Note that this word is debatable as it is seen only in these compounds. Didier Willis has suggested that Tolkien perhaps reused the old Qenya root SAPA "dig, excavate" as a base for this word. This seems likely, since SAP- and a derivative sapnā reappear in the 1950s' Outline of Phonology as the source for samna "delved hole, pit".
- S usually mutates to H in Sindarin.
- Didier Willis, Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary at Jrrvf.com (accessed 17 September 2020)
- David Salo (2004), A Gateway to Sindarin, p. 327
- J.R.R. Tolkien, "Qenyaqetsa: The Qenya Phonology and Lexicon", in Parma Eldalamberon XII (edited by Carl F. Hostetter, Christopher Gilson, Arden R. Smith, and Patrick H. Wynne), p. 82
- J.R.R. Tolkien, "Quenya Phonology", in Parma Eldalamberon XIX (edited by Christopher Gilson), p. 86