Difference between revisions of "Orcs"

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===Culture===
 
===Culture===
 
[[File:Jan Pospíšil - Orc Army.jpg|thumb|''Orc Army'' by [[:Category:Images by Jan Pospíšil|Jan Pospíšil]]]]
 
[[File:Jan Pospíšil - Orc Army.jpg|thumb|''Orc Army'' by [[:Category:Images by Jan Pospíšil|Jan Pospíšil]]]]
Orcs were pitiless and took pleasure in all kinds of cruel and wicked acts; they did evil deeds for their own amusement, purely for the sport of it. Their fractious and vicious natures made them unreliable servants – when outside their master's reach, Orcs would often disobey their commands or fight amongst themselves, to the detriment of their master's designs.<ref>{{MR|P5X}}, p.418</ref>  
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Orcs were pitiless and took pleasure in all kinds of cruel and wicked acts; they did evil deeds for their own amusement, purely for the sport of it. Their fractious and vicious natures made them unreliable servants – when outside their master's reach, Orcs would often disobey their commands or fight amongst themselves, to the detriment of their master's designs.<ref>{{MR|P5X}}, p. 418</ref>  
  
 
In battle, Orcs fought with reckless ferocity and delighted in the slaughter and torture of their foes. However, many had a cowardly nature and were often regarded as inferior to the soldiers of Men, Elves, and Dwarves, though far more expendable.{{fact}} Orcs also proved themselves adept at taming and riding [[Wolves]] and [[Wargs]], an ability harnessed by the Dark Lords for their armies.
 
In battle, Orcs fought with reckless ferocity and delighted in the slaughter and torture of their foes. However, many had a cowardly nature and were often regarded as inferior to the soldiers of Men, Elves, and Dwarves, though far more expendable.{{fact}} Orcs also proved themselves adept at taming and riding [[Wolves]] and [[Wargs]], an ability harnessed by the Dark Lords for their armies.
  
The corruption inherent to Orc being made them virtually powerless to resist the domination of a greater will – at first, this was Morgoth's, later Sauron's. While under such domination, Orcs were reduced to an "ant-like life." This was most plainly seen under Sauron's tyranny, as he operated on a smaller scale than did Morgoth and his foes were far weaker than the Noldor of the Elder Days.<ref>{{MR|P5X}}, p.419</ref> The Orcish people thus cycled between periods of unity when they had a Dark Lord to unite them, and disunity when there was no Dark Lord.  
+
The corruption inherent to Orc being made them virtually powerless to resist the domination of a greater will – at first, this was Morgoth's, later Sauron's. While under such domination, Orcs were reduced to an "ant-like life." This was most plainly seen under Sauron's tyranny, as he operated on a smaller scale than did Morgoth and his foes were far weaker than the Noldor of the Elder Days.<ref>{{MR|P5X}}, p. 419</ref> The Orcish people thus cycled between periods of unity when they had a Dark Lord to unite them, and disunity when there was no Dark Lord.  
  
 
After the War of Wrath, the Orcs were confused and dismayed without Morgoth, and were easily scattered by their enemies. In the millennia after his defeat and banishment from Arda, they were without a leader and degenerated into small, quarrelsome tribes hiding in wild places, such as the [[Misty Mountains]] and the [[Mountains of Angmar]]. In this state, Orcs remained a threat to travelers and isolated settlements, and when united could pose a regional threat, but without a unifying will they could never become the menace they were under a Dark Lord.
 
After the War of Wrath, the Orcs were confused and dismayed without Morgoth, and were easily scattered by their enemies. In the millennia after his defeat and banishment from Arda, they were without a leader and degenerated into small, quarrelsome tribes hiding in wild places, such as the [[Misty Mountains]] and the [[Mountains of Angmar]]. In this state, Orcs remained a threat to travelers and isolated settlements, and when united could pose a regional threat, but without a unifying will they could never become the menace they were under a Dark Lord.
  
