Errata Project[edit | edit source]
- UT 226 note 11
- SM 222
- Ambarkanta dates
- LR 301
- LR 322
- MR 201, §4
- PM 141-143
- PM 151, 557
- PM 357, note 13
Tolkien's works[edit | edit source]
- Invented languages
- Myth and Sub-creation
The Gospels contain a fairy-story, or a story of a larger kind which embraces all the essence of fairy-stories. They contain many marvels—peculiarly artistic, beautiful, and moving: 'mythical' in their perfect, self-contained significance; and among the marvels is the greatest and most complete conceivable eucatastrophe. The Birth of Christ is the eucatastrophe of Man's history. The Resurrection is the eucatastrophe of the story of the Incarnation. This story begins and ends in joy. It has preeminently the 'inner consistency of reality.' There is no tale ever told that men would rather find was true, and none which so many skeptical men have accepted as true on its own merits. For the Art of it has the supremely convincing tone of Primary Art, that is, of Creation. To reject it leads either to sadness or to wrath.
- Fiction theology
Some have puzzled over the relation between Tolkien's stories and his Christianity, and have found it difficult to understand how a devout Roman Catholic could write with such conviction about a world where God is not worshipped. But there is no mystery. The Silmarillion is the work of a profoundly religious man. It does not contradict Christianity but complements it. There is in the legends no worship of God, yet God is indeed there, more explicitly in The Silmarillion than in the work that grew out of it, The Lord of the Rings. Tolkien's universe is ruled over by God, 'The One'. Beneath Him in the hierarchy are 'The Valar', the guardians of the world, who are not gods but angelic powers, themselves holy and subject to God; and at one terrible moment in the story they surrender their power into His hands.:91
Tolkien explained he pretended to make a 'new' mythology, but like all mythologies it had to include many elements from other places. Thus, the stories of the Legendarium were founded with Christian elements since its beginning. The early Music of the Ainur
I am a Christian, and indeed a Roman Catholic, so that I do not expect "history" to be anything but a "long defeat" - though it contains [...] some samples or glimpses of final victory.
—Letter 195, p. 255
Letter to G.S. Rigby Jr
- Christian figures
Tolkien gave Kilby a lecture which describes the biblical figures in TLOTR (Frodo the self-sacrificed priest, the prophet Gandalf or the "Much of this is true enough -except, of course, the general impression given (almost irresistibly in articles having this analytical approach, whether Christians or not) that I had any 'scheme' in my conscious mind before or during the writing." p. 56
- Academic work
- Legacy: Christian Scholarship
Christian essays and articles[edit | edit source]
- Arda Philology 3
- Petri Tikka, "God's names in Elvish"
- Lembas Extra 2015
- Kristine Larsen, "A 'Perilous, Lonely Venture': Tolkien, Lewis, and the Theological Implications of Extraterrestrial Life"
- Mallorn 32
- Len Sanford, "The Fall from Grace – Decline and Fall in Middle-Earth: Metaphors for Nordic and Christian Theology in 'The Lord of the Rings' and 'The Silmarillion'"
- Mallorn 33
- Eric Schweicher, "Aspects of the Fall in 'The Silmarillion'"
- Gwenyth Hood, "The Earthly Paradise in Tolkien's 'The Lord of the Rings'"
- Middle-earth, or There and Back Again
- "The Wisdom of Galadriel: A Study in the Theology of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings" by Andrzej Wicher
- Mythlore 25
- A. R. Bossert, "Surely You Don't Disbelieve": Tolkien and Pius X: Anti-Modernism in Middle-earth"
- Mythlore 111/112
