|"Galadriel" by Matt Stewart|
|Other names||Artanis (Q, fn)|
Nerwen (Q, mn)
Alatáriel (T, an)
|Titles||Lady of Lórien, Lady of the Wood, Lady of the Galadhrim, Mistress of Magic|
|Location||Eldamar, Doriath, Nargothrond, Harlindon, Eregion, Imladris, Belfalas, Lothlórien|
|Language||Quenya, Sindarin, Westron, and Silvan Elvish|
Probably Telerin and Vanyarin[note 1]
|Birth||Y.T. 1362 |
|Rule||T.A. 1981 - 3021|
|Sailed west||29 September, T.A. 3021 (aged 8374 years[note 2])|
|House||House of Finarfin|
|Parentage||Finarfin and Eärwen|
|Siblings||Finrod, Angrod and Aegnor|
|Height||6 feet, 4 inches (193 cm)|
|Hair color||Radiant gold touched with silver|
(see Hair of Galadriel)
|Gallery||Images of Galadriel|
- "Very tall [Galadriel and Celeborn] were, and the Lady no less tall than the Lord; and they were grave and beautiful. They were clad wholly in white; and the hair of the Lady was of deep gold… but no sign of age was upon them, unless it were in the depths of their eyes; for these were keen as lances in the starlight, and yet profound, the wells of deep memory."
- ― The Fellowship of the Ring, "The Mirror of Galadriel"
Galadriel was born in Aman as one of the Noldor. She was the daughter of Finarfin, and younger sister to Finrod Felagund (later King of Nargothrond), Angrod, and Aegnor. She took part in the Exile of the Noldor, following Fëanor in his rebellion. However, she opposed the Kinslaying at Alqualondë and crossed the Helcaraxë with the rest of Fingolfin's followers. After arriving in Beleriand, she lived mainly in Doriath, where she befriended Melian. Later, with her husband Celeborn, she ruled over the woodland Elves of Lothlórien, and together they had a daughter, Celebrían, who married Elrond.
She is described as "the mightiest and fairest of all the Elves that remained in Middle-earth", and the "greatest of Elven women". Throughout the Third Age it was unknown who wielded the Three Rings, but during the War of the Ring, Galadriel revealed to Frodo Baggins that she was the bearer of Nenya.:365 After the War, she returned to the Uttermost West.
History[edit | edit source]
Elder Days[edit | edit source]
Life in Aman[edit | edit source]
- See also: Other versions of the legendarium.
Galadriel was born in Eldamar in the Year of the Trees 1362. She was the fourth child of Finarfin, prince of the Noldor, who named her Artanis. Her mother was Eärwen, princess of the Teleri, who named her Nerwen ("Man-maiden"). Galadriel grew beautiful and tall, even for the women of the Noldor, being strong of body, will, and mind, "a match for both the loremasters and the athletes of the Eldar in the days of their youth."
Indeed, "she was then of Amazon disposition and bound up her hair as a crown when taking part in athletic feats". This custom was the origin of her Sindarin name Galadriel ("Maiden crowned with gleaming hair"), which was given to (and accepted by) her much later, in Beleriand. The gleaming of her hair was not a mere poetic reference: her hair was held a marvel unmatched. It mingled and surpassed the gold hair of her father and the starlike silver of her mother, so the Eldar said that both lights of the Two Trees were captured in her tresses. It was also said that this first gave the idea to her uncle Fëanor of capturing the merged light of the Trees, which would result in the making of the Silmarils. He asked her three times for one of her tresses, but she always refused. Fëanor and Galadriel were always unfriends, both being the greatest Eldar in Valinor; and if Fëanor was greater than she, she was wiser, and her wisdom grew with the long years. For she also had an outstanding gift to see into the minds of others, and, though she judged most with kindness, she hated and feared the darkness in Fëanor, not perceiving that the shadow of the same evil had fallen upon the minds of all the Noldor, including her own.
There was still bliss in Valinor when she was born, but soon she was influenced by the unrest of the Noldor and lost her inner peace ever after. She was proud, like most of the House of Finwë, and like her closest brother Finrod, "she had dreams of far lands and dominions that might be her own to order as she would without tutelage". But deep in herself, she had the noble spirit of the Vanyar, which did not allow her to forget the reverence for the Valar.
During the Darkening of Valinor and the rebellion of Fëanor, Galadriel was the only woman of the Noldor who stood among the rising princes. She swore no oath, but the words of Fëanor concerning Middle-earth kindled a desire in her heart, as she was eager to see those wide unguarded lands and rule a realm of her own. Like the rest of the House of Finarfin, she was also supportive of the Exile by the desire to aid their Sindarin relatives in Middle-earth.
Even though she was one of the leaders in this revolt, during the troubles that followed she fought fiercely against Fëanor by defending her mother's kin during the Kinslaying at Alqualondë and the rape of the ships. Afterwards, she even desired to follow Fëanor to disturb him in all the ways that she could, but nothing could have moved her to return since she had begun her way to exile, as her pride was strong then as it was thereafter. She kept moving forward even under the Doom of Mandos, when her father Finarfin abandoned the march and returned to Valinor, and even when Fëanor left behind the hosts of Fingolfin and the children of Finarfin. Then she, along with Finrod and Fingolfin and his sons, led her people into the bitter North and crossed the terrors of Helcaraxë. After many losses, they arrived on the northern shores of the Outer Lands.[note 3]
Arrival to Middle-earth[edit | edit source]
Once in Beleriand, those of the House of Finarfin were eager to enter Doriath, but King Elu Thingol received the Noldor coldly, and only allowed entrance to those invited by him after some inquiries. Finally in F.A. 52, Finrod and Galadriel became long guests in Doriath, but her brother eventually departed to the Caverns of Narog to establish the stronghold of Nargothrond. Galadriel did not go with him, and remained in Doriath with Celeborn, a kinsman of Thingol, as there was great love between them. Despite their love, they did not marry each other, following the custom among the Eldar of avoiding marriage and child-bearing during the war, but they were eventually betrothed till the war ended. Meanwhile, she dwelt with Queen Melian, from whom she learned much of the wisdom of Middle-earth.