Even when united, the Orcs were consumed with petty rivalries and hatreds. Each time he rose as Dark Lord, Sauron had to contend with many tribes of "wild" Orcs who spoke many tongues and had become accustomed to independence. To meld these disparate, mutually despised groups into a coherent force and prevent them from slaying each other, Sauron had to keep their hatred focused on an outside enemy: the Men and Elves of the West. In this he was highly successful: the Orcs he pressed into his direct service in his trained armies were so completely dominated by his will that they would die for him on command without hesitation.<ref>{{MR|P5X}}, p.420</ref>  
+
Even when united, the Orcs were consumed with petty rivalries and hatreds. Each time he rose as Dark Lord, Sauron had to contend with many tribes of "wild" Orcs who spoke many tongues and had become accustomed to independence. To meld these disparate, mutually despised groups into a coherent force and prevent them from slaying each other, Sauron had to keep their hatred focused on an outside enemy: the Men and Elves of the West. In this he was highly successful: the Orcs he pressed into his direct service in his trained armies were so completely dominated by his will that they would die for him on command without hesitation.<ref>{{MR|P5X}}, p. 420</ref>  
  
  

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Orcs
Race
John Howe - In Mordor.jpg
"In Mordor" by John Howe
General Information
Other namesGoblins, Glamhoth, Ork, Yrch
OriginsDisputed; see Orcs/Origin
LocationsUtumno, Angband, Mordor, Misty Mountains, Angmar, Mount Gundabad, High Pass, Dol Guldur, Isengard
AffiliationMorgoth, Sauron
RivalriesElves, Men, Dwarves
LanguagesBlack Speech; numerous Orkish languages; Westron
PeopleUruk-hai, Goblin-men, Half-orcs, Hobgoblins, Mountain Orcs, Eastern Orcs, Mordor Orcs, Isengard Orcs
MembersOthrod, Azog, Bolg, Gorbag, Great Goblin, Grishnákh
Physical Description
LifespanUnknown
DistinctionsEvil footsoldiers of the Enemy; preferred darkness
Average heightShort[1]
Skin colorSallow[2], black[3]
GalleryImages of Orcs
"You must dig swift and deep, if you wish to hide from Orcs."
Legolas to Pippin in The Fellowship of the Ring, "Lothlórien"

Orcs were a race of humanoid creatures best known for their service as footsoldiers and slaves to the Dark Lords of Middle-earth. Even when not in thrall to an evil master, Orcs rarely if ever had non-violent interactions with Elves, Men, or Dwarves. They were known by many names by the various peoples of Middle-earth.

History

Years of the Trees

Main article: Orcs/Origin
The vilest deed of Melkor by Anna Kulisz

The true origins of the Orc race are a matter of dispute among fictional scholars within the Legendarium and Tolkienists alike, though all agree that they would not have come to be without Morgoth (see Orcs/Origin).

The first documented appearance of Orcs was in Y.T. 1330, when the Sindar observed a variety of "evil creatures" roaming Beleriand that included Orcs, Wolves, and "other fell beings of shadow." Small numbers of these evil creatures, thought to be scouting parties, had entered Beleriand over passes in the mountains as well as through the southern forests. In light of this new threat, Thingol commissioned the Dwarves of Nogrod and Belegost to craft arms for the Sindar, which they used to drive away the evil creatures and restore the peace.[4] Around this time the Dwarves told the Sindar that these "fell beasts" came from the ruins of Angband, and that they could also be found east of the Blue Mountains, where they troubled the Elves who dwelt there.[5]

When the first Dark Lord returned to Middle-earth in Y.T. 1495, he rebuilt Angband from ruins and raised the triple peaks of Thangorodrim to defend it. At this time, Morgoth found fresh hosts readied by Sauron, for the Orcs had kept breeding under the command of his yet-devoted lieutenant.[6] The Enemy's hordes of beasts, demons, and Orcs left Angband in Y.T. 1497 to assault the Sindar in the First Battle of Beleriand and the Noldor in the Dagor-nuin-Giliath. The Elves were victorious in both battles, and few of the Orcs returned to Angband.[7]

At this time, the Orcs living east of the Blue Mountains remained outside Morgoth's reach and ruled themselves, though they squabbled amongst themselves as much as they troubled any of the Children of Ilúvatar.[8]

First Age

Orc Swordsman by John Howe

Orcs appear in the First Age as the core force of Morgoth. Hundreds of thousands of Orcs were bred in Angband to participate in the Battles of Beleriand, which lasted 587 years.

The Orcs' First major engagement was the Battle of the Lammoth, where they were defeated by Fingolfin and his Noldor. Orcs participated in battles such as the Dagor Aglareb, Dagor Bragollach, Nirnaeth Arnoediad, Fall of the Falas, and finally in the War of Wrath, where they were almost extinguished. Those that survived the defeat of Morgoth fled eastwards and hid probably in the Mountains of Angmar and the Ered Mithrin.

