Harnen

From Tolkien Gateway

The Harnen was a river in the south of Gondor.

Course

The approximately 500 mile course of the Harnen began in the southern slopes of the Ephel Dúath, it flowed south-west for about 250 miles, after that it bent west and then sped for another 250 miles to the Belegaer, which it entered in a wide delta by the Bay of Belfalas. The mouth of the Harnen is located about halfway between the mouths of the Anduin and Umbar. The Harad Road crosses the Harnen about 65 miles upstream from the point where the river turns west.[1]

History

In the year T.A. 1050, Ciryaher crossed the Harnen with his army and defeated the Men of the Harad. Thereafter their kings acknowledged the overlordship of Gondor and their sons lived as hostages in the court of the king of Gondor. In the time of King Ciryaher the realm of Gondor extended south to the river Harnen and beyond it along the coast to the peninsula and haven of Umbar.[2]

After the wars of the Kin-strife, Castamir's sons and their followers sailed from Pelargir in the year T.A. 1448 and established an independent realm in Umbar,[3] which had been a part of Gondor since its conquest by Eärnil I in the year T.A. 933.[4] After that date the river formed the southern border of the fief South Gondor,[5][1] which was contested between Gondor and the Corsairs of Umbar.[3] It is possible that the northern portion of the river Harnen upstream from the point where the Harad road crossed the river Harnen was the border between Gondor and Near Harad.[2][1]

Etymology

Harnen seems to be a Sindarin name[6][7][8] meaning "South Water"[6][8] or "South(ern) River"[7]. It seems to be a compound of the prefixal form har- of harn ("south") and nen ("water", "lake", "pool", "(lesser) river").[6][7]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The West of Middle-earth at the End of the Third Age" [map]
  2. 2.0 2.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion", entry for King Ciryaher, p. 1045
  3. 3.0 3.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion", entry for King Eldacar, p. 1047
  4. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion", entries for King Eärnil I and King Ciryandil, pp. 1044-5
  5. J.R.R. Tolkien, "Unfinished index for The Lord of the Rings", in Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (eds), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, entry Gondor, p. 17
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Paul Strack, "S. Harnen loc.", Eldamo - An Elvish Lexicon (accessed 20 July 2023)
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Association Tolkiendil, "Compound Sindarin Names in Middle-earth", Tolkiendil (accessed 20 July 2023)
  8. 8.0 8.1 Robert Foster, The Complete Guide to Middle-earth, entry "Harnen", p. 189