Difference between revisions of "Middle-earth"

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'''Middle-earth''' ([[Quenya|Q.]] ''[[Endor]]'') was a large continent of [[Arda]], situated between [[Aman]] to the [[Uttermost West|West]] (across [[Belegaer]]), and the [[Uttermost East|Land of the Sun]] to the [[East]] (across the [[East Sea]]).  
 
'''Middle-earth''' ([[Quenya|Q.]] ''[[Endor]]'') was a large continent of [[Arda]], situated between [[Aman]] to the [[Uttermost West|West]] (across [[Belegaer]]), and the [[Uttermost East|Land of the Sun]] to the [[East]] (across the [[East Sea]]).  
  
Most of the story of Arda takes place in Middle-earth, and it was where the [[Children of Ilúvatar]]: the [[Elves]] and [[Men]], came into being, along with the [[Dwarves]].
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Most of the history of Arda takes place in Middle-earth, and it was where the [[Children of Ilúvatar]]: the [[Elves]] and [[Men]], came into being, along with the [[Dwarves]].
  
 
==Geography==
 
==Geography==
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Middle-earth is a large continent, a mass of land that occupies the central regions of [[Arda]]. It originally lay between two continents: [[Aman]], the uttermost West, separated from Middle-earth by the ocean [[Belegaer]], and the [[Land of the Sun]], the uttermost East, separated by the [[East Sea]].
 
Middle-earth is a large continent, a mass of land that occupies the central regions of [[Arda]]. It originally lay between two continents: [[Aman]], the uttermost West, separated from Middle-earth by the ocean [[Belegaer]], and the [[Land of the Sun]], the uttermost East, separated by the [[East Sea]].
  
In the [[Elder Days]], the two large inland seas of [[Sea of Helcar|Helcar]] and [[Sea of Ringil|Ringil]], created by the demise of the [[Two Lamps]], stood in the centre of Middle-earth to the north and south.
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In the [[Elder Days]], the two large inland seas of [[Sea of Helcar|Helcar]] and [[Sea of Ringil|Ringil]], created by the demise of the [[Two Lamps]], were located to the north and south of the center of middle-earth.
  
The [[Westlands]] are the most well-known regions of the continent, and the only regions which have been mapped in great detail. Of the Westlands, the western portion called '''[[Beleriand]]''' was drowned at the end of the [[First Age]] and survivors relocated to [[Lindon]] and '''[[Eriador]]''', which was separated from Beleriand by the [[Blue Mountains]]. Another region of the Westlands was ''' [[Rhovanion]],''' separated from Eriador by the [[Misty Mountains]].  
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The [[Westlands]] are the most well-known regions of the continent, and the only regions which have been mapped in great detail. Of the Westlands, the western portion called '''[[Beleriand]]''' was drowned at the end of the [[First Age]] and those who survived relocated to [[Lindon]] and '''[[Eriador]]''', which was separated from Beleriand by the [[Blue Mountains]]. Another region of the Westlands was ''' [[Rhovanion]],''' separated from Eriador by the [[Misty Mountains]].  
  
 
The southern portion of the Westlands was around [[Bay of Belfalas|a large bay]], including '''[[Belfalas]]''' the fief of [[Gondor]], and [[Near Harad]] ("Near South").
 
The southern portion of the Westlands was around [[Bay of Belfalas|a large bay]], including '''[[Belfalas]]''' the fief of [[Gondor]], and [[Near Harad]] ("Near South").
  
In the years of the [[Third Age]] before their decline, the sister kingdoms of [[Arnor]] and [[Gondor]] dominated the Westlands. Arnor was the northern kingdom of the two, and Gondor the southern.
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During the [[Third Age]] before their decline, the sister kingdoms of [[Arnor]] and [[Gondor]] dominated the Westlands. Arnor was the northern kingdom of the two, and Gondor the southern.
  
Of the [[East]] and South of Middle-earth little is known, other than names such as '''[[Rhûn]]''' and '''[[Khand]]''', found east of '''[[Mordor]]''', and the '''[[Far Harad]]''' (Far South); but how far they extended is unknown. Another name of the East was the '''[[Empty Lands]]'''.  
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Little is known about the [[East]] and South of Middle-earth, other than names such as '''[[Rhûn]]''' and '''[[Khand]]''', found east of '''[[Mordor]]''', and the '''[[Far Harad]]''' (Far South); although their size is unknown. Another name of the East was the '''[[Empty Lands]]'''.  
  
Through the distant north-east of Middle-earth ran the [[Orocarni|Red Mountains]], and to the distant south-east the [[Yellow Mountains]], which mirrored the Blue Mountains and the [[Grey Mountains (ancient)|Grey Mountains]] of the north-west and south-west respectively. On the shores of the Sea of Helcar near to the Red Mountains was '''[[Cuiviénen]]''', the cradle of the [[Elves]]. In the far east between the Red Mountains and the Yellow Mountains there were the [[Mountains of the Wind]], and between these mountains and the easternmost shores of Middle-earth there stood '''[[Hildórien]]''', the cradle of [[Men]]. There was also a mythical [[Last Desert]] in the "East of East", but its status or existence in the later years was unknown.
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Through the distant north-east of Middle-earth ran the [[Orocarni|Red Mountains]], and to the distant south-east the [[Yellow Mountains]], which mirrored the Blue Mountains and the [[Grey Mountains (ancient)|Grey Mountains]] of the north-west and south-west respectively. The cradle of the [[Elves]], '''[[Cuiviénen]]''' was located on the shores of the Sea of Helcar near the Red Mountains. In the far east between the Red Mountains and the Yellow Mountains were the [[Mountains of the Wind]], and between these mountains and the easternmost shores of Middle-earth stood '''[[Hildórien]]''', the cradle of [[Men]]. There was also a mythical [[Last Desert]] in the "East of East", however its status or existence during the later years was unknown.
  
