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Rose Cotton

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{{disambig-more|Rose|[[Rose (disambiguation)]]}}
 
{{disambig-more|Rose|[[Rose (disambiguation)]]}}
{{hobbit
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{{hobbit infobox
 
| image=[[Image:Ted Nasmith - Sam and Rosie Cotton.jpg|250px]]
 
| image=[[Image:Ted Nasmith - Sam and Rosie Cotton.jpg|250px]]
 
| name=Rose Cotton
 
| name=Rose Cotton
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| pronun=
 
| othernames=Rosie
 
| othernames=Rosie
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| titles=
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| position=
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| location=[[Bywater]]<br/>[[Bag End]], [[Hobbiton]]
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| affiliation=
 +
| language=
 
| birth={{TA|2984}}
 
| birth={{TA|2984}}
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| birthlocation=
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| rule=
 
| death=[[Mid-year's Day]], {{FoA|61}}
 
| death=[[Mid-year's Day]], {{FoA|61}}
| parentage=[[Tolman Cotton Senior]] + [[Lily Brown]]
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| deathlocation=
| location=[[Bywater]]
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| age=98
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| notablefor=
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| family=[[Cotton Family|Cotton]]
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| parentage=[[Farmer Cotton]] and [[Lily Brown]]
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| siblings=[[Tolman Cotton Junior|Tom]], [[Wilcome Cotton II|Jolly]], [[Bowman Cotton|Nick]] and [[Carl Cotton|Nibs]]
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| spouse=[[Samwise Gamgee]]
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| children=[[Elanor Gardner|Elanor]], [[Frodo Gardner|Frodo]], [[Rose Gardner|Rose]], [[Merry Gardner|Merry]], [[Pippin Gardner|Pippin]], [[Goldilocks Gardner|Goldilocks]],  [[Hamfast Gardner|Hamfast]], [[Daisy Gardner|Daisy]], [[Primrose Gardner|Primrose]], [[Bilbo Gardner|Bilbo]], [[Ruby Gardner|Ruby]], [[Robin Gardner|Robin]] and  [[Tolman Gardner|Tom]]
 
| gender=Female
 
| gender=Female
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| height=
 
| hair=
 
| hair=
|}}
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| eyes=
 
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| clothing=
'''Rose "Rosie" Gamgee (née Cotton)''' ({{TA|2984}}<ref name="GamFam"/> - [[Midyear's Day]] {{FoA|61}}<ref name="Later">{{App|Later}}</ref>) was the daughter of [[Tolman Cotton Senior]] and [[Lily Brown]]. She married [[Samwise Gamgee]] at the end of the [[Third Age]], and bore him a record thirteen children.
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| weapons=
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| steed=
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}}
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'''Rose "Rosie" Gamgee (née Cotton)''' ({{TA|2984}}<ref name="GamFam"/> - [[Mid-year's Day]] {{FoA|61}}<ref name="Later">{{App|Later}}</ref>) was the daughter of [[Tolman Cotton Senior]] and [[Lily Brown]]. She married [[Samwise Gamgee]] at the end of the [[Third Age]], and bore him a record thirteen children.
  
