergatal'' is now considered a later interpolation, and is often omitted from newer editions of ''Völuspá''.</ref> The ''Dvergatal'' is contained in stanzas 10&ndash;16:
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Almost all of the names of the [[Dwarves]] of [[Middle-earth]], as well as [[Gandalf|Gandalf's]], are taken from a section of the Völuspá called the ''Dvergatal'' (the "Catalogue of Dwarves").<ref name="Letter25">{{L|25}}</ref><ref group="note">The ''Dvergatal'' is now considered a later interpolation, and is often omitted from newer editions of ''Völuspá''.</ref> The ''Dvergatal'' is contained in stanzas 10&ndash;16:
  
 
{| align=center
 
{| align=center
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11. Nyi and Nithi, | Northri and Suthri,
 
11. Nyi and Nithi, | Northri and Suthri,
 
Austri and Vestri, | Althjof, [[Dwalin|Dvalin]],
 
Austri and Vestri, | Althjof, [[Dwalin|Dvalin]],
[[Nár|Nar]] and [[Nain]], | Niping, [[Dain]],
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[[Nár (companion of Thrór)|Nar]] and [[Náin (disambiguation)|Nain]], | Niping, [[Dáin (disambiguation)|Dain]],
 
[[Bifur]], [[Bofur]], | [[Bombur]], [[Nori]],
 
[[Bifur]], [[Bofur]], | [[Bombur]], [[Nori]],
An and Onar, | [[Oi|Ai]], Mjothvitnir.
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An and Onar, | Ai, Mjothvitnir.
  
12. Vigg and [[Gandalf]] | Vindalf, [[Thrain]],
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12. Vigg and [[Gandalf]] | Vindalf, [[Thráin (disambiguation)|Thrain]],
Thekk and [[Thorin]], | [[Thror]], Vit and Lit,
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Thekk and [[Thorin]], | [[Thrór|Thror]], Vit and Lit,
 
Nyr and Nyrath,-- | now have I told--
 
Nyr and Nyrath,-- | now have I told--
 
Regin and Rathsvith-- | the list aright.
 
Regin and Rathsvith-- | the list aright.
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15. There were Draupnir | and Dolgthrasir,
 
15. There were Draupnir | and Dolgthrasir,
Hor, Haugspori, | Hlevang, [[Gloin]],
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Hor, Haugspori, | Hlevang, [[Glóin|Gloin]],
 
[[Dori]], [[Ori]], | Duf, Andvari,
 
[[Dori]], [[Ori]], | Duf, Andvari,
 
Skirfir, Virfir, | Skafith, Ai.
 
Skirfir, Virfir, | Skafith, Ai.
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==External links==
 
==External links==
 
* [[wikipedia:Völuspá|Völuspá]] at Wikipedia.
 
* [[wikipedia:Völuspá|Völuspá]] at Wikipedia.
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*[http://www.jrrvf.com/~glaemscrafu/texts/dvergatal-a.htm Dvergatal] in [[Glǽmscrafu]] (Text, translation and sound sample)
 
* [http://etext.old.no/Bugge/voluspa/ Völuspá] (Old Norse full text)
 
* [http://etext.old.no/Bugge/voluspa/ Völuspá] (Old Norse full text)
* [http://cybersamurai.net/Mythology/nordic_gods/LegendsSagas/Edda/PoeticEdda/Voluspo.htm Völuspá] (English translation by Henry Adams Bellows)
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* [http://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/poe/poe03.htm Völuspá] (English translation by Henry Adams Bellows)
  
 
[[Category:Poems]]
 
[[Category:Poems]]

Latest revision as of 17:18, 29 January 2014

Völuspá in the 13th century Codex Regius.