 
==History==
 
==History==
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[[Aulë]] built Middle-earth amidst the [[Ekkaia|encircling sea]]. To the [[North]], the [[Valar]] set the lamp of [[Illuin]], and to the [[South]], the lamp of [[Ormal]], and their light mingled in the middle of the continent, occupied by the island [[Almaren]], the dwelling of the Valar.<ref>{{S|1}}</ref>
 
[[Aulë]] built Middle-earth amidst the [[Ekkaia|encircling sea]]. To the [[North]], the [[Valar]] set the lamp of [[Illuin]], and to the [[South]], the lamp of [[Ormal]], and their light mingled in the middle of the continent, occupied by the island [[Almaren]], the dwelling of the Valar.<ref>{{S|1}}</ref>
  
Arda was initially a flat, symmetric shape, until the [[Valar]] (and [[Morgoth]]) created several seas and mountains. Two seas, [[Belegaer]] to the west and the [[East Sea]], formed a central landmass in the centre of Arda, the earliest shape of what would be the [[Great Lands]] of Middle-earth. Major features of that landmass were two central inland seas: the Sea of Helcar in the north and the Sea of Ringil in the south. Around them, massive mountain chains were formed, the Blue Mountains and Red Mountains to the north, and the [[Grey Mountains]] and [[Yellow Mountains]] to the south. The [[Mountains of the Wind]] were a smaller chain in the [[East]], standing south of the [[Red Mountains]] and north of the [[Yellow Mountains]].<ref>{{SM|Ambar}}</ref>
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Arda was initially flat, and symmetrical until the [[Valar]] (and [[Morgoth]]) created several seas and mountains. Two seas, [[Belegaer]] to the west and the [[East Sea]], formed a landmass in the centre of Arda, the earliest form of what would later be known as the [[Great Lands]] of Middle-earth. Major geographical features of that landmass were two central inland seas: the Sea of Helcar in the north and the Sea of Ringil in the south. Around them, massive mountain ranges were formed, the Blue Mountains and Red Mountains to the north, and the [[Grey Mountains]] and [[Yellow Mountains]] to the south. The [[Mountains of the Wind]] were a smaller range in the [[East]], located south of the [[Red Mountains]] and north of the [[Yellow Mountains]].<ref>{{SM|Ambar}}</ref>
  
Eventually the Valar left the Great Lands for the [[Uttermost West]], leaving Morgoth and his creatures in his fortress at [[Utumno]], behind the [[Iron Mountains]] in the north of Middle-earth. Morgoth would also erect the [[Misty Mountains]] between the Blue Mountains and Red Mountains to hinder the Vala [[Oromë]], who hunted his creatures.<ref>{{HM|Guide}}, entry "Misty Mountains"</ref> In later days, during the [[Battle of the Powers]], the Sea of Ringil would merge with the East Sea, separating Middle-earth from a new continent to its south-east known as the [[Dark Land]]. To the west the shores of the Great Sea advanced upon the land as well, forming the [[Great Gulf]] between the lands of [[Beleriand]] and the lands of the south.<ref>{{SM|Ambar}}</ref>
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Eventually the Valar left the Great Lands for the [[Uttermost West]], leaving Morgoth and his creatures in his fortress at [[Utumno]], behind the [[Iron Mountains]] in the north of Middle-earth. Morgoth would later erect the [[Misty Mountains]] between the Blue Mountains and Red Mountains to hinder the Vala [[Oromë]], who hunted his creatures.<ref>{{HM|Guide}}, entry "Misty Mountains"</ref> During the [[Battle of the Powers]], the Sea of Ringil would merge with the East Sea, separating Middle-earth from a new continent to its south-east known as the [[Dark Land]]. To the west the shores of the Great Sea advanced upon the land as well, forming the [[Great Gulf]] dividing the lands of [[Beleriand]] from the lands of the south.<ref>{{SM|Ambar}}</ref>
 
[[File:Sage - Beleriand and Eriador collage.png|thumb|[[Karen Wynn Fonstad]]'s drawing of western Middle-earth showing a deluged Beleriand adjacent to Eriador]]
 
[[File:Sage - Beleriand and Eriador collage.png|thumb|[[Karen Wynn Fonstad]]'s drawing of western Middle-earth showing a deluged Beleriand adjacent to Eriador]]
During the [[First Age]] and the ages preceding, the western side of Middle-earth was called Beleriand, stretching from the Ered Luin to the great ocean of Belegaer. On the northern edge of Beleriand were the fierce Ered Engrin, the Iron Mountains. Even further north was the freezing [[Dor Daedeloth]]. Just southwest of the Ered Engrin was [[Hithlum]], which was separated from the coast of [[Lammoth]] and Belegaer by the [[Ered Lómin]], and from the rest of Beleriand to the south by the [[Ered Wethrin]]. The woven wood of [[Doriath]] rested directly south of the [[Thangorodrim]] and [[Dorthonion]], southeast of Hithlum. To the West of Doriath were [[Taur-en-Faroth]] and the [[Falas]], while to the east were [[Nan Elmoth]] and [[Thargelion]] before reaching the [[Ered Luin]]. To the south of Doriath were first the [[Andram]], then [[Arvernien]] and the [[Bay of Balar]]. East of the Bay of Balar and extending ever further south into the unknown lands were the [[Taur-im-Duinath]] and [[Ossiriand]].
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During the [[First Age]] and the ages preceding, the western side of Middle-earth was called Beleriand, stretching from the Ered Luin to the great ocean of Belegaer. On the northern edge of Beleriand were the fierce Ered Engrin, the Iron Mountains. Further north was the freezing [[Dor Daedeloth]]. Southwest of the Ered Engrin was [[Hithlum]], separated from the coast of [[Lammoth]] and Belegaer by the [[Ered Lómin]], and from the rest of Beleriand to the south by the [[Ered Wethrin]]. The woven wood of [[Doriath]] rested directly south of the [[Thangorodrim]] and [[Dorthonion]], southeast of Hithlum. West of Doriath were [[Taur-en-Faroth]] and the [[Falas]], and to the east was [[Nan Elmoth]] and [[Thargelion]] before reaching the [[Ered Luin]]. South of Doriath were first the [[Andram]], then [[Arvernien]] and the [[Bay of Balar]]. East of the Bay of Balar and extending ever further south into the unknown lands were the [[Taur-im-Duinath]] and [[Ossiriand]].
  
