Difference between revisions of "Fornost Erain"

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{{quote|Deadmen's Dike, you say. So it has been called for long years; but its right name, [[Barliman Butterbur|Barliman]], is '''Fornost Erain''', Norbury of the Kings.|[[Gandalf]]<ref name=Homeward>{{RK|Homeward}}, p. 933</ref>}}
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{{quote|Deadmen's Dike, you say. So it has been called for long years; but its right name, [[Barliman Butterbur|Barliman]], is '''Fornost Erain''', Norbury of the Kings.|[[Gandalf]] in ''[[The Return of the King]]'', "[[Homeward Bound]]"}}
  
'''Fornost Erain''' was the second capital of [[Arnor]] and later the capital of [[Arthedain]]. It was located at the south end of the North Downs, about 100 [[Númenóreans|Númenórean]] miles north of [[Bree]], at the northern end of the [[North-South Road]].<ref>{{FR|Map}}</ref>
+
'''Fornost Erain''' was the second capital of [[Arnor]] and later the capital of [[Arthedain]]. It was located at the south end of the [[North Downs]], about 100 [[Númenóreans|Númenórean]] miles north of [[Bree]], at the northern end of the [[North-South Road]].<ref>{{FR|Map}}</ref>
  
 
==History==
 
==History==
 
===Early history===
 
===Early history===
It is possible that Fornost was founded around or after the establishment of the realm of [[Arnor]] in {{SA|3320}},<ref>{{App|SA}}, entry for the year 3320, p. 1084</ref> because there is no record of the Númenóreans penetrating so far north before the Downfall of Númenor. After the fall of [[Sauron]] in the [[War of the Last Alliance]], around [[TA|1]], the larger part of the Army of Arnor marched west on the North-South Road<ref>{{UT|7a}}, note 6</ref> through the [[Fords of Isen]] and continued north to Fornost.<ref>{{UT|Gladden}}, first paragraph</ref> The number of [[Dúnedain]] of Arnor had decreased because of the War of the Last Alliance and the [[Disaster of the Gladden Fields]] and the city of [[Annúminas]] turned into ruins. As a consequence the heirs of [[Valandil]] moved the capital of Arnor to Fornost.<ref name=Council>{{FR|Council}}, p. 244</ref>
+
It is possible that Fornost was founded around or after the establishment of the realm of Arnor in {{SA|3320}},<ref>{{App|SA}}, entry for the year 3320, p. 1084</ref> because there is no record of the Númenóreans penetrating so far north before the Downfall of Númenor. After the fall of [[Sauron]] in the [[War of the Last Alliance]], around {{TA|1}}, the larger part of the Army of Arnor marched west on the North-South Road<ref>{{UT|7a}}, note 6</ref> through the [[Fords of Isen]] and continued north to Fornost.<ref>{{UT|Gladden}}, first paragraph</ref> The number of [[Dúnedain of Arnor]] had decreased because of the War of the Last Alliance and the [[Disaster of the Gladden Fields]] and the city of [[Annúminas]] turned into ruins. As a consequence the heirs of [[Valandil]] moved the capital of Arnor to Fornost.<ref name=Council>{{FR|Council}}, p. 244</ref>
  