The Western Corn necessary to make lembas had been lost in Beleriand until the Noldor brought new grain back, and it flourished by the grace of the Valar. Galadriel was one of the main inheritors of it and of the art of the making of lembas. It is safe to assume Melian benefited from this.
Years passed in Doriath, and Galadriel became dear to Melian, and they spoke often to one another about Valinor. Melian was eager to learn the causes of the Exile of the Noldor, but Galadriel would tell her nothing of what occurred after the death of the Trees. In the year 66, Melian asked her directly about this, and Galadriel revealed the story of the Silmarils and how the Noldor fled from Aman against the will of the Valar, though she still left out the Oath of Fëanor, the Kinslaying, and the burning of the Ships at Losgar. Melian was able to discern a darkness that was left unsaid, but Galadriel refused to tell her more. Thus, Thingol became concerned regarding the Noldor, and he was informed soon afterwards of the Noldor's dark deeds in Aman, and it chanced that the children of Finarfin were visiting Galadriel in Doriath. Egged on by his accusing words, Angrod told everything, and Galadriel's brothers departed heavy-hearted.
Despite all this, Galadriel stayed in Doriath until 102, when the kingdom of Nargothrond was finished and a feast was held for all the children of Finarfin. She dwelt for a while in Nargothrond, and in this time she asked Finrod why he remained unmarried. Her brother answered with dark foresights about his kingdom. Back in Doriath, in 420, Galadriel heard another foretelling, as Melian told her about a Man who shall cross into Doriath moved by a doom greater than the Girdle of Melian.
Galadriel did not have any significant role in the general course of events in the War of the Jewels, but she might have been well informed of the deaths of her brothers Angrod and Aegnor during the Dagor Bragollach; and of Finrod's, while he was held in captivity by Sauron in the year 465. At some point before the Fall of Nargothrond in 495, she and Celeborn passed over the mountains:357 to Eriador, far from the turmoil of the last years of the First Age.
After the War of Wrath at the end of the First Age, Eönwë, herald of Manwë, summoned the Elves of Beleriand to the West, so they were received in Tol Eressëa and under the pardon of the Valar. However, some did not wish to leave Middle-earth, such as Celeborn. Being one of the chief leaders of the Noldorin rebellion, Galadriel was not allowed to return and a ban was set upon her, to which she replied that she had no wish to do so. The same pride that led her out of Aman still moved her, and she rejected the pardon of the Valar, for as she had once lived in Aman itself, Eressëa seemed only a "second best". She was also moved by love for Celeborn, to whom she probably married around this time.[note 4]
Second Age[edit | edit source]
At the beginning of the Second Age, Celeborn and Galadriel dwelt for a time in Lindon, south of the Lune, while Gil-galad ruled in the north. Both left Lindon before the years 10-20, when Gil-galad became king in that land, apparently thanks to her influence. They entered Eriador and dwelt for a while around Lake Nenuial, being followed by many Noldor, Grey-elves and Green-elves. They were considered the Lord and Lady of the Eldar in Eriador.:234 Probably around S.A. 300,[note 5] Galadriel and Celeborn had a daughter: Celebrían.
Circa the year 500, Sauron began to stir in Middle-earth again, but his name was not known. He was, however, perceived by Galadriel, who noticed there was a controlling evil, and that it was spreading above the world, coming from the East beyond the Misty Mountains. She also thought this 'residue of evil' could only be fought with an alliance of all its enemies. Therefore, she and Celeborn moved eastwards and got established in the realm of Eregion near Khazad-dûm.[note 6] Celeborn was not fond of Dwarves, but she saw the importance of getting close to them, for she saw military interests even with them. Also, she was a Noldo, and therefore close to them in mind and in the passion for crafts; and in Valinor she had learned from Yavanna and Aulë, the creator of the Dwarves himself.:235
Some Noldor were also interested in establishing a realm near Khazad-dûm because they knew mithril had been discovered there. Therefore, many Elven-smiths came to Eregion and created good relations with the Dwarves. Celebrimbor, a descendant of Fëanor (and therefore a distant cousin of Galadriel), was the greatest of the craft-men and the Lord of Eregion. He was its main builder and in 750 Ost-in-Edhil, the main city of the realm, was begun. The power of Galadriel and Celeborn also grew: thanks to the Dwarves of Khazad-dûm, they had contact with the Nandorin realm of Lórinand, on the other side of the Misty Mountains. Thanks to Galadriel's influence upon Lórinand, Sauron's machinations there were fruitless.:236 She also got in contact with Númenor, having a meeting with King Aldarion when he came to Tharbad around 883-884.
About the year 1200, Sauron came in disguise to Eriador, but he was only welcomed in Eregion by Celebrimbor and the Elven-smiths, who were interested in his advice on craftsmanship.:236 Galadriel was not deceived, and rejected him, saying that he was not in the training of Aulë as he claimed. "He perceived at once that Galadriel would be his chief adversary and obstacle, and he endeavoured therefore to placate her, bearing her scorn with outward patience and courtesy". At the same time, without her knowledge, Sauron influenced Celebrimbor and his Gwaith-i-Mírdain against Galadriel and Celeborn. Finally, he moved them to expell Galadriel from Eregion at some time between 1350 and 1400.[note 7] Thus, Galadriel and Celebrían left through Khazad-dûm to Lórinand, although Celeborn would not enter the Dwarvish realm and remained in Eregion.:237
When Sauron made the One Ring in S.A. 1600, his treachery was discovered by Celebrimbor. The elven-smith came to Lórinand, seeking counsel from Galadriel. They did not find the strength to destroy the Rings of Power, but she advised him to hide the Three Rings of the Elves where Sauron could not find them. Therefore he gave her Nenya, the White Ring, and the other Rings were given to other Elven lords.:237 This was done in 1693, the same year Sauron began the war against the Elves.
