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War of the Last Alliance

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Previous war: War of the Elves and Sauron
Next war: Angmar War
War of the Last Alliance
Beginning: S.A. 3429End: S.A. 3441
Place: Mordor and lower Anduin region
Outcome: Victory for the Last Alliance, fall of Sauron, loss of the One Ring
Major battles: Fall of Minas Ithil, Anárion's defense of Osgiliath, Battle of Dagorlad, Siege of Barad-dûr
Greatest host since the War of Wrath, Men from Arnor and Gondor, Elves from Lindon, Rivendell, Mirkwood and Lothlórien, and DwarvesGreater host than the Alliance, myriads of Orcs, Easterlings, probably Haradrim, Nazgûl, and other creatures of Sauron
Måns Björkman - Gil-galad device.gifGil-galad

Tree icon2.jpg Elendil

John Howe - Icon Mordor 1 small.pngSauron

The War of the Last Alliance was the war late in the Second Age in which the Last Alliance of Elves and Men marched against the fortress of Sauron, Barad-dûr in Mordor. Against all hope, they were victorious, but when the One Ring was not destroyed, Sauron rose again during the long years of the Third Age.



After the Downfall of Númenor in 3319 SA the remaining Faithful led by Elendil and his sons Isildur and Anarion etablished the Realms in Exile in Middle-earth. Elendil ruled Arnor in the north, Isildur and Anarion jointly ruled the southern realm of Gondor. Sauron however perished physically, by drowning; being caught in the Fall of Númenor which he had cleverly schemed to bring about. Yet nevertheless, even though he truly was drowned, Sauron's spirit endured; he was able in time to take shape again. However, it should be noted that hereafter Sauron could no longer take on a deceptively fair and greatly pleasing form, as Sauron had done so long before, in order to deceive the Elves and then again much later, the Númenóreans too, whilst he was held a willing captive.

Ever since his defeat in the Battle of the Gwathló Sauron nursed a special hatred against the Númenóreans and longed to take revenge[1]. In 3261 SA, Sauron dared to wage war against Númenor and the last King of Númenor Ar-Pharazôn had gathered a massive army to counter this threat. Perceiving the might and splendour of the Númenóreans Sauron's servants deserted him, and Sauron was filled with fear and humbled himself. He was brought as hostage to Númenor and finally succeeded in taking his revenge by playing a vital role in the events that led to the Downfall. Yet of all Númenóreans he hated Elendil most, and his wrath was great that he and his sons had escaped[2].

Opening Stages

Perceiving that his enemies of old had escaped the downfall, Sauron's wrath was great and in 3429 SA he launched an attack upon Isildur's fortress Minas Ithil Completely taken by surpise, suggensting that Sauron had been destroyed in the turmoil of Númenor's downfall, the fortress was taken, the White Tree of Gondor that Isildur had planted was burned. Nevertheless Isildur, his wife and children escaped, saving a seedling of the tree, too, and sailing down Anduin journeyed to Elendil's realm in Arnor. There Elendil and Gil-galad, High King of the Noldor forged the Last Alliance of Elves and Men in 3430 SA, to defeat Sauron ultimately. Meanwhile Anárion held out in Gondor, defending Osgiliath and Minas Anor[2].

Dúnedain attack in Peter Jackson's Fellowship of the Ring

In 3431 the Elves of Lindon led by Gil-galad and Círdan marched eastward and where awaited by Elendil at Amon Sûl. The combined host marched towards Imladris, where they joined with Lord Elrond, who was Gil-galad's herald, and acted as his second-in-command in the coming campaign. The host rested for about three years in Imladris, forging weapons and making plans. They crossed the Misty Mountains over many passes and marched down Anduin where they were joined by Dwarves from Khazad-dûm, Elves from Greenwood the Great led by Oropher and his son Thranduil, and Lothlórien Elves under Amdír[2]. At the southern eaves of Eryn Galen the host turned south-east and marched through desolate areas that had once been the Entwives' gardens. They, and probably the Entwives themselves, had been destroyed by Sauron to deprive the Alliance' forces of supplies[3].