In {{TA|861}}, when King [[Eärendur (King of Arnor)|Eärendur]] died, Arnor was divided<ref>{{App|TA}}, entry for the year 861, p. 1085</ref> into the kingdoms of [[Arthedain]], [[Cardolan]] and [[Rhudaur]], because of dissensions among his sons.<ref>{{App|Eriador}}, ''The North-kingdom and the Dúnedain'', entry about King Eärendur, p. 1039</ref> As a consequence, Fornost became the capital of the new realm of [[Arthedain]].<ref>{{App|North}}, entry Amlaith of Fornost, p. 1038</ref> In {{TA|1409}, when the [[Witch-king]] of [[Angmar]] took the tower of [[Weathertop|Amon Sûl]], the ''[[Amon Sûl-stone|palantír]]'' that was located in the tower was saved and carried back to Fornost during the retreat. The new young King [[Araphor]] repelled the enemy from Fornost and the North Downs.<ref>{{App|Eriador}}, ''The North-kingdom and the Dúnedain'', entry for King Arveleg I, p. 1040</ref>
+
In {{TA|861}}, when King [[Eärendur (King of Arnor)|Eärendur]] died, Arnor was divided<ref>{{App|TA}}, entry for the year 861, p. 1085</ref> into the kingdoms of Arthedain, [[Cardolan]] and [[Rhudaur]], because of dissensions among his sons.<ref>{{App|Eriador}}, ''The North-kingdom and the Dúnedain'', entry about King Eärendur, p. 1039</ref> As a consequence, Fornost became the capital of the new realm of Arthedain.<ref>{{App|North}}, entry Amlaith of Fornost, p. 1038</ref> In {{TA|1409}}, when the [[Witch-king]] of [[Angmar]] took the tower of [[Weathertop|Amon Sûl]], the ''[[Amon Sûl-stone|palantír]]'' that was located in the tower was saved and carried back to Fornost during the retreat. The new young King [[Araphor]] repelled the enemy from Fornost and the North Downs.<ref>{{App|Eriador}}, ''The North-kingdom and the Dúnedain'', entry for King Arveleg I, p. 1040</ref>
  
 
===Fall===
 
===Fall===
:''Main article: [[Fall of Fornost]]
+
In {{TA|1974}},<ref>{{App|TA}}, entry for the year 1974, p. 1086</ref> Arthedain was overrun by the forces of Angmar. Fornost was [[Fall of Fornost|captured]], and King [[Arvedui]] first held out in the North Downs, then fled to dwarf mines at the northern end of the [[Blue Mountains]] and later drowned in the [[Icebay of Forochel]] with the two [[Palantíri]] he had saved from the forces of Angmar.<ref>{{App|Eriador}}, ''The North-kingdom and the Dúnedain'', entry for King Arvedui, pp. 1041-2</ref> Meanwhile Fornost became the dwelling of the Witch-king and his evil folk, who ursurped the house of the old kings.<ref>{{App|Gondor}}, entry for King Eärnil II, p. 1050</ref>
In {{TA|1974}},<ref>{{App|TA}}, entry for the year 1974, p. 1086</ref> Arthedain was overrun by the forces of [[Angmar]]. Fornost was captured, and King [[Arvedui]] first held out in the North Downs, then fled to dwarf mines at the northern end of the [[Blue Mountains]] and drowned in the [[Icebay of Forochel]] with the two [[palantir]]s he had saved from the forces of [[Angmar]] when ice crushed the hull of the ship that was sent by [[Círdan]] to pick him up at the bay.<ref>{{App|Eriador}}, ''The North-kingdom and the Dúnedain'', entry for King Arvedui, pp. 1041-1042</ref> Meanwhile Fornost became the dwelling of the [[Witch-king]] and his evil folk, who ursurped the house of the old kings.<ref>{{App|Gondor}}, entry for King Eärnil II, p. 1050</ref>
 
  
In the following year, a fleet of ships from [[Gondor]], led by [[Eärnur]], landed at [[Mithlond]]. The [[Elves of Lindon]] led by [[Círdan]], the remaining [[Dúnedain of the North]] and a few archers from the [[Shire]]<ref>{{App|Eriador}}, ''The North-kingdom and the Dúnedain'', entry about King Arvedui, p. 1042</ref> joined the [[Host of the West]]. Eärnur fought the [[Witch-king]] of [[Angmar]] in the plains west of Fornost and defeated the armies of Angmar, but the Witch-king himself escaped.<ref>{{App|Gondor}}, entry for King Eärnil II, pp. 1050-1051</ref>
+
In the following year, a fleet of ships from [[Gondor]], led by prince [[Eärnur]] of Gondor, landed at [[Mithlond]]. The [[Elves of Lindon]] led by [[Círdan]], the remaining Dúnedain of the North and a few archers from the [[Shire]]<ref>{{App|Eriador}}, ''The North-kingdom and the Dúnedain'', entry about King Arvedui, p. 1042</ref> joined the [[Host of the West]]. Eärnur fought the Witch-king of Angmar in the plains west of Fornost and defeated the armies of Angmar, but the Witch-king himself escaped.<ref>{{App|Gondor}}, entry for King Eärnil II, pp. 1050-1</ref> After the death of King Arvedui and the defeat of the army of Angmar the Kingdom of Arthedain ended, because few Dúnedain of the North were left and the population of all the other peoples of [[Eriador]] had decreased. The Dúnedain of the North turned into a secret and wandering people that passed into the shadows.<ref>{{App|Eriador}}, ''The North-kingdom and the Dúnedain'', entry for King Arvedui, p. 1043</ref> As a consequence, it is possible that Fornost was abandoned after the the defeat of the army of Angmar.
  