East of the Ered Luin was a land encircled by four mountain ranges: the Ered Luin to the West, the Ered Engrin to the North, the Misty Mountains to the East, and some of the [[White Mountains]] to the South. [[Eriador]] was within these boundaries. Passing even further East, over the Hithaeglir, was the Great River [[Anduin]], and eventually [[Palisor]] and the East Sea.
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East of the Ered Luin was a land surrounded by four mountain ranges: the Ered Luin to the West, the Ered Engrin to the North, the Misty Mountains to the East, and some of the [[White Mountains]] to the South. [[Eriador]] was within these boundaries. Even further East, past the Hithaeglir, was the Great River [[Anduin]], [[Palisor]], and the East Sea.
  
After the end of the First Age and the drowning of Beleriand, the geography east of the Ered Luin shifted. The Ered Luin themselves, now broken up and disfigured, marked the western border of [[Eriador]], and thence [[Lindon]] and Belegaer itself. Eriador, now the Westernmost part of Middle-earth, was bordered on the East by the Misty Mountains, which stretched down south to the White Mountains and the [[Bay of Belfalas]]. Across the Misty Mountains from Eriador was Rhovanion, which extended east to the [[Sea of Rhûn]] and the vast lands of Rhûn beyond. Within Rhovanion were the great forest of [[Mirkwood]], the forest of [[Fangorn Forest|Fangorn]], and the many-rivered area that would become known as [[Gondor]]. To the east was the region of [[Mordor]], encircled on three sides by mountains. To the far north of Rhovanion was the icy [[Forodwaith (lands)|Forodwaith]], and where the Great Sea had advanced at its most there was the [[Icebay of Forochel]].
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After the First Age and the drowning of Beleriand, the geography east of the Ered Luin shifted. The Ered Luin themselves, now broken up and disfigured, marked the western border of [[Eriador]], and thence [[Lindon]] and Belegaer itself. Eriador, now the Westernmost part of Middle-earth, was bordered on the East by the Misty Mountains, which stretched south to the White Mountains and the [[Bay of Belfalas]]. Across the Misty Mountains from Eriador was Rhovanion, which extended eastwards to the [[Sea of Rhûn]] and the vast lands of Rhûn beyond. Within Rhovanion were the great forests of: [[Mirkwood]], [[Fangorn Forest|Fangorn Forest]], and the many-rivered area that became known as [[Gondor]]. Eastwards was the region of [[Mordor]], bordered on three sides by mountains. Far north of Rhovanion was the icy [[Forodwaith (lands)|Forodwaith]], and where the Great Sea had advanced at its most there was the [[Icebay of Forochel]].
  
The coasts of Middle-earth were changed once more in the cataclysm of the [[Downfall of Númenor]]. In many places the Great Sea advanced upon the land, but in some places it shrank back. Lindon suffered especially great loss of land at this time, while to the south the eastern and southern shores of the Bay of Belfalas shrank back, putting the city of [[Pelargir]] much farther inland than it had once been. The Anduin river found new paths to the sea afterwards, forming the [[Ethir Anduin]].<ref>{{PM|Second}} p. 183</ref>
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The coasts of Middle-earth changed once more, in the cataclysm of the [[Downfall of Númenor]]. In many places the Great Sea advanced upon the land, but in others it shrank back. Lindon suffered a great loss of land at this time. While to the south, the eastern and southern shores of the Bay of Belfalas shrank back, pushing the city of [[Pelargir]] much farther inland. The Anduin river found new paths to the sea afterwards, forming the [[Ethir Anduin]].<ref>{{PM|Second}} p. 183</ref>
  
Long after the [[Fourth Age]], all lands had changed their shape. The [[Hobbits]] are said to have lingered long after in the same north-western regions east of the Sea, in what was known as the Old World.<ref>{{FR|Hobbits}}</ref>
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Long after the [[Fourth Age]], the lands had all changed their shape. The [[Hobbits]] were said to have lingered long after in the same north-western regions east of the Sea, in what was known as the Old World.<ref>{{FR|Hobbits}}</ref>
  
 
==Other names==
 
==Other names==
The peoples called Middle-earth by several names. The Elves called the continent ''[[Endóre]]'' or ''[[Endor]]'' in [[Quenya]], meaning "middle land"; the [[Sindarin]] form was ''[[Ennor]]'', also used in the plural ''ennorath'': "middle lands, lands of Middle-earth".
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The peoples called Middle-earth by several names. The Elves called the continent ''[[Endóre]]'' or ''[[Endor]]'' in [[Quenya]], meaning "middle land"; the [[Sindarin]] word was ''[[Ennor]]'', also used in the plural ''ennorath'': "middle lands, lands of Middle-earth".
  
 
Other epithets of the continent were '''[[Hither Lands]]''' or '''Outer Lands''' in ''[[The Silmarillion]]'',<ref name=ix>{{S|Index}}</ref> contrasted to [[Aman]] beyond the sea. In the ''[[Akallabêth]]'' it was also the '''Great Lands''',<ref name=ix/>, since it was so much larger than the island of [[Elenna]]. King [[Tar-Meneldur]] of [[Númenor]] also used the name Great Lands, and further '''Dark Lands''' in his speech to his son [[Aldarion]].<ref>{{UT|4}}.</ref>
 
Other epithets of the continent were '''[[Hither Lands]]''' or '''Outer Lands''' in ''[[The Silmarillion]]'',<ref name=ix>{{S|Index}}</ref> contrasted to [[Aman]] beyond the sea. In the ''[[Akallabêth]]'' it was also the '''Great Lands''',<ref name=ix/>, since it was so much larger than the island of [[Elenna]]. King [[Tar-Meneldur]] of [[Númenor]] also used the name Great Lands, and further '''Dark Lands''' in his speech to his son [[Aldarion]].<ref>{{UT|4}}.</ref>
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[[J.R.R. Tolkien|Tolkien]] created Arda, especially Middle-earth, for his languages [[Quenya]] and [[Sindarin]], especially the latter. To Tolkien, a scholar of the [[Old English|Anglo-Saxon]] language, Middle-earth was the English translation of the Old English word ''middanġeard''. This word was transformed in the [[Middle English]] ''midden-erd'' or ''middel-erd'', and the [[Old Norse]] ''Midgard''. This is English for what the Greeks called the &omicron;&iota;&kappa;&omicron;&upsilon;&mu;&#941;&nu;&eta; (''oikoumen&#x113;'') or "the abiding place of men", the physical world as opposed to the unseen worlds.<ref>{{L|151}}</ref>
 