 
==Life==
 
==Life==
 
===Youth===
 
===Youth===
Rose Cotton was born in the year {{SR|1384|n}} by [[Shire Reckoning]], the second child and first daughter of [[Tolman Cotton Senior|Tolman Cotton]] and [[Lily Brown]].<ref name="GamFam">{{App|Gamgee}}</ref> The Cotton family lived in a farm on the [[South Lane]], which was fairly close to [[Bywater]].<ref name="HandS612">[[J.R.R. Tolkien]], [[Wayne G. Hammond]], [[Christina Scull]] (eds.),"Unfinished Index", published (in segments) in ''[[The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion]]'', page 612</ref> Not much of her youth is known, except that she and her brothers - [[Tolman Cotton Junior|Young Tom]], [[Wilcome II Cotton|Jolly]], [[Bowman Cotton|Nick]] and [[Carl Cotton|Nibs]] - frequently swam in the [[Bywater Pool]] with the children of the Gamgee family, to which the Cottons were close.<ref name="MtDoom">{{RK|VI3}}</ref>
+
Rose Cotton was born in the year {{SR|1384|n}} by [[Shire Reckoning]], the second child and first daughter of [[Tolman Cotton Senior|Tolman Cotton]] and [[Lily Brown]].<ref name="GamFam">{{App|Gamgee}}</ref> The Cotton family lived in a farm on the [[South Lane]], which was fairly close to [[Bywater]].<ref name="HandS612">[[J.R.R. Tolkien]], [[Wayne G. Hammond]], [[Christina Scull]] (eds.),"Unfinished Index", published (in segments) in ''[[The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion]]'', page 612</ref> Not much of her youth is known, except that she and her brothers - [[Tolman Cotton Junior|Young Tom]], [[Wilcome Cotton II|Jolly]], [[Bowman Cotton|Nick]] and [[Carl Cotton|Nibs]] - frequently swam in the [[Bywater Pool]] with the children of the Gamgee family, to which the Cottons were close.<ref name="MtDoom">{{RK|VI3}}</ref>
  
 
===War of the Ring===
 
===War of the Ring===
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Rosie and her mother tended to Sam, Frodo and several others that night, as they prepared to [[Battle of Bywater|drive out the Ruffians]]. With shining eyes and a smile on her face she heard Frodo tell of Sam's adventure and fame abroad.<ref name="Scouring">{{RK|VI8}}</ref> Sam and Frodo lived with the Cottons until [[Bagshot Row]] and [[Bag End]] were restored, the following Spring. Sam later joined Frodo in Bag End, but was torn in two - he wanted to stay loyal to Frodo, as well as marry Rosie.<ref name="Grey"/>  
 
Rosie and her mother tended to Sam, Frodo and several others that night, as they prepared to [[Battle of Bywater|drive out the Ruffians]]. With shining eyes and a smile on her face she heard Frodo tell of Sam's adventure and fame abroad.<ref name="Scouring">{{RK|VI8}}</ref> Sam and Frodo lived with the Cottons until [[Bagshot Row]] and [[Bag End]] were restored, the following Spring. Sam later joined Frodo in Bag End, but was torn in two - he wanted to stay loyal to Frodo, as well as marry Rosie.<ref name="Grey"/>  
  
And so they did. Sam and Rosie married on [[1 May|May 1]], {{TA|3020}},<ref name="Chief">{{App|Chief}}</ref> and moved into Bag End.<ref name="Grey"/> There, they lived happily, and begot [[Elanor Gardner|Elanor]], their first daughter, who was born on the [[25 March|anniversary of the Downfall of Sauron]].<ref name="Chief"/>
+
Frodo solved this problem by telling Sam that he and Rosie would both be welcome to live with him at Bag End after the wedding. Sam and Rosie married on [[1 May|May 1]], {{TA|3020}},<ref name="Chief">{{App|Chief}}</ref> and moved into Bag End.<ref name="Grey"/> There, they lived happily, and begot [[Elanor Gardner|Elanor]], their first daughter, who was born on the [[25 March|anniversary of the Downfall of Sauron]].<ref name="Chief"/>
  
 
===Fourth Age===
 
===Fourth Age===
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The name '''Rose''' is a translation of an unknown [[Westron]] name. She is, like many female Hobbits, named after a flower,<ref name="OnTrans">{{App|Translation}}</ref> the [[Roses|rose]]. The surname '''Cotton''' comes from a Westron ''Hlothran'', which roughly translates as "Cottager".<ref name="OnTrans"/>
 
The name '''Rose''' is a translation of an unknown [[Westron]] name. She is, like many female Hobbits, named after a flower,<ref name="OnTrans">{{App|Translation}}</ref> the [[Roses|rose]]. The surname '''Cotton''' comes from a Westron ''Hlothran'', which roughly translates as "Cottager".<ref name="OnTrans"/>
  