Second Age

Around the year S.A. 1000 Sauron reappeared, took the land of Mordor as his realm and started the construction of Barad-dûr. His servants among Orc-kind were at this time of northern stock, who had escaped Morgoth's vanquishment. It was not only until later that he gathered all of their foul race under his command - as long as he went among the Elves in a fair visage, the long-autonomous Eastern Orcs resented him. [8] Still for a long time Sauron's minions did not play an important role, for the Dark Lord had chosen a more subtle way to bring the Free Peoples under his sway through guileful trickery, whose chief personification were the Rings of Power.

During the War of the Elves and Sauron, in S.A. 1700, Orcs formed the main power of Sauron's host. Despite the immeasurable number of Orcs, the Dark Lord was defeated by the united hosts of Elves and Númenóreans. Still Sauron was powerful east of the Misty Mountains and the Orcs that inhabited the mountains and the eastern lands multiplied.

The Orcs of the Misty Mountains started a war against the Dwarves, resulting in the First Sack of Gundabad and its occupation by the Orcs. Finally, Orcs were the core force of the Dark Lord's legions during the War of the Last Alliance, and fought in great battles such as the Battle of Dagorlad and the Siege of Barad-dûr.

Third Age

During the Third Age, Orcs were once more the standard troops of Sauron, both in Mordor and in Dol Guldur. The Enemy's great vassals- such as the Witch-king of Angmar and the corrupted Wizard Saruman in Isengard - made use of the Orcs as the backbone of their forces.

In Angmar, Orcs fought for the Witch-king in his campaign against the realm of Arnor. Years later, they invaded Eriador under the remote leadership of the Necromancer (Sauron).

The Orcs of the Misty Mountains, one of the few Orcish societies who enjoyed more autonomy despite still paying homage to the Necromancer (Sauron), and their chieftain Azog started out the War of the Dwarves and Orcs, and after their vanquishment they retreated in their caves. They appeared again in T.A. 2941, when the Battle of Five Armies took place, suffering yet another terrible defeat with the loss of the spawn of Azog, Bolg.

Both for the Dark Lord's war on Rohan and for his own interests regarding the Ring-bearer, the Wizard Saruman began to assemble Orcs into his own army in Isengard - these troops were gathered from amidsts the tribes of the Misty Mountains, which were supplemented by others he bred, some being crossed with Men. The Orcs of Isengard fought in the early-mid battles of the War of the Ring, such as the First and Second Battles of the Fords of Isen, but were crushed or scattered at the Battle of the Hornburg.

The Orcs of Mordor fought in major battles during the War of the Ring, such as the Battle of the Pelennor Fields, but the majority of Mordor's forces were destroyed or scattered at the Battle of the Morannon. Sporadic fighting in the following weeks led to the Orcs finally being driven out of the western end of Mordor, though it is unclear how many Orcs the Dark Lord had in his armies, and it is also unclear how many survived after his defeat.

The Orcs in Dol Guldur remained in Mirkwood until the Fall of Dol Guldur, one of the last battles of the War of the Ring.

Later history

The fate of the Orcs after the Third Age is unknown. Though many of the Dark Lord's footsoldiers fought on and were slain in the weeks following the Battle of the Morannon, the true number of Sauron's hosts is unclear, as are the numbers of Orcs not within Mordor that may still inhabit the rest of Middle-earth. It is at least known that the Orcs of Moria either fled or were slain by the Fourth Age, as it is mentioned that the Dwarves managed to retake Moria and the mines within it.

Characteristics

Culture

Orc Army by Jan Pospíšil

Orcs were pitiless and took pleasure in all kinds of cruel and wicked acts; they did evil deeds for their own amusement, purely for the sport of it. Their fractious and vicious natures made them unreliable servants – when outside their master's reach, Orcs would often disobey their commands or fight amongst themselves, to the detriment of their master's designs.[9]

In battle, Orcs fought with reckless ferocity and delighted in the slaughter and torture of their foes. However, many had a cowardly nature and were often regarded as inferior to the soldiers of Men, Elves, and Dwarves, though far more expendable.[source?] Orcs also proved themselves adept at taming and riding Wolves and Wargs, an ability harnessed by the Dark Lords for their armies.

The corruption inherent to Orc being made them virtually powerless to resist the domination of a greater will – at first, this was Morgoth's, later Sauron's. While under such domination, Orcs were reduced to an "ant-like life." This was most plainly seen under Sauron's tyranny, as he operated on a smaller scale than did Morgoth and his foes were far weaker than the Noldor of the Elder Days.[10] The Orcish people thus cycled between periods of unity when they had a Dark Lord to unite them, and disunity when there was no Dark Lord.