With the invasion of Eriador, Eregion was destroyed and Celebrimbor killed. Despite using torture, Sauron could not learn from him where the Elven Rings were, although he suspected they were kept by Galadriel and Gil-galad.:238 But thanks to the military intervention of Númenor, Sauron was defeated in 1700. Soon afterwards, Galadriel was affected by sea-longing, and she decided to leave Lórinand and dwell beside the sea.:240 As one of the High-elves, her yearning for the sea was unavoidable, and now she became burdened with the desire to cross to the Blessed Realm, but the ban upon her impeded it. Thus she did not go to the sea yet, but crossed west of the mountains through Khazad-dûm with Celebrían. Seeking Celeborn, they travelled to Imladris, a refuge created by Elrond during the war. Once there, a Council was held, in which it was decided that Imladris would be the Elvish stronghold in the East, rather than the desolate Eregion.:239-40
Galadriel, Celeborn and Celebrían dwelt a long time in Imladris, but at some point they left and moved near the sea, to Belfalas, at the place later known as Dol Amroth. There were few inhabitants there, but they were visited by Nandorin parties.:238 Apparently, they returned to Lórien twice before the Last Alliance and the end of the Second Age, but of their whereabouts during the final millenia of that Age nothing else is known.
Third Age[edit | edit source]
Rule in Lórien[edit | edit source]
In early Third Age, in the year 109, Galadriel and Celeborn's daughter Celebrían wedded Elrond the Half-elven. But they did not stay at first with her, for Galadriel was filled with foreboding, and was concerned about the growing shadow in Mirkwood and Dol Guldur. Therefore she and Celeborn made long journeys investigating Rhovanion, going from Gondor and the borders of Mordor to Thranduil in the north. They also stayed a long time in Lórien with king Amroth, for Galadriel saw with her wisdom that this prosperous realm could be a stronghold against the growing Shadow, if it had better rule. At this point, the Istari arrived in Middle-earth, and only Galadriel, Elrond and Círdan knew where they came from. Around the year 1100, the Wise (including Galadriel as one the chief Eldar) were well aware of the evil dwelling in Dol Guldur, but thought it was one of the Nazgûl.
After their enquiries, Galadriel and Celeborn passed over the mountains to Imladris, and there dwelt for many years with their kin.
Between the years T.A. 1980-1981, a terror appeared in Khazad-dûm and the Dwarves abandoned the realm, while the many Silvan Elves from Lórien had to flee south. To make things worse, Amroth was lost, leaving no heir, and the Elven realm was left without a ruler. Therefore Celeborn and Galadriel went there, welcomed by the people, and took up the rule jointly, but refused to take the royal title and were called the Lord and Lady of Galadhrim. Saving the realm from the perils of the moment, they dwelt and ruled permanently there.
As the shadow of Dol Guldur grew again, the White Council was formed in 2463. It was summoned by Galadriel, who, being a good friend of Gandalf, recommended that he be made head of the Council. But this distinction fell instead to Saruman.
In 2510, her daughter Celebrían departed to the West after being wounded by Orcs. The same year, she aided Eorl and his riders in the Battle of the Field of Celebrant, creating a white mist that drove out the shadows from Dol Guldur.
The White Council would not take action until Gandalf discovered that the shadow growing in Dol Guldur was Sauron. After deliberating, the Council joined forces and drove Sauron out of Dol Guldur in 2941.
Some years later, Aragorn entered Lothlórien after many travels, and was admitted by Galadriel. She bade him change his worn-out clothes and dressed him like a proper prince. At that time, Aragorn became betrothed to her granddaughter Arwen.
War of the Ring[edit | edit source]
Galadriel and Celeborn were well informed about the Company of the Ring, its members and their mission, before its coming to Lothlórien, perhaps informed by messages from Rivendell. In the evening of 17 January of T.A. 3019, the Company arrived at Caras Galadhon. Coming to the talan of the Lady and Lord, each member was greeted by name by Celeborn. Noticing that Gandalf was missing, Galadriel asked where he was, for she wished to speak with him. Hearing that they had encountered Durin's Bane and that this was in fact a Balrog from ancient times, Celeborn criticized the passing of the Company through Moria. However, Galadriel was more sympathetic, especially towards Gimli, who bowed to her in respect. Before inviting the members of the Company to rest and heal there, she looked deep into their eyes and they all felt their hearts exposed.:354-7
A month later, in 15 February, Frodo Baggins the bearer of the One Ring, was walking in the evening with Sam when they encountered Galadriel. She led them to an enclosed garden and showed them a silver basin. Filling it with water, a Mirror was formed, which allowed them to see things that were and that might come. Frodo saw the Eye of Sauron, and she explained that she knew well Frodo's mind, for Sauron also tried to look into hers. She also kept a Ring of Power, and showing him Nenya, the Ring of Adamant, she explained that its power would disappear once Frodo destroyed the One, and Lórien would fade. Then Frodo offered the One Ring to her, and she laughed in response, saying: "I do not deny that my heart has greatly desired to ask what you offer." Then she began to ponder how powerful she would become with the Ring's power, and from Nenya came a great light that covered her overwhelming height. But the light faded and she laughed again, saying: "I pass the test. I will diminish, and go into the West, and remain Galadriel.":360-6 Indeed, with this rejection of temptation and her long opposition against Sauron, the ban upon her return to Aman was finally lifted.
That night, the Lord and Lady summoned the Company and spoke of their departure, which was appointed for the following morning. The next day, she sent the Fellowship off on their Quest, furnished with gifts for all the members, including lembas and Elven cloaks. Later, a farewell party was held, which the Lord and Lady attended in a swan boat; from it, Galadriel sang a song about Eldamar. After everyone ate and drank, she proceed to give specific gifts to each member.
Among the gifts was the Elfstone, which she gave to Aragorn from Arwen "as a token of hope". The jewel was also in part a bridal gift and a token of the future wedding of Arwen and Aragorn, done following the Noldorin custom in which the bride's mother should give to the bridegroom a jewel (Arwen's mother Celebrían had departed long ago, so Galadriel did it in her place). Galadriel stated she was unsure as to what to give Gimli, and asked what he wanted. After complimenting her beauty, he requested a single strand of her hair. Instead, she rewarded him with three strands, which he promised to put into an imperishable crystal in memory of her. And last, to Frodo, she gave a a small crystal phial specially prepared by her, which contained the light of the star of Eärendil.