In the [[King's Letter]], which was not included in ''The Return of the King'' as published, [[Aragorn|Elessar]] translated the name Rose as '''Meril''' in [[Sindarin]].<ref name="TheEp">[[J.R.R. Tolkien]],  [[Christopher Tolkien]] (ed.) ''[[Sauron Defeated]]'', "[[The Epilogue]]"</ref> In his linguistical analysis of the King's Letter, [[Carl F. Hostetter]] noted the resemblance to [[Meril-i-Turinqi]], the queen of [[Tol Eressëa]] in the earliest stages of the ''[[The Book of Lost Tales Part One]]''.<ref>[[Carl F. Hostetter]], ''The "King's Letter": An Historical and Comparative Analysis'', in [[Vinyar Tengwar 31]] (September [[1993]]), pages 12-34</ref> Hostetter could not connect it to any entry in [[The Etymologies]], which mirrors [[Christopher Tolkien]]'s observations on Meril-i-Turinqi, for which no root could be found in the [[Qenya Lexicon]]<ref name="BoLTApp">[[J.R.R. Tolkien]], [[Christopher Tolkien]] (ed.), ''[[The Book of Lost Tales Part One]]'', "Appendix: Names in the ''Lost Tales'' - Part 1"</ref> - however, a [[Gnomish]] translation was translated as "Queen of Flowers".<ref name="BoLTApp"/> As the [[Tur|second element]] represents the "queen" part, ''Meril'' appears to be one of the oldest words for "Flower" in the [[legendarium]].
+
In the [[King's Letter]], which was not included in ''The Return of the King'' as published, [[Aragorn|Elessar]] translated the name Rose as [[Roses#Etymology|'''Meril''']] in [[Sindarin]].<ref name="TheEp">{{SD|XI}}</ref> In his linguistical analysis of the King's Letter, [[Carl F. Hostetter]] noted the resemblance to [[Meril-i-Turinqi]], the queen of [[Tol Eressëa]] in the earliest stages of the ''[[The Book of Lost Tales Part One]]''.<ref>[[Carl F. Hostetter]], ''The "King's Letter": An Historical and Comparative Analysis'', in [[Vinyar Tengwar 31]] (September [[1993]]), pages 12-34</ref> Hostetter could not connect it to any entry in [[The Etymologies]], which mirrors [[Christopher Tolkien]]'s observations on Meril-i-Turinqi, for which no root could be found in the [[Qenya Lexicon]]<ref name="BoLTApp">[[J.R.R. Tolkien]], [[Christopher Tolkien]] (ed.), ''[[The Book of Lost Tales Part One]]'', "Appendix: Names in the ''Lost Tales'' - Part 1"</ref> - however, a [[Gnomish]] translation was translated as "Queen of Flowers".<ref name="BoLTApp"/> As the [[Tur|second element]] represents the "queen" part, ''Meril'' appears to be one of the oldest words for "Flower" in the [[legendarium]].
  
 
==Portrayal in Adaptations==
 
==Portrayal in Adaptations==
 
[[Image:Rosie_viv_lotr.JPG|200px|right|thumb|Rosie in [[The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (video game)|the video game]].]]
 
[[Image:Rosie_viv_lotr.JPG|200px|right|thumb|Rosie in [[The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (video game)|the video game]].]]
'''1980: ''[[The Return of the King (1980 film)]]'':'''
+
[[File:The Lord of the Rings - The Fellowship of the Ring - Rosie Cotton.jpg|thumb|right|Rosie in [[The Lord of the Rings (film series)|''The Lord of the Rings'' (film series)]]]]
 +
'''1980: [[The Return of the King (1980 film)|''The Return of the King'' (1980 film)]]:'''
 
:During a ring-induced dream at the [[Tower of Cirith Ungol]], Sam thinks of going back home. An older man, het sits and watches several children playing about. A blonde woman, obviously his wife, carries a baby to him. She is not identified as Rosie on screen, so the identification is conjectural.
 
:During a ring-induced dream at the [[Tower of Cirith Ungol]], Sam thinks of going back home. An older man, het sits and watches several children playing about. A blonde woman, obviously his wife, carries a baby to him. She is not identified as Rosie on screen, so the identification is conjectural.
 