===Deadmen's Dike===
+
===Legacy===
After Fornost Erain was abandoned, [[Men]] referred to it as '''Deadmen's Dike''' and feared to go there.<ref name=Council/> According to Barliman Butterbur, the innkeeper of [[The Prancing Pony]], Fornost was said to be a haunted land. However, the [[Rangers of the North|Rangers]] went there,<ref name=Homeward/> but it is not known what they did there and how long they stayed there.
+
After Fornost Erain was abandoned, [[Men]] referred to it as '''Deadmen's Dike''' and feared to go there.<ref name=Council/> According to [[Barliman Butterbur]], the innkeeper of [[The Prancing Pony]], Fornost was said to be a haunted land. However, the [[Rangers of the North|Rangers]] went there,<ref name=Homeward>{{RK|Homeward}}, p. 933</ref> but it is not known what they did there and how long they stayed there.
  
It is possible that Fornost was rebuilt and resettled after [[Aragorn|King Elessar]] reunited [[Reunited Kingdom|the kingdoms of Gondor and Arnor]], because Gandalf announced that King Elessar would go there again one day and fair folk would be riding through [[Bree]] and that many folk used to live at the end of the Greenway on the North Downs.<ref name=Homeward/>
+
It is possible that Fornost was rebuilt and resettled after [[Aragorn|King Elessar]] [[Reunited Kingdom|reunited Gondor and Arnor]], as Gandalf had announced that King Elessar would go there again one day and fair folk would be riding through [[Bree]] and that many folk used to live at the end of the Greenway on the North Downs.<ref name=Homeward/>
  
 
==Etymology==
 
==Etymology==
''Fornost Erain'' is a [[Sindarin]] name. It means "Northern Fortress (of the) Kings". It is a compound of ''[[forn]]'' ("north"), ''[[ost]]'' ("fortress") and ''erain'', the plural of ''[[aran]]'' ("king").<ref>{{HM|RC}}, p. 19</ref>
+
{{Pronounce|Fornost.mp3|Ardamir}}
 +
''Fornost Erain'' is [[Sindarin]] for "Northern Fortress (of the) Kings", being a compound of ''[[forn]]'' ("north") + ''[[ost]]'' ("fortress") and ''erain'', the plural of ''[[aran]]'' ("king").<ref>{{HM|RC}}, p. 19</ref>
  
 
The [[Westron]] names of ''Fornost Erain'' and ''Fornost'' were "Norbury of the Kings"<ref name=Homeward/> and "Norbury",<ref>{{FR|Ordering}}, p. 9</ref> respectively. Norbury is a modernised form of [[Old English]] ''north-burg'', which means "north (fortified) town".<ref>{{HM|N}}, entry , '''Norbury''', p. 774</ref>
 
The [[Westron]] names of ''Fornost Erain'' and ''Fornost'' were "Norbury of the Kings"<ref name=Homeward/> and "Norbury",<ref>{{FR|Ordering}}, p. 9</ref> respectively. Norbury is a modernised form of [[Old English]] ''north-burg'', which means "north (fortified) town".<ref>{{HM|N}}, entry , '''Norbury''', p. 774</ref>
  