[[J.R.R. Tolkien|Tolkien]] created Arda, especially Middle-earth, for his languages [[Quenya]] and [[Sindarin]], especially the latter. To Tolkien, a scholar of the [[Old English|Anglo-Saxon]] language, Middle-earth was the English translation of the Old English word ''middanġeard''. This word was transformed in the [[Middle English]] ''midden-erd'' or ''middel-erd'', and the [[Old Norse]] ''Midgard''. This is English for what the Greeks called the &omicron;&iota;&kappa;&omicron;&upsilon;&mu;&#941;&nu;&eta; (''oikoumen&#x113;'') or "the abiding place of men", the physical world as opposed to the unseen worlds.<ref>{{L|151}}</ref>
  
The ancient peoples called the world "middle-earth", since it was imagined to be between the realm of the Giants below and the realm of the gods above. However, in Tolkien's cosmology the name Middle-earth refers only to a continent, which (in the First and Second Ages) is set between two seas, [[Belegaer]] and the [[East Sea]].
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The ancient peoples called the world "middle-earth", since it was imagined to be above the realm of the Giants and below the realm of the gods. However, in Tolkien's cosmology the name Middle-earth refers only to a continent, which (in the First and Second Ages) is set between two seas, [[Belegaer]] and the [[East Sea]].
  
 
[[Henry Resnick]] quoted Tolkien as saying that, "Middle-earth is Europe".<ref>[[Tolkien Journal]] II, 2 p. 1</ref> However, Tolkien designed his maps to accommodate the mythology,  conscious that they did not fit the ancient Earth as understood by contemporary archaeology and historical geology.<ref>{{L|169}}</ref><ref name=L211/>
 
[[Henry Resnick]] quoted Tolkien as saying that, "Middle-earth is Europe".<ref>[[Tolkien Journal]] II, 2 p. 1</ref> However, Tolkien designed his maps to accommodate the mythology,  conscious that they did not fit the ancient Earth as understood by contemporary archaeology and historical geology.<ref>{{L|169}}</ref><ref name=L211/>
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==Appendix==
 
==Appendix==
 
===Terminology===
 
===Terminology===
The ''continent'' of Middle-earth is the main setting of most of the stories in the [[legendarium]]. There are a few stories that take place in [[Aman]] (such as some chapters of ''[[The Silmarillion]]'') and [[Númenor]] (such as the ''[[Akallabêth]]'' and ''[[Aldarion and Erendis: The Mariner's Wife|Aldarion and Erendis]]'').
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The ''continent'' of Middle-earth is the primary setting of most of the stories in the [[legendarium]]. Although there are several stories that take place in [[Aman]] (such as some chapters of ''[[The Silmarillion]]'') and [[Númenor]] (such as the ''[[Akallabêth]]'' and ''[[Aldarion and Erendis: The Mariner's Wife|Aldarion and Erendis]]'').
  
In the [[fandom]], the term "Middle-earth" is used to refer to Tolkien's [[secondary world]], or [[Wikipedia:fictional universe|fictional universe]] in general, including its pantheon and cosmology. Tolkien himself used the term loosely at times to refer to his creation.<ref name=wiki/>
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In the [[fandom]], the term "Middle-earth" generally refers to Tolkien's [[secondary world]], or [[Wikipedia:fictional universe|fictional universe]], including its pantheon and cosmology. Tolkien himself used the term loosely at times to refer to his creation.<ref name=wiki/>
 
[[File:The Atlas of Middle-earth.jpg|thumb|Being actually ''The Atlas of '''Arda''''']]
 
[[File:The Atlas of Middle-earth.jpg|thumb|Being actually ''The Atlas of '''Arda''''']]
As a result, "Middle-earth" is used synonymously with "Arda" as a more recognisable term for titles such as ''[[The Complete Guide to Middle-earth]]'' and ''[[The Atlas of Middle-earth]]'', even while their scope is beyond the strict geographical definition of the continent of Endor. Even [[Christopher Tolkien]], while publishing the early drafts and manuscripts of his father, titled the series ''[[The History of Middle-earth]]'',<ref name=wiki>{{webcite|articleurl=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle-earth#Usage_and_misunderstandings|articlename=Middle-earth - Usage and misunderstandings|website=Wikipedia}}</ref> thus equating the term "Middle-earth" with the entire legendarium. Wikipedia pages are an example of this usage, with article names such as [[Wikipedia:Elf (Middle-earth)|Elf (Middle-earth)]] and the (somewhat erroneous) [[Wikipedia:Arda (Middle-earth)|Arda (Middle-earth)]].
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As a result, "Middle-earth" is used synonymously with "Arda" as a more recognisable term for titles such as ''[[The Complete Guide to Middle-earth]]'' and ''[[The Atlas of Middle-earth]]'', while their scope is beyond the strict geographical definition of the continent of Endor. Even [[Christopher Tolkien]], while publishing the early drafts and manuscripts of his father, titled the series ''[[The History of Middle-earth]]'',<ref name=wiki>{{webcite|articleurl=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle-earth#Usage_and_misunderstandings|articlename=Middle-earth - Usage and misunderstandings|website=Wikipedia}}</ref> thus equating the term "Middle-earth" with the entire legendarium. Wikipedia pages are an example of this usage, with article names such as [[Wikipedia:Elf (Middle-earth)|Elf (Middle-earth)]] and the (somewhat erroneous) [[Wikipedia:Arda (Middle-earth)|Arda (Middle-earth)]].
  
The more proper but technical term "[[Arda]]", which refers to the whole world proper, first appeared in ''[[The Silmarillion]]''<ref name=wiki/>. It is sometimes used to appropriately refer to the world of Tolkien, as seen in the names of ''[[Encyclopedia of Arda]]'' or ''[[Ardalambion]]''.
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The proper but technical term "[[Arda]]", first appearing in ''[[The Silmarillion]]''<ref name=wiki/>, refers to the entirety of Tolkien's world, and is seen in the names of ''[[Encyclopedia of Arda]]'' or ''[[Ardalambion]]''.
  