   
 
   
'''1981: ''[[The Lord of the Rings (1981 radio series)|BBC Radio's The Lord of the Rings]]'':'''
+
'''1981: [[The Lord of the Rings (1981 radio series)|''The Lord of the Rings'' (1981 radio series)]]:'''
:Rose was voiced by [[Kathryn Hurlbutt]]. At the end, she has one child, [[Elanor Gardner|Elanor]], portrayed by [[Harry Holm]].<ref>''[[The Lord of the Rings (1981 radio series)]]'', "[[The Grey Havens (episode)|The Grey Havens]]"</ref>
+
:Rose was voiced by [[Kathryn Hurlbutt]]. At the end, she has one child, [[Elanor Gardner|Elanor]], portrayed by [[Harry Holm]].<ref>[[The Lord of the Rings (1981 radio series)|''The Lord of the Rings'' (1981 radio series)]], "[[The Grey Havens (episode)|The Grey Havens]]"</ref>
  
 
'''2001: ''[[The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring]]'': '''
 
'''2001: ''[[The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring]]'': '''
 
:Rosie, played by [[Sarah McLeod]], dances at the [[Bilbo's Farewell Party|Farewell Party]].<ref>''[[The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring|The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring]]'', "[[A Long-expected Party (scene)|A Long-expected Party]]"</ref> She is portrayed as a popular girl. In the [[The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (extended edition)|extended edition]], she is the barmaid of the ''[[Green Dragon]]''.<ref>''[[The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring|The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring]]'', "[[At the Green Dragon]]"</ref> Sam's love for her seems unrequited, or Rosie simply does not know.  
 
:Rosie, played by [[Sarah McLeod]], dances at the [[Bilbo's Farewell Party|Farewell Party]].<ref>''[[The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring|The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring]]'', "[[A Long-expected Party (scene)|A Long-expected Party]]"</ref> She is portrayed as a popular girl. In the [[The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (extended edition)|extended edition]], she is the barmaid of the ''[[Green Dragon]]''.<ref>''[[The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring|The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring]]'', "[[At the Green Dragon]]"</ref> Sam's love for her seems unrequited, or Rosie simply does not know.  
  
'''2002: ''[[The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (video game)|Vivendi's The Fellowship of the Ring]]'':'''
+
'''2002: [[The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (video game)|''The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring'' (video game)]]:'''
:Rosie is, once again, the barmaid of the ''Green Dragon''. She shows more concern and affection for Frodo than for Sam, whom she considers childish. Rose lives with her father at Number 3, [[South Lane]], [[Bywater]].<ref>''[[The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (video game)]]'', "The Shire - Bywater"</ref> No voice actress is specified for this role, but it is a thinly veiled [[Jennifer Hale]].
+
:Rosie is, once again, the barmaid of the ''Green Dragon''. She shows more concern and affection for Frodo than for Sam, whom she considers childish. Rose lives with her father at Number 3, [[South Lane]], [[Bywater]].<ref>[[The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (video game)|''The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring'' (video game)]], "The Shire - Bywater"</ref> No voice actress is specified for this role, but it is a thinly veiled [[Jennifer Hale]].
  
 
'''2003: ''[[The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King]]'':'''
 
'''2003: ''[[The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King]]'':'''
 
:Rosie was, again, played by Sarah McLeod. Still the barmaid of the ''Green Dragon'', Sam makes his move on her, and they marry.<ref>''[[The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King|The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King]]'', "[[Homeward Bound (scene)|Homeward Bound]]"</ref> Despite Frodo being gone, they live at Number 3, Bagshot Row. Sam and Rosie have two children: [[Elanor Gardner|Elanor]] (played by [[Sean Astin]]'s [[Alexandra Astin|daughter Alexandra]]), and [[Frodo Gardner|Frodo]] (played by [[Maisy McLeod-Riviera]], Sarah McLeod's daughter).<ref>''[[The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King|The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King]]'', "[[The Grey Havens (scene)|The Grey Havens]]"</ref>
 
:Rosie was, again, played by Sarah McLeod. Still the barmaid of the ''Green Dragon'', Sam makes his move on her, and they marry.<ref>''[[The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King|The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King]]'', "[[Homeward Bound (scene)|Homeward Bound]]"</ref> Despite Frodo being gone, they live at Number 3, Bagshot Row. Sam and Rosie have two children: [[Elanor Gardner|Elanor]] (played by [[Sean Astin]]'s [[Alexandra Astin|daughter Alexandra]]), and [[Frodo Gardner|Frodo]] (played by [[Maisy McLeod-Riviera]], Sarah McLeod's daughter).<ref>''[[The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King|The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King]]'', "[[The Grey Havens (scene)|The Grey Havens]]"</ref>
 +
 +
'''2007: ''[[The Lord of the Rings Online]]'':'''
 +
:Rosie can be found during the Farmers Faire dancing at the nearby Methel-stage.
  