After the War of Wrath, the Orcs were confused and dismayed without Morgoth, and were easily scattered by their enemies. In the millennia after his defeat and banishment from Arda, they were without a leader and degenerated into small, quarrelsome tribes hiding in wild places, such as the Misty Mountains and the Mountains of Angmar. In this state, Orcs remained a threat to travelers and isolated settlements, and when united could pose a regional threat, but without a unifying will they could never become the menace they were under a Dark Lord.

Even when united, the Orcs were consumed with petty rivalries and hatreds. Each time he rose as Dark Lord, Sauron had to contend with many tribes of "wild" Orcs who spoke many tongues and had become accustomed to independence. To meld these disparate, mutually despised groups into a coherent force and prevent them from slaying each other, Sauron had to keep their hatred focused on an outside enemy: the Men and Elves of the West. In this he was highly successful: the Orcs he pressed into his direct service in his trained armies were so completely dominated by his will that they would die for him on command without hesitation.[11]


Lifespan

It is unknown if the Orcs were immortal like the Elves. There is, in any case, a hint for a long lifespan in the story of two of the most famous Orc-chieftains: Azog and Bolg. Bolg, being the son of Azog, was the chieftain of the Orcs who attacked Erebor in the Battle of Five Armies in T.A. 2941. Azog himself was killed in the Battle of Azanulbizar in T.A. 2799, so Bolg was at least 150 years old.

Appearance

Orcs were described as smaller in stature than Men on average, strong but crooked in frame and bow-legged. One "huge orc-chieftain" was described as "almost Man-high", but some must have been of a similar size to Hobbits (Frodo and Sam succeeded in disguising themselves as Orcs in Mordor). Their overall appearance varied: they had long arms and fanged mouths; Tolkien describes them as "swart" or "sallow", although one in Mordor is "black-skinned" and others are described generally as "black" (possibly not a reference to skin colour).

Kinds of Orcs

The Fellowship usually encountered the large soldier-Orcs bred for war, and sometimes the "snaga" variety which were more geared towards being labourers. Another type is referred to as "snufflers", smaller, black-skinned Orcs with wide nostrils, who excelled in tracking. Despite the smaller size, one snuffler was able to skillfully kill a soldier-orc when they got into a disagreement.[12]

Orcs and goblins

Goblins by Darek Zabrocki

The term goblin was used primarily in The Hobbit but also in The Lord of the Rings where it is used synonymously with "Orc".[13] It is said to be a translation of Orc in a note on languages and runic letters in The Hobbit.

Orc is not an English word. It occurs in one or two places but is usually translated goblin
The Hobbit

There were four goblin-soldiers of greater stature [...] Upon their shields they bore [...] a small white hand in the centre of the black field
The Two Towers, "The Departure of Boromir"

Etymology

"The word as far as I am concerned actually derived from Old English orc, demon, but only because of its phonetic suitability."
J.R.R. Tolkien in Letter 144

Orc

The word Orc is said to be the "form of the name that other races had for this foul people as it was in the language of Rohan".[14]

In his late, post-Lord of the Rings writings, Tolkien preferred the spelling Ork.[15]

It also is "supposed to be the CS[Common Speech] name of these creatures at that time".[16]

The statement may be ambiguous due to Tolkien's use of the term Common Speech for both Westron and English. But Tolkien continued to say "It should therefore according to the system be translated into E[English]. or the LT[Language of Translation]. It was translated 'goblin' in The H.[Hobbit]"[16]. This may suggest it is a genuine Westron word, which Tolkien kept untranslated because he liked the sound of it: "In any case orc seemed to me, and seems, in sound a good name for these creatures. It should be retained."[16]

Fictionally, it is then possibly derived from 'orch', the Sindarin word for Orc. The original sense of the word seems to be "bogey", "bogeyman", that is, something that provokes fear, as seen in the Quenya cognate urko, pl. urqui.[17]

Tolkien derived the word orc from Old English believing it refers to a kind of evil spirits,[18] which in turn is thought to derive from Latin Orcus "Hades", although Tolkien doubted this etymology.[19] He also thought it survives in the modern language for sea-beasts,[20] such as the Orca Whale.