 
==Other versions of the legendarium==
 
==Other versions of the legendarium==
In an earlier manuscript version of The Tale of Years of the Second Age it is mentioned that the shards of Narsil were brought to Valandil in Imladris, that he became King of Arnor and lived in Fornost.<ref>{{PM|Second}}, note 17</ref>
+
In an earlier manuscript version of ''The Tale of Years of the Second Age'' it is mentioned that the shards of Narsil were brought to Valandil in Imladris, that he became King of Arnor and lived in Fornost.<ref>{{PM|Second}}, note 17</ref>
  
In an earlier version of what would later become Appendix A it is mentioned that Annúminas became deserted due to the decrease of the people and that the city of the realm of Arthedain of the oldest son of Earendur was Fornost.<ref>{{PM|Elendil}}, The Northern Line of Arnor: the Isildurioni, manuscript C, entry 10. Earendur and entry 11. Amlaith of Fornost</ref> An even earlier version contained a note that Valandil removed to Fornost and that Annuminas was deserted, but this was later struck out and Annuminas became deserted was added to the note for king Earendil whose name was later changed to Earendur.<ref>{{PM|Elendil}}, Commentary, manuscript B, entry for Valandil</ref>
+
In an earlier version of what would later become [[Appendix A]] it is mentioned that Annúminas became deserted due to the decrease of the people and that the city of the realm of Arthedain of the oldest son of Earendur was Fornost.<ref>{{PM|Elendil}}, The Northern Line of Arnor: the Isildurioni, manuscript C, entry 10. Earendur and entry 11. Amlaith of Fornost</ref> An even earlier version contained a note that Valandil removed to Fornost and that Annuminas was deserted, but this was later struck out and Annuminas became deserted was added to the note for king Earendil whose name was later changed to Earendur.<ref>{{PM|Elendil}}, Commentary, manuscript B, entry for Valandil</ref>
  
In an earlier manuscript version of The Tale of Years of the Third Age it is mentioned that Valandil became King of Arnor and lived in Annuminas in T.A. 10 and that Amlaith of Fornost ruled the realm of Arthedain and that Annuminas is deserted after the death of Earendur in T.A. 861 and that the names of the kings at Fornost were no longer given in High-elven form.<ref>{{PM|Third}}, manuscript T4</ref>
+
In an earlier manuscript version of ''The Tale of Years of the Third Age'' it is mentioned that Valandil became King of Arnor and lived in Annuminas in T.A. 10, that Amlaith of Fornost ruled the realm of Arthedain, Annuminas is deserted after the death of Earendur in T.A. 861 and the names of the kings at Fornost were no longer given in High-elven form.<ref>{{PM|Third}}, manuscript T4</ref>
  
In an earlier version of the Prologue of The Lord of the Rings<ref>{{PM|Prologue}}, typescript P2 with alterations</ref> and in an earlier manuscript version of The Tale of Years of the Third Age<ref>{{PM|Third}}, manuscript T2, entry for the year c. 1600</ref> the Westron name of Fornost was Northworthy.
+
In an earlier version of the Prologue of ''The Lord of the Rings''<ref>{{PM|Prologue}}, typescript P2 with alterations</ref> and in an earlier manuscript version of ''The Tale of Years of the Third Age''<ref>{{PM|Third}}, manuscript T2, entry for the year c. 1600</ref> the Westron name of Fornost was ''Northworthy''.
  
 
==Portrayal in adaptations==
 
==Portrayal in adaptations==

Latest revision as of 01:52, 7 October 2022

Fornost Erain
City
Fornost rotwk.JPG
Fornost from The Lord of the Rings: The Battle for Middle-earth II: The Rise of the Witch-king
General Information
Pronunciationfor-nost eh-reyen
Other namesDeadmen's Dike, Norbury of the Kings
LocationNorth Downs
TypeCity
People and History
InhabitantsArnorians
CreatedS.A. 3320
EventsFall of Fornost
GalleryImages of Fornost
"Deadmen's Dike, you say. So it has been called for long years; but its right name, Barliman, is Fornost Erain, Norbury of the Kings."
Gandalf in The Return of the King, "Homeward Bound"

Fornost Erain was the second capital of Arnor and later the capital of Arthedain. It was located at the south end of the North Downs, about 100 Númenórean miles north of Bree, at the northern end of the North-South Road.[1]