 
{{References}}
 
{{References}}

Latest revision as of 13:39, 8 September 2014

The name Rose refers to more than one character, item or concept. For a list of other meanings, see Rose (disambiguation).
Ted Nasmith - Sam and Rosie Cotton.jpg
Rose Cotton
Hobbit
Biographical Information
Other namesRosie
LocationBywater
Bag End, Hobbiton
BirthT.A. 2984
DeathMid-year's Day, Fo.A. 61 (aged 98)
Family
FamilyCotton
ParentageFarmer Cotton and Lily Brown
SiblingsTom, Jolly, Nick and Nibs
SpouseSamwise Gamgee
ChildrenElanor, Frodo, Rose, Merry, Pippin, Goldilocks, Hamfast, Daisy, Primrose, Bilbo, Ruby, Robin and Tom
Physical Description
GenderFemale

Rose "Rosie" Gamgee (née Cotton) (T.A. 2984[1] - Mid-year's Day Fo.A. 61[2]) was the daughter of Tolman Cotton Senior and Lily Brown. She married Samwise Gamgee at the end of the Third Age, and bore him a record thirteen children.

Contents

[edit] Life

[edit] Youth

Rose Cotton was born in the year 1384 by Shire Reckoning, the second child and first daughter of Tolman Cotton and Lily Brown.[1] The Cotton family lived in a farm on the South Lane, which was fairly close to Bywater.[3] Not much of her youth is known, except that she and her brothers - Young Tom, Jolly, Nick and Nibs - frequently swam in the Bywater Pool with the children of the Gamgee family, to which the Cottons were close.[4]

[edit] War of the Ring

Rosie was still fond of Sam when both grew to adulthood, and when he announced he'd be going with Frodo Baggins to Crickhollow, she did not like it.[5] Even though everyone had given up hope of seeing Sam - or any of the other Hobbits - back, she waited patiently. Since the Spring of T.A. 3019, she had expected Sam to return.

At the time, Ruffian rule over the Shire had lasted some three months, having started earlier that year.[6] Old Tom Cotton had been itching to get his hands on them, but he refrained from doing so as he had his wife and Rosie to look after. Rosie was relieved to find Sam on the doorstep on November 2, though she was somewhat oblivious to the dangers he had already faced.

Rosie and her mother tended to Sam, Frodo and several others that night, as they prepared to drive out the Ruffians. With shining eyes and a smile on her face she heard Frodo tell of Sam's adventure and fame abroad.[7] Sam and Frodo lived with the Cottons until Bagshot Row and Bag End were restored, the following Spring. Sam later joined Frodo in Bag End, but was torn in two - he wanted to stay loyal to Frodo, as well as marry Rosie.[5]

Frodo solved this problem by telling Sam that he and Rosie would both be welcome to live with him at Bag End after the wedding. Sam and Rosie married on May 1, T.A. 3020,[8] and moved into Bag End.[5] There, they lived happily, and begot Elanor, their first daughter, who was born on the anniversary of the Downfall of Sauron.[8]

[edit] Fourth Age

The Fourth Age started with one child, but many more would follow. Rose bore a record thirteen children, beating Adamanta Chubb, the wife of the Old Took, by one.[9] Frodo was born in Fo.A. 2, Rose-lass in Fo.A. 4, Merry in Fo.A. 6, Pippin in Fo.A. 8, Goldilocks in Fo.A. 10, Hamfast in Fo.A. 11, Daisy in Fo.A. 12, Primrose in Fo.A. 14, Bilbo in Fo.A. 15, Ruby in Fo.A. 17, Robin in Fo.A. 19, and their last child, Tom, in Fo.A. 21.[1]