Orc is an Old English word that refers mainly to a kind of metal cup (from Latin Urceus).[note 1] However, in an 11th century glossary, this entry was conflated with another entry which refers to evil giants such as þyrs and other monsters, also glossed in Latin as Orcus. This merge of the two entries made many philologists of the previous centuries, like Tolkien, to believe that Orc was an actual Old English word that refers to any kind of evil creature from the underworld.[21]

The word Orcnéas is once found only in Beowulf (lines 112-113) and is cited as an example of the word "Orc" in Old English text. Actually its meaning is not clear, and it is thought to refer to corpses (néas) from the Underworld.

"Orcs" in Tolkien's languages

Tolkien said that one of the reason of choosing "Orc" over "Goblin" was the similarity with his fictional languages.[22] Indeed most Elvish, Mannish and other words for Orc, are similar to the English word.

The basic Primitive Quendian root, from which the words for Orc derive, is RUKU (said to refer to any "bogey" that scared the Elves)[22]:

In the earliest versions of Qenya, Tolkien had words such as "Ork (orq-) pl. Orqi and fem. "orqindi".[source?]

In Noldorin, the earlier version of Sindarin, the word for Orc is the same: orch (pl yrch).[29][30][31] The Gnomish word for "one of a tribe of the orcs. a goblin" is said to be Gong.[32]

Goblin

Goblin is a folk word which according to The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English is probably derived from the Anglo-French gobelin a diminutive of gobel (cf. kobold). William D.B. Loos notes that goblin is a Romance-derived word, unlike other Germanic words preferred by Tolkien.[33]

"Goblin" in Tolkien's languages

In the Etymologies, the Elvish names used to translate "goblin" derive from root ÓROK and are:[29]

In an early linguistic writing, Tolkien translated the Gnomish word Gong as "one of a tribe of the orcs. a goblin."[35]

Other versions of the legendarium

Main article: Orcs/Origin

Controversy

Tolkien's Orcs have been a subject of criticism of racism. Tolkien described Orcs as "squat, broad, flat-nosed, sallow-skinned, with wide mouths and slant eyes: in fact degraded and repulsive versions of the (to Europeans) least lovely Mongol-types".[36]

Other writings

In The Father Christmas Letters, goblins appear as the enemies of Father Christmas and the Red Elves.

Portrayal in adaptations

Orcs

"...there is much else that may be told." — Glóin
This article or section is a stub. Please help Tolkien Gateway by expanding it.

2001-2003: Pán prsteňov (2001-2003 Slovak radio series):

Due to timing and certain legal issues, the radio series uses the term skirt (pron. "skeert") and skirti for an "orc" and "orcs" (a neologism derived from the Czech translation's skrět, skrěti, "goblins"). Some of the orc characters are credited, e.g. Grishnakh in The Two Towers is portrayed by Eduard Vitek, and in The Return of the King, a Mordor orc commander whipping a disguised Frodo and Sam into shape is played by Jozef Šimonovič.

2007: The Lord of the Rings Online:

Orc-kind is a genus that includes the species of Orcs, Goblins, Hobgoblins, Half-orcs, Boggarts, Bugans and Uruk-hai.
Orcs are very common in Middle-earth. They are about the size of a man with a hunchback, though some of the sub-races are of larger or smaller stature.

2011: The Lord of the Rings: War in the North:

Orcs are first seen in Fornost, where they immediately attack Eradan, Andriel and Farin as they near the citadel.[37] Orc warriors are stronger then normal Orcs. Some Orcs have been taught sorcery by Agandaûr, these are known as Orc Sorcerers'

Goblins

2003: The Lord of the Rings: War of the Ring:

Goblins have been made clearly distinct from Orcs.

2006: The Lord of the Rings: The Battle for Middle-earth II:

Goblins have been made clearly distinct from Orcs.

2007: The Lord of the Rings Online:

Goblins are a separate race and can be found in Evendim, the Shire, Ered Luin, Bree-land, Lone-lands, North Downs, Misty Mountains, Angmar and Moria. They are small in stature; a little shorter than Hobbits. In contrast, Orcs are about the size of Men. Goblins are also weaker than the orcs.

2011: The Lord of the Rings: War in the North:

Goblins first appear in Fornost Erain, where they attack Eradan, Andriel and Farin immediately when they reach the city.[37] Goblins are weaker than Orcs.

2012: The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey:

Goblins are again made clearly distinct from Orcs in the film series. They are lesser relatives of Orcs; they are smaller (the very large Great Goblin notwithstanding), less powerful, and generally have pale, diseased skin, riddled with warts.

