|Born||21 November, 1924|
|Died||16 January, 2020|
|Education||Trinity College, Oxford|
- "And you were so special a gift to me, in a time of sorrow and mental suffering, and your love, opening at once almost as soon as you were born, foretold to me, as it were in spoken words, that I am consoled ever by the certainty that there is no end to this."
- ― J.R.R. Tolkien
Christopher John Reuel Tolkien (21 November 1924 - 16 January 2020) was the third child and the youngest son of J.R.R. Tolkien and Edith Tolkien. He was the literary executor of the Tolkien Estate until his resignation, in 2017, and he edited much of his father's work for posthumous publication.
Christopher Tolkien was named after his father's friend, Christopher Wiseman}(he also sometimes used his confirmation name, "John" as seen on his initials of maps of The Lord of the Rings, "CJRT").
Born in Leeds and raised in Oxford, Christopher went to the Dragon School in Oxford and Oratory School in Caversham, Berkshire. He enjoyed watching stars with a telescope as well as a passion for railways. As early as age four and five, Christopher was concerned with the consistency of The Hobbit.
[O]n one occasion I interrupted: 'Last time, you said Bilbo's front door was blue, and you said Thorin had a golden tassel on his hood, but you've just said that Bilbo's front door was green and that Thorin's hood was silver'; at which point my father muttered 'Damn the boy,' and then 'strode across the room' to his desk to make a note.
—Christopher Tolkien, foreword to The Hobbit
Christopher proved invaluable in correcting The Hobbit after its publication and was paid twopence a correction.
Due to a heart ailment, he was forced to stay at home and work with a private tutor. After spending a year with heart-specialists, on the turn of 1939, Christopher wanted to go to school.
In July of 1943 he entered the Royal Air Force and in November of that year he went to South Africa to train as a pilot. His absence did not however slow his contributions to his father's works as his father continually sent him parts of The Lord of the Rings to go over. In 1945 he returned to England and was stationed in Shropshire and later that year he returned to Oxford.
On October 9th, 1945 his father informed him that the Inklings wished to consider him a permanent member. The task of reading The Lord of the Rings to the Inklings was passed on to Christopher and it was generally agreed that he was a better reader than his father.
In 1954-55 Christopher was delegated the re-drawing of his father's Lord of the Rings maps for publication.
In 1946 Christopher returned to Trinity College to resume his studies and reading English. For a while his tutor was C.S. Lewis. His thesis was a translation of The Saga of King Heidrek the Wise and he received his B.A. in 1949. Christopher also became a lecturer in Old and Middle English as well as Old Icelandic at Oxford. He worked as an editor on Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, the Pardoner's Tale, and the Nun's Priest's Tale. From 1963 to 1975 he was a Fellow of New College, Oxford but resigned when he began to devote his time to his father's literary affairs, and soon afterward moved with his family to southern France.
After his father's death
After his father's death, Christopher embarked on organizing the masses of his father's notes, some of them written on odd scraps of paper a half-century earlier. Much of the material was handwritten, frequently a fair draft was written over a half-erased first draft, and names of characters routinely changed between the beginning and end of the same draft. Deciphering this was an arduous task, and perhaps only someone with personal experience of J.R.R. and the evolution of his stories could have made any sense of it; even so, Christopher has admitted to having to occasionally guess at what his father intended.
With the help of Guy Gavriel Kay he managed to compile The Silmarillion in only four years. During this time, he also edited his father's translations of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, and Sir Orfeo. He also worked on the Nomenclature of The Lord of the Rings, which was first published in 1975 as Guide to the Names in The Lord of the Rings in A Tolkien Compass.
Christopher spent the years after continuing to study his father's works and taking the responsibilities of the Tolkien Estate. He recorded portions of The Silmarillion in 1977 and 1978 which was issued by Caedmon Records, New York. In 1979 he wrote about his father's illustrations and drawings for their publication in Tolkien calendars and Pictures by J.R.R. Tolkien. Through 1980 and 1983 Christopher edited Unfinished Tales, The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, The Monsters and the Critics and Other Essays, and The Book of Lost Tales Part One which was the first volume in his twelve volume series of The History of Middle-earth, the last of which was published in 1996. In 1998 he edited a new edition of Tree and Leaf including the poem Mythopoeia. In 2007, he edited The Children of Húrin, the first of the so called Great Tales of Middle-earth. His last publications were the editing of Beowulf: A Translation and Commentary (2014), Beren and Lúthien (2017) and The Fall of Gondolin(2018).
In 2016, Christopher Tolkien was awarded the Bodley Medal, the Bodleian Libraries' highest honour, for his "editorial work on his father's manuscripts" and his "academic career at the University of Oxford".
In August 2017, Christopher Tolkien resigned from his appointment as director of the Tolkien Estate.
