From Tolkien Gateway

Ar- or ara- is a prefix in Quenya and Sindarin used to confer nobility or royalty.[1] It was a prefixed form of the stem Quenya/Sindarin aran, referring to a king.[2]

The Númenoreans also had borrowed this prefix in their native Adûnaic language, used with the names of the Kings of Númenor (like Ar-Pharazôn); however when they still took Quenya names, they used the prefix Tar- (like Tar-Elendil).

When the royal line of Arnor failed in Rhudaur and Cardolan, the King of Arthedain Argeleb I took a name with this prefix, claiming sovereignty in all former Arnor, as did his descendants.[3]



  1. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Appendix: Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names", ar(a)-
  2. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "XI. The Shibboleth of Fëanor", "The names of Finwë's descendants", p. 344
  3. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "The Realms in Exile", "The Northern Line: Heirs of Isildur", note 4