2014: The Hobbit: The Battle of the Five Armies:

A band of "Goblin mercenaries" appear on Ravenhill during the Battle of Five Armies, but are taken care of by the Dwarves without much trouble.

See also

Notes

  1. The word Orc occurs twice in Beowulf.
  2. Orchoth is likely a compound of orch + hoth.
  3. Rukhs appears to contain the radical R-Kh-S.

References

  1. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "The Bridge of Khazad-dûm" The "huge" orc-chieftain is described as "almost man high"
  2. J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 210, (undated, written June 1958)
  3. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "The Land of Shadow"
  4. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Jewels, "The Grey Annals": §26-27
  5. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Jewels, "The Grey Annals": §25
  6. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Morgoth's Ring, "Part Five. Myths Transformed", "[Text] X", pp. 415-422
  7. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Sindar"
  8. 8.0 8.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Carl F. Hostetter (ed.), The Nature of Middle-earth, "Part Three. The World, its Lands, and its Inhabitants: XVIII. Note on the Delay of Gil-galad and the Númenóreans", p. 370
  9. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Morgoth's Ring, "Part Five. Myths Transformed", "[Text] X", p. 418
  10. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Morgoth's Ring, "Part Five. Myths Transformed", "[Text] X", p. 419
  11. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Morgoth's Ring, "Part Five. Myths Transformed", "[Text] X", p. 420
  12. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "The Tower of Cirith Ungol"
  13. Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (eds), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, p. 24
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix F, "The Languages and Peoples of the Third Age", "Of Other Races"
  15. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 J.R.R. Tolkien, "Nomenclature of The Lord of the Rings" in Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (eds), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion
  17. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Jewels Quendi and Eldar
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 144, (dated 25 April 1954)
  19. J.R.R. Tolkien, "Letter to Gene Wolfe" (letter)
  20. J.R.R. Tolkien, "Nomenclature of The Lord of the Rings" in Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (eds), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, p. 762
  21. Bosworth and Toller's An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898), corrected in later editions
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 22.3 22.4 22.5 22.6 22.7 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Jewels, "Part Four. Quendi and Eldar: Appendix C. Elvish names for the Orcs", pp. 389-91
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 J.R.R. Tolkien, "Words, Phrases and Passages in Various Tongues in The Lord of the Rings", in Parma Eldalamberon XVII (edited by Christopher Gilson), p. 47
  24. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Jewels, "The Grey Annals": §27, p. 12
  25. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Morgoth's Ring, pp. 74, 194
  26. 26.0 26.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, "Words, Phrases and Passages in Various Tongues in The Lord of the Rings", in Parma Eldalamberon XVII (edited by Christopher Gilson), pp. 52-4
  27. J.R.R. Tolkien, "Words, Phrases and Passages in Various Tongues in The Lord of the Rings", in Parma Eldalamberon XVII (edited by Christopher Gilson), p. 99
  28. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "The Ride of the Rohirrim"
  29. 29.0 29.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Lost Road and Other Writings, Part Three: "The Etymologies", p. 379 (entry for ÓROK)
  30. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Morgoth's Ring, "Part Three. The Later Quenta Silmarillion: (I) The First Phase: 7. Of the Flight of the Noldor", p. 195
  31. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Monsters and the Critics and Other Essays, "A Secret Vice", p. 217
  32. J.R.R. Tolkien, "I-Lam na-Ngoldathon: The Grammar and Lexicon of the Gnomish Tongue", in Parma Eldalamberon XI (edited by Christopher Gilson, Arden R. Smith, and Patrick H. Wynne), p. 41
  33. William D.B. Loos, Enemies and Miscellaneous: What was the relationship between Orcs and Goblins? at The Tolkien Frequently Asked Questions List (accessed 3 July 2011)
  34. J.R.R. Tolkien, "Addenda and Corrigenda to the Etymologies — Part Two" (edited by Carl F. Hostetter and Patrick H. Wynne), in Vinyar Tengwar, Number 46, July 2004, p. 7
  35. J.R.R. Tolkien, "I-Lam na-Ngoldathon: The Grammar and Lexicon of the Gnomish Tongue", in Parma Eldalamberon XI (edited by Christopher Gilson, Arden R. Smith, and Patrick H. Wynne), p. 41
  36. J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 210, (undated, written June 1958)
  37. 37.0 37.1 The Lord of the Rings: War in the North, Chapter 1: Fornost, Main Gate
  38. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Book of Lost Tales Part Two, "Index", entry "Gongs"