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

It is possible that Fornost was founded around or after the establishment of the realm of Arnor in S.A. 3320,[2] because there is no record of the Númenóreans penetrating so far north before the Downfall of Númenor. After the fall of Sauron in the War of the Last Alliance, around T.A. 1, the larger part of the Army of Arnor marched west on the North-South Road[3] through the Fords of Isen and continued north to Fornost.[4] The number of Dúnedain of Arnor had decreased because of the War of the Last Alliance and the Disaster of the Gladden Fields and the city of Annúminas turned into ruins. As a consequence the heirs of Valandil moved the capital of Arnor to Fornost.[5]

In T.A. 861, when King Eärendur died, Arnor was divided[6] into the kingdoms of Arthedain, Cardolan and Rhudaur, because of dissensions among his sons.[7] As a consequence, Fornost became the capital of the new realm of Arthedain.[8] In T.A. 1409, when the Witch-king of Angmar took the tower of Amon Sûl, the palantír that was located in the tower was saved and carried back to Fornost during the retreat. The new young King Araphor repelled the enemy from Fornost and the North Downs.[9]

Fall[edit]

In T.A. 1974,[10] Arthedain was overrun by the forces of Angmar. Fornost was captured, and King Arvedui first held out in the North Downs, then fled to dwarf mines at the northern end of the Blue Mountains and later drowned in the Icebay of Forochel with the two Palantíri he had saved from the forces of Angmar.[11] Meanwhile Fornost became the dwelling of the Witch-king and his evil folk, who ursurped the house of the old kings.[12]

In the following year, a fleet of ships from Gondor, led by prince Eärnur of Gondor, landed at Mithlond. The Elves of Lindon led by Círdan, the remaining Dúnedain of the North and a few archers from the Shire[13] joined the Host of the West. Eärnur fought the Witch-king of Angmar in the plains west of Fornost and defeated the armies of Angmar, but the Witch-king himself escaped.[14] After the death of King Arvedui and the defeat of the army of Angmar the Kingdom of Arthedain ended, because few Dúnedain of the North were left and the population of all the other peoples of Eriador had decreased. The Dúnedain of the North turned into a secret and wandering people that passed into the shadows.[15] As a consequence, it is possible that Fornost was abandoned after the the defeat of the army of Angmar.

Legacy[edit]

After Fornost Erain was abandoned, Men referred to it as Deadmen's Dike and feared to go there.[5] According to Barliman Butterbur, the innkeeper of The Prancing Pony, Fornost was said to be a haunted land. However, the Rangers went there,[16] but it is not known what they did there and how long they stayed there.

It is possible that Fornost was rebuilt and resettled after King Elessar reunited Gondor and Arnor, as Gandalf had announced that King Elessar would go there again one day and fair folk would be riding through Bree and that many folk used to live at the end of the Greenway on the North Downs.[16]

Etymology[edit]

Fornost Erain is Sindarin for "Northern Fortress (of the) Kings", being a compound of forn ("north") + ost ("fortress") and erain, the plural of aran ("king").[17]

The Westron names of Fornost Erain and Fornost were "Norbury of the Kings"[16] and "Norbury",[18] respectively. Norbury is a modernised form of Old English north-burg, which means "north (fortified) town".[19]

Other versions of the legendarium[edit]

In an earlier manuscript version of The Tale of Years of the Second Age it is mentioned that the shards of Narsil were brought to Valandil in Imladris, that he became King of Arnor and lived in Fornost.[20]

In an earlier version of what would later become Appendix A it is mentioned that Annúminas became deserted due to the decrease of the people and that the city of the realm of Arthedain of the oldest son of Earendur was Fornost.[21] An even earlier version contained a note that Valandil removed to Fornost and that Annuminas was deserted, but this was later struck out and Annuminas became deserted was added to the note for king Earendil whose name was later changed to Earendur.[22]

In an earlier manuscript version of The Tale of Years of the Third Age it is mentioned that Valandil became King of Arnor and lived in Annuminas in T.A. 10, that Amlaith of Fornost ruled the realm of Arthedain, Annuminas is deserted after the death of Earendur in T.A. 861 and the names of the kings at Fornost were no longer given in High-elven form.[23]

In an earlier version of the Prologue of The Lord of the Rings[24] and in an earlier manuscript version of The Tale of Years of the Third Age[25] the Westron name of Fornost was Northworthy.

