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Dunlendish

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Dunlendish was the Mannish tongue used by the Dunlendings.[1]

The language was Pre-Númenórean, akin to the language of the Haladin of the First Age.[2] It appears that a language akin to Dunlendish was spoken by some of the Hobbits of Stoor-kind before they came north to the Shire, but by the later Third Age their descendants in the Shire and in Bree had long abandoned it for the Common Speech.[1] Dunlendish was once spoken by the Men of Bree, but they adopted Westron long before they became subjects of the kingdom of Arnor.[3] The odd names of Bucklanders and the name of Bree and the names of locations near Bree were traces of the older language of the southern Stoors and the Men of Bree.[4]

Apparently Dunlendish was known also beyond the other side of the Misty Mountains; the Great Gates of Moria included Dunlendish inscriptions in Cirth.[5]

To this language belongs the name Forgoil, which was said to mean 'Strawheads' and was given to the Rohirrim,[6] and was used as an insult during the battle of Helm's Deep.[7]

The only analysis that can be done with some degree of credibility, is that the final part -il could be the plural marker of the word; then, it would be reminiscent to the Elvish partitive plural -li, and perhaps related.[8]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix F, "The Languages and Peoples of the Third Age", "Of Hobbits", second paragraph
  2. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "X. Of Dwarves and Men", "Notes", note 72 and note 69
  3. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix F, "The Languages and Peoples of the Third Age", "Of Men", eighth paragraph
  4. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix F, "On Translation", twelfth and thirteenth paragraph
  5. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "X. Of Dwarves and Men", "Notes", note 8
  6. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix F, "The Languages and Peoples of the Third Age", "Of Men", last two paragraphs
  7. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Two Towers, "Helm's Deep"
  8. "Mannish", Ardalambion (accessed 27 February 2019)
Languages in Tolkien's works
Elvish languages Avarin · Common Eldarin · Nandorin · Primitive Quendian · Quenya (Exilic · Valinorean · Vanyarin) · Silvan · Sindarin (Doriathrin · Falathrin · Númenórean · Mithrim · Old) · Telerin
Mannish languages Adûnaic · Dalish · Drúedainic · Dunlendish · Pre-Númenórean · Rohirric · Taliska · Westron (Hobbitish)
Dwarvish languages Iglishmêk · Khuzdul
Other languages Black Speech · Entish · Orkish · Valarin · Warg-language
Earlier legendarium Gnomish · Ilkorin · Noldorin (Kornoldorin) · Qenya
Outside the legendarium Animalic · Arktik · Mágol · Naffarin · Nevbosh
Scripts Angerthas/Cirth (Daeron · Erebor · Moria) · Gnomic Letters · Goblin Alphabet · Gondolinic Runes · Moon-letters · Tengwar · Sarati · Valmaric script
"A Secret Vice" (book) · "The Lhammas" · "The Tree of Tongues" · Sub-creation