The Battle of Dagorlad

Elrond leads the Elven forces

On the great plain near the Black Gate, the forces of the Last Alliance at last confronted the black legions of Mordor, joined by Anárion's forces from the south.

During preliminary skirmishing, Oropher and his Elves, being scantily equipped, rashly charged forward into the numerous Orc forces before Gil-galad had given the command, and suffered heavy casualties, including Oropher himself. Amdír and his forces also were cut off from the main battle and driven into the marshes just to the south, where he also fell along with half of his troops[4]. This area became known afterwards as the Dead Marshes, because of the thousands of bodies buried there.

This battle raged for days and nights continuously. But the Elves were still mighty in this times and the Númenóreans were tall and strong and terrible and wrath. And none could withstand Aeglos and Narsil, Gil-galad's spear and Elendil's sword which filled the orcs and wicked men with fear. Slowly Elves and Númenóreans whittled down the vast numbers of Orcs and pushed them back towards the Black Gate[2]. No account is given how the Alliance managed to break through this mighty fortification though.

The Siege of Barad-dûr

The forces of the Last Alliance had forced their way through the Black Gate into Mordor itself. Victory seemed close, but no power short of the Valar could breach the Dark Tower by force. Though a great part of Sauron's forces was destroyed at the Dagorlad his host was still numerous and Sauron ordered many a sortie. The siege went on year after year, from S.A 3434 to S.A. 3441[2]. Isildur's sons, Aratan and Ciryon, were detached and sent to Minas Ithil to guard against a breakout to the southwest, but his oldest son, Elendur served by his side till the end[5]. Anárion was killed in S.A. 3440 by a projectile thrown from the tower[6].

In the seventh year of the siege, it became so pressing that Sauron himself came forth. In onslaught was terrible and the siege was almost broken as Sauron and his host advanced too the slopes of Mount Doom. There he was encountered by the captains of the Alliance, Gil-galad and Elendil and to their side stood Elrond and Círdan and Isildur. Sauron fought with Gil-galad and Elendil and both were slain and as Elendil fell his sword was shattered beneath him. Yet Sauron was thrown down, too, and Isildur seized the hilt of his father's sword and cut off the finger on which Sauron wore the One Ring. Being bereft of its power, Sauron was no longer able to hold a physical form and perished[2].


The Alliance pursued the Orcs, who were then in disarray, and killed them all. The Barad-dûr was leveled but its foundations remained behind, since they were built with the power of the One Ring which was not destroyed. The thousands of dead Men and Elves were taken out of Mordor and buried in the Dagorlad Plain.

Elrond leads the way to the Crack of Doom

While he had captured the One Ring, Isildur refused Elrond and Círdan's entreaties that he destroy it by casting it into the Crack of Doom, claiming it as a weregild for his father's and brother's death[2]. The result of this was that while Sauron was defeated and cast down, his spirit was not destroyed. He hid himself in the dark lands east of Mordor, and slowly rebuilt his power. The Nine (Nazgûl) also bided their time for the day when he would rise again.

While the Orc armies of Sauron had been well nigh destroyed in the War, scattered groups of them survived. In the Last Alliance, the casualties had been heavy. Elendil and Anárion were gone, and Gil-galad, last High King of the Noldor, was no more. Arnor took grievous losses, and suffered from a decline in population. It never really recovered as a major power, and broke into three pieces some centuries later. Gondor suffered less heavily and became a powerful nation. Isildur, the new High King of Arnor, perished only two years later in the Disaster of the Gladden Fields, along with his three older sons. They were ambushed by an Orc task force operating near the River Anduin. In the course of Isildur's death, the Ring was lost in the depths of Anduin[5]. Much was lost, but Sauron was suppressed-- for a while.

See also


  1. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The History of Galadriel and Celeborn"
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age"
  3. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Two Towers, "Treebeard"
  4. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The History of Galadriel and Celeborn", "Appendix B: The Sindarin Princes of the Silvan Elves"
  5. 5.0 5.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Disaster of the Gladden Fields"
  6. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "The Heirs of Elendil"