The Company saw her one last time while sailing down to the Anduin: a shining figure, all clad in white, raising her arms, and Frodo was able to hear her clearly reciting a long poem in Elvish despite the distance.
On the following day, a resurrected Gandalf was brought to Lórien by Gwaihir, who was sent by Galadriel. He was received in Caras Galadhon, and was healed and clothed in white. He also took and gave counsel. Before he left, Galadriel gave him some prophetic messages for Aragorn, Legolas and Gimli.
The land of Lórien was not exempt from the battles of the War of the Ring: between 11 and 18 March, the Galadhrim suffered three assaults from Dol Guldur. After the Fall of Barad-dûr, Celeborn crossed the Anduin with a host and began the destruction of Dol Guldur. Soon afterward, Galadriel threw down the walls of the fortress and opened its pits.
Later history[edit | edit source]
Galadriel, Celeborn and their company attended the wedding of Aragorn and Arwen. Soon afterward they joined the crowded funeral riding of King Théoden to Rohan. After the funerals in the Golden Hall, they continued their travel northwards with other companions and halted in Isengard. Treebeard reveals that he had freed Saruman, and regrets that he will not see Galadriel and Celeborn again. Celeborn replied that he is unsure but Galadriel affirmed that it would be her last meeting with him, giving Treebeard some cryptic words. They continued on their way and encountered Saruman, who, released by Fangorn, snapped that she always had hated him, and now he would find comfort knowing that her realm was destroyed as well as his.
Two years later, on 22 September 3021, Frodo and Sam encountered a Wandering Company while travelling around the Shire, and found that Elrond, Galadriel and Bilbo were part of it. Nenya was visible on Galadriel's finger, and she seemed to shine like the moon. Frodo decided to depart with them and the hobbits joined the company, led by Elrond and Galadriel. On 29 September, they reached the Grey Havens and departed over the Sea. Thus ended the Third Age.
Sometime later during the Fourth Age, she received Celeborn, her husband. And in Fo.A. 120, it is said that Gimli went to the West out of his desire to see Galadriel again. He may have been allowed thanks to her intervention.
Etymology[edit | edit source]
Galadriel is a Sindarin name translated by Tolkien as "maiden crowned with a garland of bright radiance", "Maiden crowned with gleaming hair", "glittering garland", and "maiden crowned with a radiant garland". Galadriel consists of galad ("light, radiance") + rî ("crown"). It was an epessë given to her in her youth because, while doing exercise, she usually bound up her long golden hair as a crown.
Tolkien notes that the element galad had no relation to Sindarin galadh or Silvan galað ("tree"). Due to this coincidence the name Galadriel was occasionally rendered as Galadhriel, as Tolkien explains:
When Celeborn and Galadriel became the rulers of the [Galadhrim], the name of Galadriel became associated with trees, an association that was aided by the name of her husband, which also appeared to contain a tree-word; so that outside Lórien among those whose memories of the ancient days and Galadriel's history had grown dim her name was often altered to 'Galadhriel', though never in Lórien itself.
Other names[edit | edit source]
Alatáriel was the Telerin name given to Galadriel by Celeborn, meaning "Maiden Crowned with Radiant Garland", which referred to her hair. The Quenya form of this name was Altáriel, although the proper form would have been Ñaltariel. Its Sindarin cognate Galadriel was chosen by her to be her Sindarin name, because it was the most beautiful of her names and had been given to her as an epessë by her lover, Teleporno of the Teleri, whom she wedded later in Beleriand.[note 8]
Genealogy[edit | edit source]
Other versions of the legendarium[edit | edit source]
The History of The Lord of the Rings[edit | edit source]
The first appearance of the character of Galadriel in the legendarium was during the composition of The Lord of the Rings. The first reference J.R.R. Tolkien ever made to her was in some notes for the "Lothlórien" chapter, which mentioned that a "Lord of Galadrim and a Lady" went to the White Council. The following phrases are a stub of them receiving the Company of the Ring, both clad in white and with white hair. In other isolated notes about this chapter, Tolkien wondered "if Galadriel is alone and is wife of Elrond."
The first mention of "Keleborn and Galadriel" by name was in the narrative of the following chapter, although Tolkien considered other Elvish names before writing Galadriel in ink.:261 There Galadriel describes Keleborn and herself as "wise beyond the measure of the Elves of Middle-earth", and says that they "have dwelt there since the Mountains were reared and the Sun was young", from which Christopher Tolkien deduced they were both conceived as exiled Noldor.:263 After the episode with the Company, both names are changed, so she became Galadrien ("tree-lady") in the next pages.:249 Other notable details that were altered later include the white colour of her hair,:256 that she was the keeper of the Ring of Earth,:252 and that after the departure of the Company, Frodo was supposed to never see Galadriel ever again.
In a list of matters "to be explained before the end", Tolkien wondered about what happened with Galadriel after the War of the Ring:
They learn [...] that Nazgûl razed Lórien and Keleborn fled with a remnant to Mirkwood. Galadriel was lost or was hidden. Or shall Lórien be left slowly to fade? Yes. Galadriel parts with Keleborn who elects to stay in the world and [?woods]. She is seen by Frodo in old age, when he and Sam see Galadriel and Bilbo...
In sum, earlier and rejected names during the composition of The Lord of the Rings were Finduilas, Rhien, Galdrin, Galdrien, Galadhrien, and Galadrien.
Expanding the First Age[edit | edit source]
In the Appendix F of The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien had already stated that Galadriel was "of the royal house of Finrod, father of Felagund, Lord of Nargothrond" (in the Second Edition, Tolkien changed the names to Finarfin and Finrod Felagund, respectively). Although not using much detail, Tolkien was thus introducing Galadriel in "The Silmarillion" tradition, and having finished The Lord of the Rings, he began the work of expanding the backstory of the character. Galadriel enters this tradition in the Annals of Aman, in which she is first mentioned when Tolkien decided the children of Finrod (later Finarfin) would be related to Thingol through Eärwen. In the Annals, written after the publication of The Lord of the Rings, Galadriel stands out by being valiant and the only woman leading the Exile of the Noldor, but there is no explanation of the nature of her rebellion or its later impact on her life.