Christopher Tolkien died on 16 January, 2020 in Draguignan, in France.
Response to adaptations
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...I recognize that this is a debatable and complex question of art, and the suggestions that have been made that I 'disapprove' of the films, whatever their cinematic quality, even to the extent of thinking ill of those with whom I may differ, are wholly without foundation.
Christopher Tolkien had never in his entire life sympathized the adaptations at any form of the works of his father. As a result, he never approved the idea of the adaptations of any works of his father that Tolkien Estate hold the copyright at any form, such as The Silmarillion or The Adventures of Tom Bombadil.
Christopher's first wife, Faith (1928) took an English degree at Oxford and they had one son, Simon Tolkien. A bust of Tolkien by Faith was exhibited at the Royal Academy: Tolkien paid for its casting in bronze. It is now in the English Library in Oxford.
Christopher's second wife, Baillie (1941) is Canadian, and is the daughter of Winnipeg surgeon Alan Klass, and Helen Klass (née Jacob). She has a BA in English from the University of Manitoba and an MA from Oxford. She worked as J.R.R. Tolkien's secretary and was responsible for the section on poetry in the 1965 index to The Lord of the Rings. She later edited The Father Christmas Letters. She and Christopher have two children, Adam Tolkien and Rachel Tolkien.
In the biographical drama film, named Tolkien, he appears briefly, and he was portrayed by actor Jack Riley.
- 195?: Tolkien Hervarar Saga ok Heidreks Konungs. C.J.R. Tolkien (Oxford University, Trinity College). B. Litt. thesis. 1953/4. [Year uncertain]
- 1956: Hervarar Saga ok Heidreks. Ed. [E.O.] G. Turville-Petre. London: University College London, for the Viking Society for Northern Research, 1956; introduction by Christopher Tolkien.
- 1958: The Pardoner's Tale. Geoffrey Chaucer, ed. Nevill Coghill and Christopher Tolkien. London: George G. Harrap, 1958. [29 Oct 58]
- 1959: The Nun's Priest's Tale. Geoffrey Chaucer, ed. Nevill Coghill and Christopher Tolkien. London: George G. Harrap, 1959. [28 Feb 60]
- 1960: The Saga of King Heidrek the Wise. Ed. and trans. Christopher Tolkien. London: Thomas Nelson & Sons (Icelandic Texts), 1960. [30 Jun 60]
- 1969: The Man of Law's Tale. Geoffrey Chaucer, ed. Nevill Coghill and Christopher Tolkien. London: George G. Harrap, 1969. [Jun 69]
- 1975: Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Pearl and Sir Orfeo (editor)
- 1977: The Silmarillion (editor)
- 1979: Pictures by J.R.R. Tolkien (editor)
- 1980: Unfinished Tales of Númenor and Middle-earth (editor)
- 1981: The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien (editor with Humphrey Carpenter)
- 1983: The Monsters and the Critics and Other Essays (editor)
- 1983: The Book of Lost Tales Part One (editor)
- 1984: The Book of Lost Tales Part Two (editor)
- 1985: The Lays of Beleriand (editor)
- 1986: The Shaping of Middle-earth (editor)
- 1987: The Lost Road and Other Writings (editor)
- 1988: Tree and Leaf (editor)
- 1988: The Return of the Shadow (editor)
- 1989: The Treason of Isengard (editor)
- 1990: The War of the Ring (editor)
- 1992: Sauron Defeated (editor)
- 1993: Morgoth's Ring (editor)
- 1994: The War of the Jewels (editor)
- 1996: The Peoples of Middle-earth (editor)
- 2007: The Children of Húrin (editor)
- 2009: The Legend of Sigurd and Gudrún (editor)
- 2013: The Fall of Arthur (editor)
- 2014: Beowulf: A Translation and Commentary (editor)
- 2017: Beren and Lúthien (editor)
- 2018: The Fall of Gondolin (editor)
- 1955-6: Saga-Book (University College, London, for the Viking Society for Northern Research) 14, part 3 (1955-6), pp. -63.
- "The Battle of the Goths and the Huns"
- 1975: A Tolkien Compass
- "Guide to the Names in The Lord of the Rings". J.R.R. Tolkien, ed. Christopher Tolkien
- 1975: Les aventures de Tom Bombadil
- [Handwritten note by Christopher Tolkien, dated March 1974, introducing two pages of script by J.R.R. Tolkien]
- 1980: Mallorn 14
- "The Silmarillion, by J.R.R. Tolkien: A brief account of the book and its making"
- 1982: Quettar 13, Feb. 1982, pp. 8-9
- "The Tengwar Numerals". Christopher Tolkien ('CRT after JRRT'); rptd. Beyond Bree Dec. 1984, p. 1. Further, untitled, explanation of Tengwar numerals by Christopher Tolkien ('CRT after JRRT 10 March 1982'), in Quettar 14, May 1982, pp. 6-7.