- Richard J. Whitt, "Germanic 'Fate' and 'Doom' in J.R.R. Tolkien's 'The Silmarillion'"
- Mythlore 127
- Cami Agan, "Hearkening to the Other: A Certeauvian Reading of the Ainulindale"
- Proceedings of the 2nd Mythgard Institute Mythmoot
- Kevin R. Hensler, "God and Ilúvatar Tolkien’s Use of Biblical Parallels and Tropes in His Cosmogony"
- Tolkien the Medievalist
- John William Houghton, "Augustine in the cottage of lost play: the Ainulindalë as asterisk cosmogony"
- Bradford Lee Eden, "The 'music of the spheres': relationships between Tolkien's The Silmarillion and medieval cosmological and religious theory"
- Jonathan Evans, "The anthropology of Arda: creation, theology, and the race of Men"
- Michael W. Maher: "'A land without stain', medieval images of Mary and their use in the characterization of Galadriel"
- Tolkien Studies: Volume 10
- Claudio A. Testi, "Tolkien's Work: Is it Christian or Pagan?: A proposal for a 'synthetic' approach"
- Tolkien Studies: Volume 6
- Verlyn Flieger, "The Music and the Task: Fate and Free Will in Middle-earth"
- Tolkien Studies: Volume 12
- Carrol Fry, 'Two Musics about the Throne of Ilúvatar': Gnostic and Manichaean Dualism in The Silmarillion
- Tolkien Studies: Volume 13
- John D. Rateliff, "'That Seems To Me Fatal': Pagan and Christian in The Fall of Arthur"
- Tolkien Studies: Volume 14
- H.L. Spencer, "The Mystical Philosophy of J.R.R. Tolkien and Sir Israel Gollancz: M
- Tolkien Studies: Volume 15
- Chiara Bertoglio: "Dissonant Harmonies: Tolkien's Musical Theodicy"
- Cormarë Series 43: Tolkien's Shorter Works
- Thomas Fornet-Ponse: "Theology and Fairy-Stories: A Theological Reading of Tolkien's Shorter Works?"
Things I can't get[edit | edit source]
- The Happy Mariners poem, version of June 1920, in The Stapeldon Magazine
- All three poems in A Northern Venture
History of the Ainulindalë manuscripts[edit | edit source]
|Manuscript||Year of composition||Publication||Notes|
|The Music of the Ainu draft||Between November 1918 - Spring 1920||LT1, pp. 60-61||Erased draft, only given with notes.|
|The Music of the Ainur||Between November 1918 - Spring 1920||LT1, pp. 52-60||Clean manuscript, improving the previous one. Links the tale with "The Cottage of Lost Play".|
|Ainulindalë A||Late 1930s||LR, pp. 164-166||Rough manuscript, only given with notes. Follows closely the Lost Tale, but now as a separate work.|
|Ainulindalë B||Late 1930s||LR, pp. 156-164||Clean copy of the previous one.|
|Ainulindalë B copy||1946||MR, p. 4||Copy, lost apart from a single torn sheet, so it is only mentioned.|
|Ainulindalë C*||1948||MR, pp. 39-44||Experimental 'Round World Version' of Ainulindalë B, only given with fragments and notes.|
|Ainulindalë C||Late 1948||MR, pp. 8-22||New version of Ainulindalë B, rejecting the innovations of Ainulindalë C*.|
|Ainulindalë D||1951||MR, pp. 29-37||New version of Ainulindalë C, beautifully scripted, only given with fragments and notes.|
|Ainulindalë D copy||Unknown||MR, p. 39||Typescript copy, so it is only mentioned. Includes a couple of interesting notes.|
|Ainulindalë chapter||1977||The Silmarillion||Christopher's edition based on Ainulindalë D.|
History of the Akallabêth[edit | edit source]
|Manuscript||Year of composition||Publication||Notes|
|The original outline||c. 1936||LR, pp. 11-13|
|The Fall of Númenor (FN I)||c. 1936||LR, pp. 13-18|
|The Fall of Númenor (FN II)||LR, pp. 24-29|
|The Fall of Númenor (FN III)||SD, pp. 331-339|
|The Drowning of Anadûnê (DA I)||pos ni idea||SD, pp. 341-353|
Ă Él|bĕréth | Gĭlthó|nĭél
sĭlív|rĕn pén|nă mḯ|rĭél
ŏ mé|nĕl ág|lăr é|lĕnáth!
ŏ gá|lădhrém|mĭ én|nŏráth,
Fănú|ĭlós, | lĕ lín|năthón
nĕf aé|ăr, sḯ | nĕf aé|ărón!
- Sam's invocation
Ă Él|bĕréth | Gĭlthó|nĭél
ŏ mé|nĕl pá|lăn-dḯ|rĭél
lĕ nál|lŏn sḯ | dĭ'ngú|rŭthós!