Indeed, Christopher Tolkien explains that when the chapter "Farewell to Lórien" was written, his father had not conceived the idea of a ban upon Galadriel's return due to her role in the Flight of the Noldor. In a letter from 1953 (even before The Lord of the Rings was published), Tolkien did not object to the comparison of Galadriel with the Virgin Mary, a comparison he would object to later.
Written in the same years, the Grey Annals follow the Annals of Aman, telling the chronology of Beleriand, mainly after the Return of the Noldor. Here Galadriel's rol is briefly expanded, limited to her relation with Melian and a conversation with her brother Finrod. The darkness pending upon all the Noldor is explicitly mentioned, but the same happens with the innocence of the children of Finrod (later Finarfin) during the discussions with Thingol and Melian. Sadly, Tolkien left these Annals unfinished at the point of the Wanderings of Húrin, so nothing is told about Galadriel at the end of the First Age, neither about her relation with Celeborn.[note 9]
Expanding the Second Age[edit | edit source]
After the publication of The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien most expanded the story of Galadriel in the Second Age in "Concerning Galadriel and Celeborn". This manuscript is the only full narrative dealing with this matter, but sadly it is a stub full of corrections, and Tolkien never solved some contradictions that would be raised later.[note 10] Christopher comments that what is now remarkable is that there is still no presence of the idea of a ban upon Galadriel's return: she stays in Middle-earth out of her love for Celeborn. There could be some pride on her part, as she was eager to visit Middle-earth, but later she stays in Eriador after the first fall of Sauron as a sort of duty until he was finally defeated.:233-4
The first clear mention of pride in Galadriel's decision is probably in one of many manuscripts written c. 1959 dealing with Elven growing. In this text it is briefly mentioned that Galadriel rejected coming back to the West and live in Eressëa, moved by her love for Celeborn and (told in a footnote) maybe by her pride, as she had lived in Aman as a princess, so the Lonely Isle would be a "second best". We see here that she was allowed to return to the West, but limited to Eressëa, far from the blessed lands (this is, Valinor and Eldamar). There is a sort of ban, not particularly against her, but her pride stands out, as it will become in an essential aspect of her character in the following "phase" of her development.
Rebel exile[edit | edit source]
In mid-1967, Tolkien wrote long drafts of a letter, in which he first mentioned the idea of Galadriel not being allowed to return after the First Age as a punishment for being one of the leaders of the Noldor rebellion. Also, in a footnote, he interprets the Namárië as Galadriel's wish that Frodo might go West, as she cannot, believing she is to remain in Middle-earth forever. And more radically, Tolkien interprets the test of the Ring as granting Galadriel permission to return to Aman. Christopher Tolkien does not believe that this letter is proof that the ban was present when such passages were written. Given all this, we can well affirm that what is said in this letter are reinterpretations made a posteriori.
Just two months later, The Road Goes Ever On: A Song Cycle was published in the United States, in which Tolkien included a brief biography of Galadriel in notes to the Namárië. Not only the Elvish poem, but the line "What ship will carry me again across such a wide sea?" of the poem mentioned above, are interpreted here as expressions of Galadriel's longing, unable to return to the West. Her arrogance is connected to her rebellious role, since she replied proudly to the prohibition by saying she had no desire to return.
It is strange that Tolkien's new vision was so clear at this time, since there does not seem to be any intermediate text in which he considered this version or others. Now, he would go ahead with this vision, so it would also affect the character's background in the First Age.
Written in 1968 or later, The Shibboleth of Fëanor includes a long passage about Galadriel during her life in Aman and during the Exile. It is the first place that highlights her enmity with Fëanor before the Exile, and also her independence from him, since her desire to see and rule distant lands was already present in her before Fëanor's speech. Her role during the Flight of the Noldor is described as courageous and blameless: she had a legitimate desire to help her Teleri kin in Middle-earth, and she fought fiercely against Fëanor in the Kinslaying at Alqualondë. However, she is guilty of pride, not only in her departure, as here she is granted forgiveness after Morgoth's defeat, but she rejects it.
A few years later, in 1971, we see that this conception of Galadriel still remains. In response to a letter, Tolkien acknowledges the influence of the figure of the Virgin Mary on the character of Galadriel, but now points out a radical difference: Galadriel was a penitent with a past marked by pride and rebellion against divine authorities.
Unstained exile[edit | edit source]
In a letter written in August 1973 (one month before his death), Tolkien gave a completely different description of Galadriel:
Galadriel was 'unstained': she had committed no evil deeds. She was an enemy of Fëanor. She did not reach Middle-earth with the other Noldor, but independently. Her reasons for desiring to go to Middle-earth were legitimate, and she would have been permitted to depart, but for the misfortune that before she set out the revolt of Fëanor broke out, and she became involved in the desperate measures of Manwë, and the ban on all emigrations.
This was not an isolated idea; around the same time he wrote an outline of the revised backstory of Galadriel, which he could not carry into narrative, as it ended up being probably his last writing related to the legendarium. Here Galadriel is described as totally opposed to Fëanor from the beginning, and she felt confined in Aman and desired to depart to Middle-earth in order to exercise her talents: "for being brilliant in mind and swift in action she had early absorbed all of what she was capable of the teaching which the Valar thought fit to give the Eldar". Manwë was probably aware of her desire and he had not forbidden her to depart, nor given permission yet. Nonetheless, Galadriel did not remain inactive and thought in the ships of the Teleri, so she dwelt in Alqualondë with her mother's kin. There she met Celeborn (here a Telerin prince and her cousin), and both planned to build a boat and seek the permission of the Valar to depart to Middle-earth.
But then Melkor and Ungoliant destroyed the Two Trees, and Fëanor began his rebellion, in which Galadriel had no part. "Indeed, she and Celeborn fought heroically in defence of Alqualondë against the assault of the Noldor, and Celeborn's ship was saved from them". Now Galadriel sailed in despair without asking Manwë, and indeed she would have been told to stay in Valinor in that hour, despite her desire being legitimate; and thus the ban against departure fell upon her and she was forbidden to return. She and Celeborn reached Middle-earth before Fëanor, finding Círdan's haven and being received with joy. They did not join the war against Morgoth, which they considered hopeless without the help of the Valar, and instead they recommended going eastwards and befriending the Dark Elves and Men living there. But the Elves of Beleriand did not heed these counsels, so both of them crossed the Ered Lindon before the end of the First Age. They were granted permission to return by the Valar, but they rejected it.