Völuspá ("Prophecy of the Seeress") is the first poem of the Poetic Edda, a collection of Old Norse poems. It is preserved whole in two manuscripts, the Codex Regius and the Hauksbók, and partially in Snorri Sturleson's Prose Edda. J.R.R. Tolkien was influenced greatly by the saga, most obviously in the fact that most of the names of his Dwarves were drawn from it. Christopher Tolkien suggests that "those Dwarf-names in The Hobbit provided the whole starting-point for the Mannish languages in Middle-earth."[1][2]

Almost all of the names of the Dwarves of Middle-earth, as well as Gandalf's, are taken from a section of the Völuspá called the Dvergatal (the "Catalogue of Dwarves").[3][note 1] The Dvergatal is contained in stanzas 10–16:

Original Bellows translation

10. Þar var Móðsognir mæztr of orðinn
dverga allra, en Durinn annarr;
þeir mannlíkun mörg of gerðu
dvergar í jörðu, sem Durinn sagði.

11. Nýi, Niði, Norðri, Suðri,
Austri, Vestri, Alþjófr, Dvalinn,
Nár ok Náinn Nípingr, Dáinn
Bívurr, Bávurr, Bömburr, Nóri,
Ánn ok Ánarr, Óinn, Mjöðvitnir.

12. Veggr ok Gandalfr, Vindalfr, Þorinn,
Þrár ok Þráinn, Þekkr, Litr ok Vitr,
Nýr ok Nýráðr, nú hefi ek dverga,
Reginn ok Ráðsviðr, rétt of talða.

13. Fíli, Kíli, Fundinn, Náli,
Hefti, Víli, Hannar, Svíurr,
Billingr, Brúni, Bíldr ok Buri,
Frár, Hornbori, Frægr ok Lóni,
Aurvangr, Jari, Eikinskjaldi.

14. Mál er dverga í Dvalins liði
ljóna kindum til Lofars telja,
þeir er sóttu frá salar steini
Aurvanga sjöt til Jöruvalla.

15. Þar var Draupnir ok Dolgþrasir,
Hár, Haugspori, Hlévangr, Glóinn,
Dóri, Óri Dúfr, Andvari
Skirfir, Virfir, Skáfiðr, Ái.

16. Alfr ok Yngvi, Eikinskjaldi,
Fjalarr ok Frosti, Finnr ok Ginnarr;
þat mun æ uppi meðan öld lifir,
langniðja tal Lofars hafat.

10. There was Motsognir | the mightiest made
Of all the dwarfs, | and Durin next;
Many a likeness | of men they made,
The dwarfs in the earth, | as Durin said.

11. Nyi and Nithi, | Northri and Suthri,
Austri and Vestri, | Althjof, Dvalin,
Nar and Nain, | Niping, Dain,
Bifur, Bofur, | Bombur, Nori,
An and Onar, | Ai, Mjothvitnir.

12. Vigg and Gandalf | Vindalf, Thrain,
Thekk and Thorin, | Thror, Vit and Lit,
Nyr and Nyrath,-- | now have I told--
Regin and Rathsvith-- | the list aright.

13. Fili, Kili, | Fundin, Nali,
Hepti, Vili, | Hannar, Sviur,
(Billing, Bruni, | Bildr and Buri,)
Frar, Hornbori, | Fræg and Loni,
Aurvang, Jari, | Eikinskjaldi.

14. The race of the dwarfs | in Dvalin's throng
Down to Lofar | the list must I tell;
The rocks they left, | and through wet lands
They sought a home | in the fields of sand.

15. There were Draupnir | and Dolgthrasir,
Hor, Haugspori, | Hlevang, Gloin,
Dori, Ori, | Duf, Andvari,
Skirfir, Virfir, | Skafith, Ai.

16. Alf and Yngvi, | Eikinskjaldi,
Fjalar and Frosti, | Finn and Ginnar;
So for all time | shall the tale be known,
The list of all | the forbears of Lofar.

[edit] Notes

  1. The Dvergatal is now considered a later interpolation, and is often omitted from newer editions of Völuspá.

[edit] References

  1. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "The Appendix on Languages", Commentary to §58
  2. Charles B. Noad, "Review: The Peoples of Middle-earth (The History of Middle-earth XII)" at Tolkiensociety.org. See section "Dwarvish and Mannish Related". Retrieved 30 August 2010.
  3. J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 25, (dated February 1938)

[edit] External links