- 1983: Amon Hen 63, August 1983, p. 4
- "...Future Publishing". Reproduced as 'Statement by Christopher Tolkien' in Beyond Bree, November 1983, p. 2.
- 1984: Amon Hen 70, November 1984, p.3.
- "'Moria Gate' ... Another Look"
- 1986: Beyond Bree July 1986, pp. 1-3
- "Notes on the Differences in editions of The Hobbit cited by Mr. David Cofield"
- 1987: The Hobbit. J.R.R. Tolkien. London: Unwin Hyman, 1987; fiftieth anniversary edition.
- 1988: Beyond Bree, August 1988, pp. 1-2
- "The BBC Pronunciation Guide to The Lord of the Rings". Nancy Martsch. [About the transcription of Christopher Tolkien's recording of words and names in The Lord of the Rings for the BBC production by Brian Sibley.]
- 1994: The Lord of the Rings, (1994 edition by HarperCollins Publishers, p.1140 of the one-volume edition)
- "A Note on the Maps"
- 2012: Le Monde, 5 July
- "Tolkien, l'anneau de la discorde" by Raphaëlle Rérolle (interview; English translation)
- 2016: The Lay of Aotrou and Itroun
- "Note on the text"
- 1976: The Lord of the Rings 1977 Calendar. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1976. Notes on the Pictures by Christopher Tolkien.
- 1976: Catalogue of an Exhibition of Drawings by J.R.R. Tolkien at the Ashmolean Museum Oxford ... Oxford: The Ashmolean Museum, 1976. Introduction by Baillie Tolkien. [?14 Dec 76]
- 1977: The Silmarillion by J.R.R. Tolkien: A Brief Account of the Book and its Making (pamphlet)
- 1977: The Silmarillion Calendar 1978. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1977. Notes on the Pictures by Christopher Tolkien.
- 1978: J.R.R. Tolkien Calendar 1979. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1978. Notes on the Pictures by Christopher Tolkien.
- 1978: Map of Beleriand and the Lands to the North [poster]. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1978. As drawn by Christopher Tolkien for The Silmarillion, with colouring by H.E. Riddett.
- 1980: Letter from Christopher Tolkien to Jared Lobdell, 21 June 1974, reproduced in: Eorclanstanar [Precious Stones] or The Hobbitiana: an offering of rarities by J.R.R. Tolkien [catalogue]. Melissa and Mark Hime [booksellers]. Idyllwild, California: 1980.
- 1977: J.R.R. Tolkien: The Silmarillion: Of Beren and Luthien, read by Christopher Tolkien. New York: Caedmon Records TC1564, 1977. Sleeve notes by Christopher Tolkien. (Sleeve also has photo of CT.)
- 1978: J.R.R. Tolkien: Of the Darkening of Valinor, and Of the Flight of the Noldor, from The Silmarillion, read by Christopher Tolkien. New York: Caedmon Records TC 1579, 1978. Sleeve notes by Christopher Tolkien. (Sleeve also has photo of CT.)
- 1992: The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth Beorhthelm’s Son, Read by J.R.R.Tolkien and Christopher Tolkien, HarperCollins Audiobooks.
- 2007: The Children of Húrin Audiobook, Preface and introduction Read by Christopher Tolkien. HarperCollins Audiobooks.
- 2022: The Great Tales Never End, a book dedicated in Christopher's Tolkien memory. Published by Bodleian Libraries.
|Edith Bratt||J.R.R. Tolkien|
|John Tolkien||Michael Tolkien||Faith Faulconbridge||Christopher Tolkien||Baillie Tolkien||Priscilla Tolkien|
|Simon Tolkien||Adam Tolkien||Rachel Tolkien|
- History of the Silmarillion vs. History of Middle-earth at thehalloffire.net (Quote a letter of Christopher Tolkien)
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 64, (dated 30 April 1944)
- ↑ "History of Middle-earth", Tolkien.co.uk (accessed 18 November 2012)
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 306, (undated, late 1967 - early 1968)
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 35, (dated 2 February 1939), p. 42
- ↑ "Editor and Scholar Christopher Tolkien awarded Bodley Medal" dated 3 November 2016, bodleian.ox.ac.uk (accessed 6 November 2016)
- ↑ "The Tolkien Estate Limited, Officers", Companies House (accessed 14 November 2017)
- ↑ "Christopher Tolkien deixa Tolkien Estate", Tolkien Brasil (accessed 15 November 2017)
- ↑ Laurent Amalric avec e.e., "Christopher, le fils de J.R.R. Tolkien, s'est éteint dans le Var à l'âge de 95 ans" dated 16 January 2020, Var-martin (accessed 20 January 2020)