Christopher Tolkien explains that this change probably had its roots in the philosophical implications of Galadriel's power in Middle-earth. He is certain that his father had the intention of changing all the narrative of "The Silmarillion" related to the backstory of Galadriel, despite what was already written: after all, she was not part of the story of the Noldor in the first place and the book had not been published. The only notable problem is in the backstory of Celeborn, which contradicts what was already published in J.R.R. Tolkien's life.:231-3
Unsolved contradictions[edit | edit source]
As can be seen, the development of Galadriel throughout Tolkien's texts is mainly structured around the nature of her exile and ban from Aman. In this subsection we present other aspects of her that are better explained separately for order's sake. In the mentioned texts there are some loose contradictions that can be easily explained as mere mistakes. A noticeable case is Galadriel using Nenya during the Second Age in "Concerning Galadriel and Celeborn", which contradicts everything we know about the Rings of Power in The Lord of the Rings. On the contrary, the contradictions presented in this subsection result from the several revisions and we cannot know how Tolkien would have solved them.
- Galadriel in Nargothrond
In the Grey Annals it is written that Galadriel went from Doriath to Nargothrond "and dwelt there for a while" after Finrod had completed its building. But while expanding the Quenta Silmarillion, Tolkien wrote: "Yet Galadriel his sister went never to Nargothrond, for she remained long in Doriath", and revised it with "Yet Galaðriel his sister dwelt never in Nargothrond". It is unclear which version was written as definitive, but Christopher Tolkien chose the former one for Chapter 15 of his edition of The Silmarillion.
- Passing over the mountains
Christopher Tolkien explains that in the first conception, Galadriel went to the east from Beleriand alone and found Celeborn (probably of Nandorin origin) in Lórien. Hence in the chapter "The Mirror of Galadriel" she said Celeborn dwelt in the West before the Dawn, and that she crossed the mountains from Beleriand (apparently alone). This contradicts the information in Appendix B of The Lord of the Rings and in The Road Goes Ever On, in which Celeborn is a Sinda who accompanied Galadriel from Lindon.:228
The time when she passed over the mountains is also contradictory, as Galadriel said that it was "ere the fall of Nargothrond and Gondolin", yet in Appendix B it is stated that at the beginning of the Second Age she was still dwelling in Lindon, before passing over the mountains. This contradiction in the same work must have been due to a mistake during revision.[note 11]
- Marriage of Galadriel and Celeborn
In Appendix B, while describing the beginning of the Second Age, it is said that Celeborn dwelt in south Lindon with his wife Galadriel, so it appears that they were married at this point. In a manuscript from c. 1959, Tolkien said that Galadriel and Celeborn probably married "soon after the overthrow of Morgoth", before they crossed the Mountains. Another manuscript from the same period states the same, but in its following notes Tolkien wrote that Galadriel did not marry Celeborn until they were settled (in Lake Nenuial, as understood by the context). In a manuscript from 1965, while Tolkien pondered about Amroth being their child, he wrote that Galadriel and Celeborn were betrothed, but did not marry until the confusion of the War of Wrath and the beginning of the Second Age had ended (till S.A. 24).
- Birth-year of Celebrían
The year and the place of Celebrían's birth was never definite. Tolkien considered as early as year 9 of the Second Age, and as late as 350 (850 was also considered, but as a mere conjecture). For details and references see Celebrían#Other versions of the legendarium.
- Mother of Amroth
In "Concerning Galadriel and Celeborn", both Celebrían and Amroth are children of Galadriel and Celeborn, but in later texts dating from 1969, Tolkien made Amroth the son of Amdír. For more details see Amroth#Other versions of the legendarium.
- Founder of Eregion
In Appendix B, it is said that at the beginning of the Second Age, the Noldor went to Eregion out of their interest for the mithril in Moria. Besides, Celebrimbor is called "Lord of Eregion", with no mention of his relation with Galadriel. In "Concerning Galadriel and Celeborn", Galadriel and Celeborn are described as the founders of Eregion, a place chosen by Galadriel out of her desire to gather the Elven and the Dwarvish races against the increasing evil in Middle-earth. Celebrimbor is the chief builder of the realm, but is not mentioned as its lord, although he later seizes the power there.:235-7 Celebrimbor as the founder appears only in a linguistic work, in which Tolkien simply mentions "the settlement at Eregion under Celebrimbor". It is unclear if these texts are necessarily contradictory, but it is clear that trying to explain the rule in Eregion remains problematic.
The published Silmarillion[edit | edit source]
Christopher Tolkien was aware of his father's latest conception, in which Galadriel left Aman free of any guilt. However, as this was a mere projected idea, he had to make use of the completed narratives for his edition of The Silmarillion, in which she is a rebel leader.:232-3 It is notable that in this work there is no explanation of Galadriel's reasons for remaining in Middle-earth after the War of Wrath, save that Celeborn was unwilling to leave, nor is there any mention of a ban against her return or her concerns about the remaining evil. This way, Christopher did not choose any particular position and let the reader guess, but also stripped this character of all development in relation to The Lord of the Rings.
Douglas C. Kane noted that Christopher Tolkien, for his edition, removed some statements on Galadriel from his father's work: Chapter 5's original text said that Galadriel was "the most valiant" lady of the house of Finwë; and Chapter 9's mentioned her as "Galadriel the valiant and fair". According to Kane, Galadriel is not the only female character inexplicably diminished by Christopher's editorial choices.
Portrayal in adaptations[edit | edit source]
|Galadriel in adaptations|
Films[edit | edit source]
- Galadriel is voiced by Annette Crosbie.