Ă tí|rŏ nín, | Fănú|ĭlós!
- Gandalf's opening spell
Ánnŏn ĕ|dhéllĕn, || édrŏ hĭ | ámmĕn!
Fénnăs nŏ|góthrĭm, || lástŏ bĕth | lámmĕn!
Ṓnĕn ĭ-|Éstĕl | Édaĭn, || ṹ-chĕbĭn | éstĕl | ánĭm.
- Lúthien's hymn
Ĭr Í|thĭl ám|mĕn É|rŭcḯn
mĕnél-|vḯr sḯ|lă dḯ|rĭél
sĭ lóth | ă gá|lădh lás|tŏ dḯn!
Ǎ Hḯr | Ănnṹn | gĭlthó|nĭél,
lĕ lín|nŏn ím | Tĭnṹ|vĭél!
Gnomish lenition[edit | edit source]
Gnomish translations[edit | edit source]
|No cwenthi i·dûr: "Bâl i·dhodri a Gondolin", ar in·anosin papthi, ar atha thin i·gwethin nan·Amnon i·gwedron gîrin; far Tuor pacthol a gumlaith ar meleth na·dûra: "Gondolin rô far, ar Gulma gwirtha an laithra!" Gui onin thin ba i·lu rôl, Tuor art i·'aldonwi ar i·dûr anthos numbros, fel a·rôthi dîn dos Tuor pacthi i·gwethin a Gulma. Far Turgon cwenthi: "Obruith ni·gaithi anthos Lothengriol had Gulmor, ar gui o·'wiltha an ir cweloth ba sâ. Ai! Hodhir û gaid ba ilf nintha an i·mbar nintha idrisaith, far i·buith a·Nguilfo û-roth gaistin bóra."||Then said the king: "Great is the fall of Gondolin", and men trembled, for those were the words of Amnon the ancient prophet; but Tuor speaking for sorrow and love of the king: "Gondolin stands yet, and Ulmo does not wish it destroyed!" Now they were in that moment standing, Tuor beneath the trees and the king upon the slopes, as they stood when once Tuor spake the words of UImo. But Turgon said: "Evil consequences I brought upon the Flower of the Plain against Ulmo, and now he leaveth it to the fading in fire. Oh! Hope is no more in my heart for my city of avarice, but the children of the Noldoli do not remain tormented forever."|
|No i·'Ondothlim rumli da gaigin athra, ar lî rôthi lent, far Turgon cwenthi: "Û-sacth had ir·umbart, ai puith nintha! Rauth othin don ogin muinos ba uthwen, da tunc lûm na nuidro: far gwen·anth i·vronweth gwethra Tuori." Far Tuor cwenthi: "Fi·na i·dûr"; ar Turgon abod·gwenthi: "Far er drambor nin·û-sactha nodro", ar o·hanthi in·ôn ontha i·darcir na·'Lingol. No Galdor don rôthi hai lôgi an, far Turgon gwirthi an, ar cafalon o·vacthi ir·estrin dônta na·mindon gloss i rôthi lent i·mbaur ontha. Hant on·upthi ba ûm fel ligin fafin ba i·sectha na·orodion, ar i·gwant nal i·'Aldonwi ar i·forogin ba in·uscin na·gantrib gaimi on: "Bâl in·abair na·Nguilfo!" Ar na cwedri i thi fuimeg ba lu sitha, ar in·Orchoth upthi ba canc.||Then the Gondothlim made noises with their weapons, for many stood nigh, but Turgon said: "Fight not against doom, oh my children! Chase ye who can safety in escape, in chance time is still later: but ye give your loyalty to Tuor." But Tuor said: "Thou art king"; and Turgon said back: "Yet a stroke I do not fight again", and he throwed his crown to the roots of Glingol. Then Galdor who stood there picked it up, but Turgon wished it not, and head-naked he walked to the highest pinnacle of the white tower that stood nigh his palace. There he shouted in a voice like a horn blown in the centre of the mountains, and all those under the Trees and the enemies in the mists of the square heard him: "Great is the victory of the Noldoli!" And is a telling that was midnight in this moment, and the Orcs shouted in laugh.|
- ↑ Humphrey Carpenter, J.R.R. Tolkien: A Biography, "III. 1917-1925: The making of a mythology"