Portrayal in adaptations[edit]

Pictures of adaptations of Fornost

2006: The Battle for Middle-earth II: The Rise of the Witch-king:

In the expansion pack, The Rise of the Witch-king, Fornost is besieged by the forces of the Witch-king.

2007: The Lord of the Rings Online:

Fornost Erain is simply called Fornost and is located in the northern end of the North Downs. It is populated with wights, orcs and wargs.

2011: The Lord of the Rings: War in the North:

The first chapter of the game is centered around Fornost. Agandaûr has assembled an army of Orcs of the Misty Mountains in Fornost, and prepared to attack the Free peoples.[26] Eradan, Andriel and Farin infiltrate Fornost on Aragorn's orders. They free the captured Eagle, Beleram,[27] and work together with Elladan and Elrohir to stop Agandaûr.[28] Agandaûr flees and Tharzog - leader of the Orcs - is killed, after which the Orcs remain leaderless and inter-factional fighting starts, hereby preventing an attack.[29]
Visitable locations are the Main Gate, the Battlements, the Inner and Outer wards and the Citadel.[30]

References

  1. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, "The West of Middle-earth at the End of the Third Age" [map]
  2. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Second Age", entry for the year 3320, p. 1084
  3. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Disaster of the Gladden Fields", "Notes", note 6
  4. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Disaster of the Gladden Fields", first paragraph
  5. 5.0 5.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "The Council of Elrond", p. 244
  6. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age", entry for the year 861, p. 1085
  7. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Eriador, Arnor, and the Heirs of Isildur", The North-kingdom and the Dúnedain, entry about King Eärendur, p. 1039
  8. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "The Realms in Exile", "The Northern Line: Heirs of Isildur", entry Amlaith of Fornost, p. 1038
  9. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Eriador, Arnor, and the Heirs of Isildur", The North-kingdom and the Dúnedain, entry for King Arveleg I, p. 1040
  10. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age", entry for the year 1974, p. 1086
  11. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Eriador, Arnor, and the Heirs of Isildur", The North-kingdom and the Dúnedain, entry for King Arvedui, pp. 1041-2
  12. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion", entry for King Eärnil II, p. 1050
  13. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Eriador, Arnor, and the Heirs of Isildur", The North-kingdom and the Dúnedain, entry about King Arvedui, p. 1042
  14. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion", entry for King Eärnil II, pp. 1050-1
  15. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Eriador, Arnor, and the Heirs of Isildur", The North-kingdom and the Dúnedain, entry for King Arvedui, p. 1043
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "Homeward Bound", p. 933
  17. Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (eds), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, p. 19
  18. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, "Prologue", "Of the Ordering of the Shire", p. 9
  19. J.R.R. Tolkien, "Nomenclature of The Lord of the Rings" in Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (eds), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, entry , Norbury, p. 774
  20. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "VI. The Tale of Years of the Second Age", note 17
  21. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "VII. The Heirs of Elendil", The Northern Line of Arnor: the Isildurioni, manuscript C, entry 10. Earendur and entry 11. Amlaith of Fornost
  22. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "VII. The Heirs of Elendil", Commentary, manuscript B, entry for Valandil
  23. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "VIII. The Tale of Years of the Third Age", manuscript T4
  24. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "I. The Prologue", typescript P2 with alterations
  25. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "VIII. The Tale of Years of the Third Age", manuscript T2, entry for the year c. 1600
  26. The Lord of the Rings: War in the North, Prologue
  27. The Lord of the Rings: War in the North, Chapter 1: Fornost, Main Gate
  28. The Lord of the Rings: War in the North, Chapter 1: Fornost, Inner Wards
  29. The Lord of the Rings: War in the North, Chapter 1: Fornost, Citadel Tower
  30. The Lord of the Rings: War in the North, Chapter 1: Fornost