- Galadriel is played by Cate Blanchett. Galadriel narrates the Prologue, explaining the creation of the Rings of Power and the War of the Last Alliance. Earlier plans considered were to have either Frodo or Gandalf narrate the Prologue, but this was dropped: Frodo was not alive until thousands of years after these events happened, and although Gandalf was alive, he was not present in Middle-earth at the time; the Wizards came some one thousand years after the Prologue ends. Thus Galadriel narrates the Prologue, because she had first-hand accounts of this history and actively participated in its events.
- Galadriel frequently consults telepathically with Elrond; in the books there is no clear indication of how Galadriel knew about the coming of the Fellowship. In the film, unlike the book, Galadriel and Elrond send an army of Elves - led by Haldir - to Helm's Deep to aid the Rohirrim. In the DVD commentary, Peter Jackson and his fellow writers explain that they worried audiences would wonder why the Elves do not seem to be helping in the war, while at the same time, they felt that actually inserting an entire separate battle scene at Lothlórien would take up too much screen time and resources.
- A spiritual apparition of Lady Galadriel appears to provide Frodo strength following his passage through Shelob's Lair soon after he uses the Phial that she gave him. She is later seen leaving Middle-earth along with other Ring-bearers, but in film version her husband Celeborn departs with her at the same time.
2012-14: The Hobbit (film series):
- Cate Blanchett reprised her role as Galadriel, although the character is absent from the novel. She appears as part of the White Council alongside Saruman, Gandalf and Elrond.Later, right before Thorin and his Company enter in Mirkwood, she telepathically urges Gandalf to further seek the true identity of the Necromancer. Finally, during the attack on Dol Guldur, Galadriel plays a larger role. She first rescues Gandalf from captivity, and is ultimately the one to drive Sauron from the fortress using her phial, although weakened by the amount of power she used.
Television[edit | edit source]
- Galadriel is portrayed by Heidi Krohn. She appears only in the episode Lórien, and she is featured as a reflection on the surface of the lake.
- Galadriel is portrayed by Morfydd Clark as one of the central characters of the series. Lady Amelie Child Villiers portrays Young Galadriel in Episode 1 as a child.
Radio series[edit | edit source]
- The voice of Galadriel is provided by Marian Diamond. In addition to the Lothlórien episodes, the voice of Galadriel is heard in Shelob's Lair as a reminder to use the phial, and she appears with Elrond in the final episode in the Shire, as they journey towards the Grey Havens.
2001-2003: Pán prsteňov (2001-2003 Slovak radio series):
- The voice of Galadriel is provided by Soňa Norisová. Norisová also provides most of the singing in the series (including the opening and closing titles theme and series closing song), alluding to Galadriel being a secondary storyteller (with Bilbo Baggins serving as the series' primary storyteller).
Games[edit | edit source]
- Galadriel, voiced by Jennifer Hale, is the narrator of the Prologue and the Epilogue, and appears in Lothlórien.
- Galadriel is the strongest of "Hero" units available to the Free Peoples. If a player's army manages to spot Gollum on the battlefield, take The One Ring from him and deliver it to their forces, the option to "summon" Galadriel unlocks for a large amount of resources. Thus, Lady Galadriel is represented as succumbing to corruption of The Ring, similar to the respective scene in the The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring movie.
2007: The Lord of the Rings Online:
- Introduced in The Lord of the Rings Online: Mines of Moria, Galadriel plays a prominent role during the Epic storyline with guidance and support. During the final days of the War of the Ring, Galadriel assembles the Council of Elven Lords, where it is decided to bring their armies against Dol Guldur. After she brings down the walls of Dol Guldur, Galadriel accompanies Arwen on her journey south to her wedding, and they visit the site of Celebrian's captivity in the Misty Mountains together. Afterwards, she and Celeborn join the procession of Elrond's house and travel to Minas Tirith to attend the wedding of Arwen and Aragorn.
- Galadriel is featured in the game, although she is a non-playable character. She is voiced by Jennifer Hale and she narrates the prologue in a showing of the game.
2017: Middle-earth: Shadow of War:
- Galadriel is featured in the game, although she is a non-playable character, with Jennifer Hale reprising her role from the game.
- It is never explicitly told she knew these two languages, but it is sure to assume that, given her Vanyarin and Telerin ancestry.
- Years of the Sun. Each Year of the Tree is equal to 9.582 Years of the Sun, and the Years of the Trees ended in the year 1500.
- The nature of Galadriel's exile (if she was innocent or guilty of pride) and the subsequent idea of a ban upon her return were not defined in Tolkien's first conceptions of Galadriel, so she being a rebel exile was a later reinterpretation. He would also change his mind about it, but for this article we chose this version for having the most complete narratives. For a more complete account of this matter, see the entire #Other versions of the legendarium.
- The marriage of Galadriel and Celeborn, as well as when they crossed over the mountains, was not well defined by Tolkien. See #Unsolved contradictions.
- The birth-year of Celebrían was not well defined by Tolkien. See #Unsolved contradictions.
- In the source used here, Galadriel and Celeborn are described as the first founders of Eregion, but later sources mention Celebrimbor as founder and lord of Eregion before their coming. See #Unsolved contradictions.
- As in the previous note, the source used here presents Celebrimbor as a subordinate of Galadriel and Celeborn, so in this episode he leads a coup against them.
- Teleporno was the Teleri-styled named for Lord Celeborn: "It is only of course in the late version that Celeborn appears with a High-elven, rather than Sindarin, name: Teleporno", J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The History of Galadriel and Celeborn", "Appendix E: The Names of Celeborn and Galadriel", p. 266
- Notice that both Annals were (on the matter of Galadriel) the source used by Christopher Tolkien for his edition of the Quenta Silmarillion. For more details see #The published Silmarillion.
- Notice that this text is the main source for the "Second Age" section of this article, in which the contradictions have been deliberately overlooked. For more details see #Unsolved contradictions.
- It is possible, however, that Galadriel first left Beleriand to avoid the cataclysmic war, later came to Lindon to join the surviving exiles, and crossed the Ered Luin again looking for a settlement.
- Called thus by Faramir (J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Two Towers, "The Window on the West").