That year, 21, marked the only major undertaking of Mistress Rose. She and Sam travelled to Gondor, and stayed with King Elessar for well over a year. In the meantime, Rose's brother Tom took over Sam's tasks as Mayor. After their return, Rose would continue to live by her husband's side, until her passing at the age of 98 at Mid-year's Day of Fo.A. 61.[2]

[edit] Etymology

The name Rose is a translation of an unknown Westron name. She is, like many female Hobbits, named after a flower,[10] the rose. The surname Cotton comes from a Westron Hlothran, which roughly translates as "Cottager".[10]

In the King's Letter, which was not included in The Return of the King as published, Elessar translated the name Rose as Meril in Sindarin.[11] In his linguistical analysis of the King's Letter, Carl F. Hostetter noted the resemblance to Meril-i-Turinqi, the queen of Tol Eressëa in the earliest stages of the The Book of Lost Tales Part One.[12] Hostetter could not connect it to any entry in The Etymologies, which mirrors Christopher Tolkien's observations on Meril-i-Turinqi, for which no root could be found in the Qenya Lexicon[13] - however, a Gnomish translation was translated as "Queen of Flowers".[13] As the second element represents the "queen" part, Meril appears to be one of the oldest words for "Flower" in the legendarium.

[edit] Portrayal in Adaptations

Rosie in the video game.

1980: The Return of the King (1980 film):

During a ring-induced dream at the Tower of Cirith Ungol, Sam thinks of going back home. An older man, het sits and watches several children playing about. A blonde woman, obviously his wife, carries a baby to him. She is not identified as Rosie on screen, so the identification is conjectural.

1981: The Lord of the Rings (1981 radio series):

Rose was voiced by Kathryn Hurlbutt. At the end, she has one child, Elanor, portrayed by Harry Holm.[14]

2001: The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring:

Rosie, played by Sarah McLeod, dances at the Farewell Party.[15] She is portrayed as a popular girl. In the extended edition, she is the barmaid of the Green Dragon.[16] Sam's love for her seems unrequited, or Rosie simply does not know.

2002: The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (video game):

Rosie is, once again, the barmaid of the Green Dragon. She shows more concern and affection for Frodo than for Sam, whom she considers childish. Rose lives with her father at Number 3, South Lane, Bywater.[17] No voice actress is specified for this role, but it is a thinly veiled Jennifer Hale.

2003: The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King:

Rosie was, again, played by Sarah McLeod. Still the barmaid of the Green Dragon, Sam makes his move on her, and they marry.[18] Despite Frodo being gone, they live at Number 3, Bagshot Row. Sam and Rosie have two children: Elanor (played by Sean Astin's daughter Alexandra), and Frodo (played by Maisy McLeod-Riviera, Sarah McLeod's daughter).[19]

2007: The Lord of the Rings Online:

Rosie can be found during the Farmers Faire dancing at the nearby Methel-stage.

[edit] References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix C, "The Longfather-tree of Master Samwise"
  2. 2.0 2.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "Later Events Concerning the Members of the Fellowship of the Ring"
  3. J.R.R. Tolkien, Wayne G. Hammond, Christina Scull (eds.),"Unfinished Index", published (in segments) in The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, page 612
  4. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "Mount Doom"
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "The Grey Havens"
  6. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "Homeward Bound"
  7. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "The Scouring of the Shire"
  8. 8.0 8.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Chief Days from the Fall of Barad-dûr to the End of the Third Age"
  9. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix C, "Took of Great Smials"
  10. 10.0 10.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix F, "On Translation"
  11. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Sauron Defeated, "Part One: The End of the Third Age: XI. The Epilogue"
  12. Carl F. Hostetter, The "King's Letter": An Historical and Comparative Analysis, in Vinyar Tengwar 31 (September 1993), pages 12-34
  13. 13.0 13.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Book of Lost Tales Part One, "Appendix: Names in the Lost Tales - Part 1"
  14. The Lord of the Rings (1981 radio series), "The Grey Havens"
  15. The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring, "A Long-expected Party"
  16. The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring, "At the Green Dragon"
  17. The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (video game), "The Shire - Bywater"
  18. The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King, "Homeward Bound"
  19. The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King, "The Grey Havens"