Another misuse of the term is the equation of "Middle-earth" with the mapped regions, as seen in the maps with ''Lord of the Rings''. Actually, these regions are just the [[Westlands]] of Middle-earth: they are only the north-western portion of the continent.  How far Middle-earth extends to the [[East]] and the [[South]] of the map is unknown. Although [[Mordor]] is seen to the south-eastern corner of the map, that does not mean it belongs to the south-eastern Middle-earth, as there are presumably other lands to the east and south.<ref>{{HM|Guide}}, entry "Middle-earth"</ref> [[Karen Fonstad]] has attempted to reconstruct the entirety of the continent, beyond the Westlands, based on an [[:File:J.R.R. Tolkien - Ambarkanta Map V.png|early map by Tolkien]].<ref>{{HM|AME}}</ref>
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A frequent misuse of the term is the equation of "Middle-earth" with the mapped regions, as seen in the maps with ''Lord of the Rings''. Actually, these regions are just the [[Westlands]] of Middle-earth: the north-western portion of the continent.  How far Middle-earth extends to the [[East]] and the [[South]] of the map is unknown. Although [[Mordor]] is seen to the south-eastern corner of the map, that does not mean it belongs to the south-eastern Middle-earth, as there are presumably other lands to the east and south.<ref>{{HM|Guide}}, entry "Middle-earth"</ref> [[Karen Fonstad]] has attempted to reconstruct the entirety of the continent, beyond the Westlands, based on an [[:File:J.R.R. Tolkien - Ambarkanta Map V.png|early map by Tolkien]].<ref>{{HM|AME}}</ref>
  
 
===Middle-earth and the Old World===
 
===Middle-earth and the Old World===
In his earliest drafts of the [[legendarium]], ''[[The Book of Lost Tales]]'', the mythology had more direct connections with our history: [[Littleheart]] compares the [[Fall of Gondolin]] with the fall of "[[Wikipedia:Babylon|Bablon]]", "[[Wikipedia:Nineveh|Ninwi]]" and "[[Wikipedia:Troy|Trui]]".<Ref>{{LT2|III}}</ref> The [[Mannish]] language of [[Taliska]] was based on [[Gothic]].<ref>{{PE|19}}, "The Comparative Tales", p. 22</ref> Britain was supposed to be former [[Tol Eressea]] that was driven towards the [[Great Lands]], with Ireland (the Isle of [[Iverin]]) being a part that broke from it. The main character [[Ottor Wǽfre]] was intended to be the father of legendary figures [[Wikipedia:Hengest|Hengest]] and [[Wikipedia:Horsa|Horsa]], who conquered England from the Guidlin, the [[Wikipedia:Britons (Celtic people)|Brithonin]] and the [[Wikipedia:Ancient Rome|Rumhoth]]. In a later sketch, the [[Elves]] were from the region of [[Luthany]] before it was pulled out of the mainland and became an island.<ref>{{LT2|VI}}</ref>
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In the earliest drafts of the [[legendarium]], ''[[The Book of Lost Tales]]'', the mythology had more direct connections with our history: [[Littleheart]] compares the [[Fall of Gondolin]] with the fall of "[[Wikipedia:Babylon|Bablon]]", "[[Wikipedia:Nineveh|Ninwi]]" and "[[Wikipedia:Troy|Trui]]".<Ref>{{LT2|III}}</ref> The [[Mannish]] language of [[Taliska]] was based on [[Gothic]].<ref>{{PE|19}}, "The Comparative Tales", p. 22</ref> Britain was supposed to be former [[Tol Eressea]] that was driven towards the [[Great Lands]], with Ireland (the Isle of [[Iverin]]) being a part that broke from it. The main character [[Ottor Wǽfre]] was intended to be the father of legendary figures [[Wikipedia:Hengest|Hengest]] and [[Wikipedia:Horsa|Horsa]], who conquered England from the Guidlin, the [[Wikipedia:Britons (Celtic people)|Brithonin]] and the [[Wikipedia:Ancient Rome|Rumhoth]]. In a later sketch, the [[Elves]] were from the region of [[Luthany]] before being pulled out of the mainland and becoming an island.<ref>{{LT2|VI}}</ref>
  
 
Tolkien envisioned his stories to take place on our world, in an imaginary historical period that contains the essentials of northwestern Europe. He did not see his stories as happening on a "remote globe in 'space'", as was the case with other contemporary fiction.<ref>{{L|183}}</ref>
 
Tolkien envisioned his stories to take place on our world, in an imaginary historical period that contains the essentials of northwestern Europe. He did not see his stories as happening on a "remote globe in 'space'", as was the case with other contemporary fiction.<ref>{{L|183}}</ref>
  
As for the later legendarium, [[The Shire]] not only was conceptually based on rural England,<ref>{{L|190}}</ref> but also was expressly stated to be "in this region",<ref name=L211>{{L|211}}</ref> "the North-West of the [[Wikipedia:Old World|Old World]], east of the Sea".<ref>{{FR|Prologue}}</ref>  
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As for the later legendarium, [[The Shire]] was not only conceptually based on rural England,<ref>{{L|190}}</ref> but was also expressly stated to be "in this region",<ref name=L211>{{L|211}}</ref> "the North-West of the [[Wikipedia:Old World|Old World]], east of the Sea".<ref>{{FR|Prologue}}</ref>  
  
 
[[File:Didier Willis - Middle-earth and Europe projection.png|thumb|left|Experimental projection of the Westlands over Europe]]
 
[[File:Didier Willis - Middle-earth and Europe projection.png|thumb|left|Experimental projection of the Westlands over Europe]]
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[[File:Pete Fenlon - MERP map.jpg|thumb|The whole continent of Middle-earth as envisioned in ''[[Middle-earth Role Playing]]'']]
 