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Disaster of the Gladden Fields", "Appendix: Númenórean Linear Measures"
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age"
- J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Second Age", p. 1082
- J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age", pp. 1085-8
- J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "The Mirror of Galadriel"
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Morgoth's Ring, "Part Two. The Annals of Aman: Commentary on the fourth section of the Annals of Aman", p. 106
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "XI. The Shibboleth of Fëanor", "The names of Finwë's descendants", pp. 346-7
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "XI. The Shibboleth of Fëanor", "The case of the Quenya change of Þ to s", pp. 337-8
- J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 348, (dated 6 March 1973), p. 428
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Carl F. Hostetter (ed.), The Nature of Middle-earth, "Part Three. The World, its Lands, and its Inhabitants: XVI. Galadriel and Celeborn", p. 352, note 8
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Flight of the Noldor"
- J.R.R. Tolkien, "Notes and Translations", in The Road Goes Ever On (J.R.R. Tolkien, Donald Swann), p. 60
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Return of the Noldor"
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Jewels, "The Grey Annals": §74
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Noldor in Beleriand"
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Carl F. Hostetter (ed.), The Nature of Middle-earth, "Part One. Time and Ageing: IX. Time-scales and Rates of Growth", pp. 65-6
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Carl F. Hostetter (ed.), The Nature of Middle-earth, "Part One. Time and Ageing: XVIII. Elvish Ages & Númenórean", p. 149
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Carl F. Hostetter (ed.), The Nature of Middle-earth, "Part Three. The World, its Lands, and its Inhabitants: IV. The Making of Lembas", p. 296
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Jewels, "The Grey Annals": §91
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Jewels, "The Grey Annals": §108
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Jewels, "The Grey Annals": §129
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Coming of Men into the West"
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Jewels, "The Grey Annals": §§198-199
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Jewels, "The Grey Annals": §275
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Voyage of Eärendil and the War of Wrath"
- J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 297, (dated August 1967), p. 386
- J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Second Age", pp. 1082-4
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Carl F. Hostetter (ed.), The Nature of Middle-earth, "Part One. Time and Ageing: XI. Ageing of Elves", p. 81
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The History of Galadriel and Celeborn", "Concerning Galadriel and Celeborn"
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "Aldarion and Erendis: The Mariner's Wife", The further course of the narrative, pp. 205-6
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The History of Galadriel and Celeborn", "Notes", p. 254, note 7
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The History of Galadriel and Celeborn", "Amroth and Nimrodel", pp. 243-5
- J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "The Mirror of Galadriel", p. 357
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "Cirion and Eorl and the Friendship of Gondor and Rohan", "(ii) The Ride of Eorl", pp. 298-9
- J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "The Tale of Aragorn and Arwen", p. 1060
- J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "Lothlórien", p. 350
- J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Great Years", pp. 1092-4
- J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "Farewell to Lórien", pp. 367-78
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Morgoth's Ring, "Part Three. The Later Quenta Silmarillion: (II) The Second Phase: Laws and Customs among the Eldar", p. 211
- J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Two Towers, "The White Rider", pp. 502-3
- J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Chief Days from the Fall of Barad-dûr to the End of the Third Age", pp. 1095-6
- J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "Many Partings", pp. 976, 983, 985
- J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "The Grey Havens", pp. 1027-30
- J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, "Prologue", pp. 15-6
- J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "Later Events Concerning the Members of the Fellowship of the Ring", p. 1098
- J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "Durin's Folk", p. 1081
- J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 345, (dated 30 November 1972), p. 423
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Appendix: Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names", kal-
- Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (eds), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, pp. 44-5
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Morgoth's Ring, "Part Three. The Later Quenta Silmarillion: (I) The First Phase: 5. Of Eldanor and the Princes of the Eldalië", p. 182 (commentary to §42)
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The History of Galadriel and Celeborn", "Appendix E: The Names of Celeborn and Galadriel", p. 267
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Treason of Isengard, "XII. Lothlórien", pp. 233, 236
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Treason of Isengard, "XIII. Galadriel"
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Treason of Isengard, "XIV. Farewell to Lórien" (viii), p. 286
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Treason of Isengard, "XXVI. The King of the Golden Hall", p. 451, note 18
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Treason of Isengard, "Index", p. 480, entry "Galadriel"
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Morgoth's Ring, "Part Two. The Annals of Aman: Commentary on the fourth section of the Annals of Aman", p. 104, §85
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Morgoth's Ring, "Part Two. The Annals of Aman", p. 48
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Morgoth's Ring, "The Annals of Aman": §§135, 163
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The History of Galadriel and Celeborn", pp. 228-9
- J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 142, (dated 4 August 1953), p. 172
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Jewels, "Part One. The Grey Annals", pp. 35, 40-2, 44, 50
- J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 297, (dated August 1967), p. 386
- J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 320, (dated 25 January 1971), p. 407
- J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 353, (dated 4 August 1973), p. 431
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Jewels, "Part Two. The Later Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Siege of Angband (Chapter 10)", p. 178
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Carl F. Hostetter (ed.), The Nature of Middle-earth, "Part One. Time and Ageing: X. Difficulties in Chronology", p. 73
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The History of Galadriel and Celeborn", "Amroth and Nimrodel", p. 244
- J.R.R. Tolkien, "Words, Phrases and Passages in Various Tongues in The Lord of the Rings", in Parma Eldalamberon XVII (edited by Christopher Gilson), p. 53
- Douglas C. Kane, Arda Reconstructed: The Creation of the Published Silmarillion (2009), pp. 74, 114, 252
- Peter Jackson, "Production begins in New Zealand on The Hobbit" dated 20 March 2011, Facebook (accessed 23 December 2011)
- Alice Jones, "Morfydd Clark on Saint Maud and Lord of the Rings: ‘I am so frightened of loneliness’" dated 10 August 2021, inews.co.uk (accessed 7 April 2021)
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- "Full Cast & Crew", IMDB (accessed 2 September 2022)
House of Finarfin
Cadet branch of House of Finwë
Celebrimbor, as its creator
|Keeper of Nenya|
c. S.A. 1600 - after 29 September, T.A. 3021
Presumably, still Galadriel
Amroth, as King of Lórien
|Lady of Lórien|
T.A. 1981 - 29 September, 3021 (with Celeborn)