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Editing Racism in Tolkien's Works

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In the [[The Lord of the Rings Foreword|Foreword]] to the revised edition of ''The Lord of the Rings'', Tolkien cautioned strongly against viewing it as an allegory, saying that he disliked allegory himself. Furthermore, according to his own claims, Tolkien denounced Hitler, Nazi beliefs, "race-doctrine" and apartheid and praised the Jews, calling them a "gifted people" (see below). Tolkien can therefore be described as an author whose messages, allegories (or lack-thereof), and agendas as being set aside from the social-political domain and entirely focused within a fantasy-fiction context.  
 
In the [[The Lord of the Rings Foreword|Foreword]] to the revised edition of ''The Lord of the Rings'', Tolkien cautioned strongly against viewing it as an allegory, saying that he disliked allegory himself. Furthermore, according to his own claims, Tolkien denounced Hitler, Nazi beliefs, "race-doctrine" and apartheid and praised the Jews, calling them a "gifted people" (see below). Tolkien can therefore be described as an author whose messages, allegories (or lack-thereof), and agendas as being set aside from the social-political domain and entirely focused within a fantasy-fiction context.  
  
[[Christine Chism]] mentions the issue of racism in the ''[[J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia: Scholarship and Critical Assessment|J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia]]'', where she distinguishes accusations as falling into three categories: intentional racism, unconscious [[Wikipedia:Eurocentrism|Eurocentric]] bias, and an evolution from latent racism in Tolkien's early work to a conscious rejection of racist tendencies in his late work.{{fact}}
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[[Christine Chism]] mentions the issue of racism in the ''[[J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia: Scholarship and Critical Assessment|J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia]]'', where she distinguishes accusations as falling into three categories: intentional racism, unconscious [[Wikipedia:Eurocentrism|Eurocentric]] bias, and an evolution from latent racism in Tolkien's early work to a conscious rejection of racist tendencies in his late work.
  
[[The Lord of the Rings (film series)|''The Lord of the Rings'' (film series)]] has done much to perpetuate recent popular interest in, as well as criticism of Tolkien's writings.{{fact}}
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[[The Lord of the Rings (film series)|''The Lord of the Rings'' (film series)]] has done much to perpetuate recent popular interest in, as well as criticism of Tolkien's writings.  
  
 
==Indications==<!-- These are not to be taken as definite. This list cites claims pointed out by critics, right or wrong. In case they can be 'countered', this is discussed in the next section -->
 
==Indications==<!-- These are not to be taken as definite. This list cites claims pointed out by critics, right or wrong. In case they can be 'countered', this is discussed in the next section -->
  
 
===Orcs===
 
===Orcs===
The mostly white Free Peoples of Middle-Earth doing battle with the hordes of beast-like orcs is seen by some as an indication of racism.{{fact}}
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The mostly white Free Peoples of Middle-Earth doing battle with the hordes of beast-like orcs is seen by some as an indication of racism.  
  
 
Of the orcs, the [[Uruk-Hai]] are described as "black" <ref>{{FR|Bridge}}</ref> and a smaller orc, a tracker, is described as "black-skinned".<ref>[[J.R.R. Tolkien]], ''[[The Lord of the Rings]]'', ''[[The Return of the King]]'', "[[The Land of Shadow]]"</ref> All orcs are often described as "slant-eyed" and the Uruk-Hai at least refer to the Rohirrim as 'white skins.' Tolkien described Orcs as ''"...squat, broad, flat-nosed, sallow-skinned, with wide mouths and slant eyes; in fact degraded and repulsive versions of the (to Europeans) least lovely Mongol-types"''<ref>{{L|210}}</ref>
 
Of the orcs, the [[Uruk-Hai]] are described as "black" <ref>{{FR|Bridge}}</ref> and a smaller orc, a tracker, is described as "black-skinned".<ref>[[J.R.R. Tolkien]], ''[[The Lord of the Rings]]'', ''[[The Return of the King]]'', "[[The Land of Shadow]]"</ref> All orcs are often described as "slant-eyed" and the Uruk-Hai at least refer to the Rohirrim as 'white skins.' Tolkien described Orcs as ''"...squat, broad, flat-nosed, sallow-skinned, with wide mouths and slant eyes; in fact degraded and repulsive versions of the (to Europeans) least lovely Mongol-types"''<ref>{{L|210}}</ref>

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