[[File:Pete Fenlon - MERP map.jpg|thumb|The whole continent of Middle-earth as envisioned in ''[[Middle-earth Role Playing]]'']]
Middle-earth has been depicted in a variety of adaptations of Tolkien's work, the most prominent of which have been the [[The Lord of the Rings (film series)|''Lord of the Rings'']] and [[The Hobbit (film series)|''Hobbit'']] film trilogies by [[Peter Jackson]]. Middle-earth has appeared in animation in [[Ralph Bakshi]]'s ''[[The Lord of the Rings (1978 film)|The Lord of the Rings]]'' and [[Rankin/Bass]]' adaptations of ''[[The Hobbit (1977 film)|The Hobbit]]'' and ''[[The Return of the King (1980 film)|The Return of the King]]''. Middle-earth has also been adapted for numerous video games such as ''[[The Lord of the Rings Online]]'' and ''[[The Lord of the Rings: War in the North|War in the North]]'' and tabletop role-playing games like the ''[[Middle-earth Role Playing]]'' system by [[Iron Crown Enterprises]].
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Middle-earth has been depicted in a variety of adaptations of Tolkien's work, the most prominent of which have been the [[The Lord of the Rings (film series)|''Lord of the Rings'']] and [[The Hobbit (film series)|''Hobbit'']] film trilogies by [[Peter Jackson]]. Middle-earth has appeared in animation in [[Ralph Bakshi]]'s ''[[The Lord of the Rings (1978 film)|The Lord of the Rings]]'' and [[Rankin/Bass]]' adaptations of ''[[The Hobbit (1977 film)|The Hobbit]]'' and ''[[The Return of the King (1980 film)|The Return of the King]]''. Middle-earth has also appeared in numerous video games such as ''[[The Lord of the Rings Online]]'' and ''[[The Lord of the Rings: War in the North|War in the North]]'' and tabletop role-playing games like the ''[[Middle-earth Role Playing]]'' system by [[Iron Crown Enterprises]].
  
 
Each adaptation has made changes, subtractions, or additions to Tolkien's creation, often adding new locations, creatures, or characters. For the most part, however, the overall geography and style of Tolkien's Middle-earth have been retained.
 
Each adaptation has made changes, subtractions, or additions to Tolkien's creation, often adding new locations, creatures, or characters. For the most part, however, the overall geography and style of Tolkien's Middle-earth have been retained.

Revision as of 03:03, 7 September 2022

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Middle-earth
Continent
John Howe - The Map of Middle-earth.jpg
"The Map of Middle-earth" by John Howe
General Information
Other namesEnnorath, Endor
LocationArda, east of Belegaer
TypeContinent
RegionsThe Westlands (Beleriand, Rohan, Gondor, Arnor, Mordor, Rhovanion, Forodwaith), Harad, Rhûn, Cuiviénen, Hildorien, others
People and History
InhabitantsMen, Elves, Dwarves, Orcs, Hobbits, Ents, others
EventsSleep of Yavanna, Battle of the Powers, Great March, War of the Jewels, Dark Years, Changing of the World, War of the Ring
GalleryImages of Middle-earth
"The green earth, say you? That is a mighty matter of legend, though you tread it under the light of day!"
Aragorn in The Two Towers, "The Riders of Rohan"

Middle-earth (Q. Endor) was a large continent of Arda, situated between Aman to the West (across Belegaer), and the Land of the Sun to the East (across the East Sea).

Most of the history of Arda takes place in Middle-earth, and it was where the Children of Ilúvatar: the Elves and Men, came into being, along with the Dwarves.

Geography

The northern regions of Middle-earth as envisioned by Karen Wynn Fonstad in The Atlas of Middle-earth

Middle-earth is a large continent, a mass of land that occupies the central regions of Arda. It originally lay between two continents: Aman, the uttermost West, separated from Middle-earth by the ocean Belegaer, and the Land of the Sun, the uttermost East, separated by the East Sea.

In the Elder Days, the two large inland seas of Helcar and Ringil, created by the demise of the Two Lamps, were located to the north and south of the center of middle-earth.

The Westlands are the most well-known regions of the continent, and the only regions which have been mapped in great detail. Of the Westlands, the western portion called Beleriand was drowned at the end of the First Age and those who survived relocated to Lindon and Eriador, which was separated from Beleriand by the Blue Mountains. Another region of the Westlands was Rhovanion, separated from Eriador by the Misty Mountains.

The southern portion of the Westlands was around a large bay, including Belfalas the fief of Gondor, and Near Harad ("Near South").

During the Third Age before their decline, the sister kingdoms of Arnor and Gondor dominated the Westlands. Arnor was the northern kingdom of the two, and Gondor the southern.

Little is known about the East and South of Middle-earth, other than names such as Rhûn and Khand, found east of Mordor, and the Far Harad (Far South); although their size is unknown. Another name of the East was the Empty Lands.

Through the distant north-east of Middle-earth ran the Red Mountains, and to the distant south-east the Yellow Mountains, which mirrored the Blue Mountains and the Grey Mountains of the north-west and south-west respectively. The cradle of the Elves, Cuiviénen was located on the shores of the Sea of Helcar near the Red Mountains. In the far east between the Red Mountains and the Yellow Mountains were the Mountains of the Wind, and between these mountains and the easternmost shores of Middle-earth stood Hildórien, the cradle of Men. There was also a mythical Last Desert in the "East of East", however its status or existence during the later years was unknown.

History

This is the geographical history. For events happening in Middle-earth, see Timeline.
Early Arda

Aulë built Middle-earth amidst the encircling sea. To the North, the Valar set the lamp of Illuin, and to the South, the lamp of Ormal, and their light mingled in the middle of the continent, occupied by the island Almaren, the dwelling of the Valar.[1]

Arda was initially flat, and symmetrical until the Valar (and Morgoth) created several seas and mountains. Two seas, Belegaer to the west and the East Sea, formed a landmass in the centre of Arda, the earliest form of what would later be known as the Great Lands of Middle-earth. Major geographical features of that landmass were two central inland seas: the Sea of Helcar in the north and the Sea of Ringil in the south. Around them, massive mountain ranges were formed, the Blue Mountains and Red Mountains to the north, and the Grey Mountains and Yellow Mountains to the south. The Mountains of the Wind were a smaller range in the East, located south of the Red Mountains and north of the Yellow Mountains.[2]

Eventually the Valar left the Great Lands for the Uttermost West, leaving Morgoth and his creatures in his fortress at Utumno, behind the Iron Mountains in the north of Middle-earth. Morgoth would later erect the Misty Mountains between the Blue Mountains and Red Mountains to hinder the Vala Oromë, who hunted his creatures.[3] During the Battle of the Powers, the Sea of Ringil would merge with the East Sea, separating Middle-earth from a new continent to its south-east known as the Dark Land. To the west the shores of the Great Sea advanced upon the land as well, forming the Great Gulf dividing the lands of Beleriand from the lands of the south.[4]

Karen Wynn Fonstad's drawing of western Middle-earth showing a deluged Beleriand adjacent to Eriador

During the First Age and the ages preceding, the western side of Middle-earth was called Beleriand, stretching from the Ered Luin to the great ocean of Belegaer. On the northern edge of Beleriand were the fierce Ered Engrin, the Iron Mountains. Further north was the freezing Dor Daedeloth. Southwest of the Ered Engrin was Hithlum, separated from the coast of Lammoth and Belegaer by the Ered Lómin, and from the rest of Beleriand to the south by the Ered Wethrin. The woven wood of Doriath rested directly south of the Thangorodrim and Dorthonion, southeast of Hithlum. West of Doriath were Taur-en-Faroth and the Falas, and to the east was Nan Elmoth and Thargelion before reaching the Ered Luin. South of Doriath were first the Andram, then Arvernien and the Bay of Balar. East of the Bay of Balar and extending ever further south into the unknown lands were the Taur-im-Duinath and Ossiriand.

East of the Ered Luin was a land surrounded by four mountain ranges: the Ered Luin to the West, the Ered Engrin to the North, the Misty Mountains to the East, and some of the White Mountains to the South. Eriador was within these boundaries. Even further East, past the Hithaeglir, was the Great River Anduin, Palisor, and the East Sea.

After the First Age and the drowning of Beleriand, the geography east of the Ered Luin shifted. The Ered Luin themselves, now broken up and disfigured, marked the western border of Eriador, and thence Lindon and Belegaer itself. Eriador, now the Westernmost part of Middle-earth, was bordered on the East by the Misty Mountains, which stretched south to the White Mountains and the Bay of Belfalas. Across the Misty Mountains from Eriador was Rhovanion, which extended eastwards to the Sea of Rhûn and the vast lands of Rhûn beyond. Within Rhovanion were the great forests of: Mirkwood, Fangorn Forest, and the many-rivered area that became known as Gondor. Eastwards was the region of Mordor, bordered on three sides by mountains. Far north of Rhovanion was the icy Forodwaith, and where the Great Sea had advanced at its most there was the Icebay of Forochel.

The coasts of Middle-earth changed once more, in the cataclysm of the Downfall of Númenor. In many places the Great Sea advanced upon the land, but in others it shrank back. Lindon suffered a great loss of land at this time. While to the south, the eastern and southern shores of the Bay of Belfalas shrank back, pushing the city of Pelargir much farther inland. The Anduin river found new paths to the sea afterwards, forming the Ethir Anduin.[5]

Long after the Fourth Age, the lands had all changed their shape. The Hobbits were said to have lingered long after in the same north-western regions east of the Sea, in what was known as the Old World.[6]

Other names

The peoples called Middle-earth by several names. The Elves called the continent Endóre or Endor in Quenya, meaning "middle land"; the Sindarin word was Ennor, also used in the plural ennorath: "middle lands, lands of Middle-earth".

Other epithets of the continent were Hither Lands or Outer Lands in The Silmarillion,[7] contrasted to Aman beyond the sea. In the Akallabêth it was also the Great Lands,[7], since it was so much larger than the island of Elenna. King Tar-Meneldur of Númenor also used the name Great Lands, and further Dark Lands in his speech to his son Aldarion.[8]

In verses such as the Song of Eärendil and songs of Galadriel,[9][10] it is referred to as the Hither Shores. The Hobbits envisioned Middle-earth as the Wide World.[11]

Other versions of the legendarium

In The Book of Lost Tales, Middle-earth was usually called the Great Lands. The name "Middle-earth" was never used until the writings from the 1930s.[12] Originally the name in the Lost Tales was Outer Lands, but Tolkien gave the name a different meaning, "lands West of the Great Sea", and amended it to "Great Lands".[12][13] Once is found the name Lands Without,[14] that is: "Lands without Valinor".[15]

Inspiration

Tolkien created Arda, especially Middle-earth, for his languages Quenya and Sindarin, especially the latter. To Tolkien, a scholar of the Anglo-Saxon language, Middle-earth was the English translation of the Old English word middanġeard. This word was transformed in the Middle English midden-erd or middel-erd, and the Old Norse Midgard. This is English for what the Greeks called the οικουμένη (oikoumenē) or "the abiding place of men", the physical world as opposed to the unseen worlds.[16]

The ancient peoples called the world "middle-earth", since it was imagined to be above the realm of the Giants and below the realm of the gods. However, in Tolkien's cosmology the name Middle-earth refers only to a continent, which (in the First and Second Ages) is set between two seas, Belegaer and the East Sea.

Henry Resnick quoted Tolkien as saying that, "Middle-earth is Europe".[17] However, Tolkien designed his maps to accommodate the mythology, conscious that they did not fit the ancient Earth as understood by contemporary archaeology and historical geology.[18][19]

Appendix

Terminology

The continent of Middle-earth is the primary setting of most of the stories in the legendarium. Although there are several stories that take place in Aman (such as some chapters of The Silmarillion) and Númenor (such as the Akallabêth and Aldarion and Erendis).

In the fandom, the term "Middle-earth" generally refers to Tolkien's secondary world, or fictional universe, including its pantheon and cosmology. Tolkien himself used the term loosely at times to refer to his creation.[20]

Being actually The Atlas of Arda

As a result, "Middle-earth" is used synonymously with "Arda" as a more recognisable term for titles such as The Complete Guide to Middle-earth and The Atlas of Middle-earth, while their scope is beyond the strict geographical definition of the continent of Endor. Even Christopher Tolkien, while publishing the early drafts and manuscripts of his father, titled the series The History of Middle-earth,[20] thus equating the term "Middle-earth" with the entire legendarium. Wikipedia pages are an example of this usage, with article names such as Elf (Middle-earth) and the (somewhat erroneous) Arda (Middle-earth).

The proper but technical term "Arda", first appearing in The Silmarillion[20], refers to the entirety of Tolkien's world, and is seen in the names of Encyclopedia of Arda or Ardalambion.

A frequent misuse of the term is the equation of "Middle-earth" with the mapped regions, as seen in the maps with Lord of the Rings. Actually, these regions are just the Westlands of Middle-earth: the north-western portion of the continent. How far Middle-earth extends to the East and the South of the map is unknown. Although Mordor is seen to the south-eastern corner of the map, that does not mean it belongs to the south-eastern Middle-earth, as there are presumably other lands to the east and south.[21] Karen Fonstad has attempted to reconstruct the entirety of the continent, beyond the Westlands, based on an early map by Tolkien.[22]

Middle-earth and the Old World

In the earliest drafts of the legendarium, The Book of Lost Tales, the mythology had more direct connections with our history: Littleheart compares the Fall of Gondolin with the fall of "Bablon", "Ninwi" and "Trui".[23] The Mannish language of Taliska was based on Gothic.[24] Britain was supposed to be former Tol Eressea that was driven towards the Great Lands, with Ireland (the Isle of Iverin) being a part that broke from it. The main character Ottor Wǽfre was intended to be the father of legendary figures Hengest and Horsa, who conquered England from the Guidlin, the Brithonin and the Rumhoth. In a later sketch, the Elves were from the region of Luthany before being pulled out of the mainland and becoming an island.[25]

Tolkien envisioned his stories to take place on our world, in an imaginary historical period that contains the essentials of northwestern Europe. He did not see his stories as happening on a "remote globe in 'space'", as was the case with other contemporary fiction.[26]

As for the later legendarium, The Shire was not only conceptually based on rural England,[27] but was also expressly stated to be "in this region",[19] "the North-West of the Old World, east of the Sea".[28]

Experimental projection of the Westlands over Europe

Concerning the Shire, Tolkien stated that he intended it to correspond roughly to the latitude of Oxford, which would cause other Middle-earth locations to correspond (but not necessarily equate with) real-life locations. For instance, Minas Tirith would fall to about the latitude of Florence, and Pelargir and the mouths of Anduin to that of ancient Troy.[29] According to the annotations provided by J.R.R. Tolkien to Pauline Baynes, Hobbiton is again approximately at the same latitude as Oxford, and Minas Tirith is about the latitude of Ravenna. The bottom of the map is about the latitude of Jerusalem, and Umbar about that of Cyprus. Minas Tirith, being approximately 900 miles east of Hobbiton, is located near Belgrade.[30]

Based on this information, it was possible to make more correspondences, and even project the Westlands on a real map of Europe.[31]

Portrayal in adaptations

"...there is much else that may be told." — Glóin
This article or section is a stub. Please help Tolkien Gateway by expanding it.
File:Pete Fenlon - MERP map.jpg
The whole continent of Middle-earth as envisioned in Middle-earth Role Playing

Middle-earth has been depicted in a variety of adaptations of Tolkien's work, the most prominent of which have been the Lord of the Rings and Hobbit film trilogies by Peter Jackson. Middle-earth has appeared in animation in Ralph Bakshi's The Lord of the Rings and Rankin/Bass' adaptations of The Hobbit and The Return of the King. Middle-earth has also appeared in numerous video games such as The Lord of the Rings Online and War in the North and tabletop role-playing games like the Middle-earth Role Playing system by Iron Crown Enterprises.

Each adaptation has made changes, subtractions, or additions to Tolkien's creation, often adding new locations, creatures, or characters. For the most part, however, the overall geography and style of Tolkien's Middle-earth have been retained.

See also

References

  1. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Beginning of Days"
  2. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Shaping of Middle-earth, "V. The Ambarkanta"
  3. Robert Foster, The Complete Guide to Middle-earth, entry "Misty Mountains"
  4. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Shaping of Middle-earth, "V. The Ambarkanta"
  5. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "VI. The Tale of Years of the Second Age" p. 183
  6. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, "Prologue", "Concerning Hobbits"
  7. 7.0 7.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Index of Names"
  8. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "Aldarion and Erendis: The Mariner's Wife".
  9. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "Lothlórien"
  10. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "Farewell to Lórien"
  11. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit, "Flies and Spiders"
  12. 12.0 12.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Book of Lost Tales Part One, "I. The Cottage of Lost Play": "Notes and Commentary", p. 21.
  13. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Book of Lost Tales Part One, "III. The Coming of the Valar and the Building of Valinor": "Notes and Commentary", p. 81.
  14. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Book of Lost Tales Part Two, "IV. The Nauglafring", p. 233.
  15. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Book of Lost Tales Part Two, "Index", p. 370.
  16. J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 151, (dated 18 September 1954)
  17. Tolkien Journal II, 2 p. 1
  18. J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 169, (dated 11 September 1955)
  19. 19.0 19.1 J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 211, (dated 14 October 1958)
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 "Middle-earth - Usage and misunderstandings", Wikipedia (accessed 9 December 2022)
  21. Robert Foster, The Complete Guide to Middle-earth, entry "Middle-earth"
  22. Karen Wynn Fonstad (1991), The Atlas of Middle-earth
  23. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Book of Lost Tales Part Two, "III. The Fall of Gondolin"
  24. J.R.R. Tolkien, "Quenya Phonology", in Parma Eldalamberon XIX (edited by Christopher Gilson), "The Comparative Tales", p. 22
  25. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Book of Lost Tales Part Two, "VI. The History of Eriol or Ælfwine and the End of the Tales"
  26. J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 183, (undated, probably written 1956)
  27. J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 190, (dated 3 July 1956)
  28. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, "Prologue"
  29. J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 294, (dated 8 February 1967)
  30. The Guardian, 23 October 2015, "Tolkien's annotated map of Middle-earth discovered inside copy of Lord of the Rings". An analysis of the map may also be found in "Découverte d'une carte de la Terre du Milieu annotée par Tolkien pour Pauline Baynes" (in French, with deciphered annotations also being provided in English).
  31. Andreas Moehn, "A Meridional Grid on the Middle-Earth Map", Lalaith's Middle-earth Science Pages (accessed 9 December 2022)