Heorrenda

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Heorrenda
Angle
Biographical Information
Other namesHeruven (Q)
Herwent (G)
LocationTol Eressëa (Tavrobel)
Birth5th century AD[1]
Tol Eressëa
Family
ParentageEriol (Man) & NaimiNB (Elf)
SiblingsHendwineNB (brother)
Hengest & Horsa (half-brothers)
Physical Description
GenderMale

Heorrenda was a son of a Man Eriol and an Elf Naimi[note 1][2], according to the early version of the legendarium in The Book of Lost Tales.[3]

History[edit]

Heorrenda was born in Tol Eressëa,[3] and, according to one text, it was he who completed the Golden Book, in which were written the histories of the Elves, that was kept in Tol Eressëa.[4]

After the Faring Forth,[note 2][5] the disastrous attempt by the Elves of Tol Eressëa to save their kin in the Great Lands which resulted in their total defeat and eventual fading, evil Men invaded Tol Eressëa, now anchored near the coast of the Great Lands.[6]

Afterwards however, Heorrenda, alongside his half-brothers Hengest and Horsa, led what would become the English people and conquered Tol Eressëa, after which it became known as England.[6] There, he would settle in what was once the village of Tavrobel, now called Gréata Hægwudu, and which would eventually become known as the village of Great Haywood.[7]

He, his half-brothers, and the English people as a whole, would ultimately be the only group of Men to remain friendly to the Elves, and to keep the "true tradition of the fairies".[6]

Etymology[edit]

The name Heorrenda is in Old English and of uncertain meaning.

It is found in old Germanic poetry (such as the Old English poem Déor) and the first element has been interpreted as heorra meaning "a hinge, cardinal point"; an etymological connection with the Latin corvus and Greek korax (both meaning "raven") has been proposed, possibly in the sense of a pick used to play a stringed instrument, with Heorrenda meaning "minstrel".[2]

Other names[edit]

Heorrenda was also known as Heruven in Qenya, with Herwent being its Gnomish equivalent. These two names were most likely phonological imitations of the name Heorrenda instead of being translations of its meaning.

The first element of Heruven is probably heru ("lord"), while the second element of Herwent is most likely gwent/gwenn/gwen ("large, big; fine") - hence Heruven and Herwent might mean "great lord".[2]

Genealogy[edit]

 
 
Wóden[1]
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Heden
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tulkastor
 
 
 
Valwë
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Beorn
d. 5th century
 
Eoh
d. 5th century
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
unknown
sibling
 
Vairë
 
Lindo
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cwén
fl. 5th century
 
Eriol
fl. 5th century
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Naimi*
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hengest
fl. 5th century
 
Horsa
fl. 5th century
 
HEORRENDA
fl. 5th century
 
Hendwine*
fl. 5th century
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

* The name of Hendwine's mother is not Naimi but Nelmir in the text on which the basis of his inclusion is founded upon - neither is her relation to Lindo and Vairë elaborated on.[2]

Other versions of the legendarium[edit]

In some of the later notes, Heorrenda, called "the harper", is described as being the son of Ælfwine and Earissë, the daughter of Lindo. Here he has a brother called Hlúdwine.[8]

Later etymology[edit]

In these texts, the Qenya name for Heorrenda is Heruvendo (Horwin being its Gnomish equivalent).

As with the earlier names (see above) Heruvendo likewise seems to be a phonological imitation of Heorrenda, corresponding even more closely than Heruven.[9]

However, the first element Hor- in Horwin cannot be cognate with Heru- in Heruvendo. It is possible that Horwin might have been a slip for Herwin, though in the old German poem Kudrun, the form Horund (or Horant) appears for the name Heorrenda, which might have inspired the Gnomish name of Horwin.[9]

Later genealogy[edit]

 
 
Lindo
 
Vairë
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ælfwine
 
Earissë
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
HEORRENDA
 
Hlúdwine
 
 

Inspiration[edit]

The name Heorrenda appears in the Old English poem Déor, where Heorrenda was a bard that has supplanted Déor, another bard and the main character of the poem, in their lord's favour.

In some of Tolkien's lectures on the poem Beowulf, he named the unknown author of the poem as Heorrenda.[10]

Notes

  1. In one of the texts associated with The Book of Lost Tales, Heorrenda's mother is named Nelmir, and he also has a brother called Hendwine.
  2. According to another text, Heorrenda accompanied his father Eriol in his return from Tol Eressëa to the Great Lands. In that text, it was Eriol himself who hastened the Faring Forth, and thus ultimately doomed it.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Book of Lost Tales Part One, "I. The Cottage of Lost Play": "Notes and Commentary", pp. 23-4
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 J.R.R. Tolkien, "Sí Qente Feanor and Other Elvish Writings", in Parma Eldalamberon XV (edited by Christopher Gilson, Arden R. Smith, Patrick H. Wynne, and Bill Welden), "Names and Required Alterations", Appendix, Text X, p. 17
  3. 3.0 3.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Book of Lost Tales Part Two, "VI. The History of Eriol or Ælfwine and the End of the Tales", outline 10, p. 290
  4. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Book of Lost Tales Part Two, "VI. The History of Eriol or Ælfwine and the End of the Tales", outline 11, p. 290
  5. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Book of Lost Tales Part Two, "VI. The History of Eriol or Ælfwine and the End of the Tales", outline 14, p. 294
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Book of Lost Tales Part Two, "VI. The History of Eriol or Ælfwine and the End of the Tales", p. 293
  7. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Book of Lost Tales Part Two, "VI. The History of Eriol or Ælfwine and the End of the Tales", outline 13, pp. 291-2
  8. J.R.R. Tolkien, "Sí Qente Feanor and Other Elvish Writings", in Parma Eldalamberon XV (edited by Christopher Gilson, Arden R. Smith, Patrick H. Wynne, and Bill Welden), "Names and Required Alterations", Appendix, Text XI, p. 18
  9. 9.0 9.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, "Sí Qente Feanor and Other Elvish Writings", in Parma Eldalamberon XV (edited by Christopher Gilson, Arden R. Smith, Patrick H. Wynne, and Bill Welden), "Names and Required Alterations", Appendix, Text XII, p. 18
  10. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Book of Lost Tales Part Two, "VI. The History of Eriol or Ælfwine and the End of the Tales": "Ælfwine of England", p. 323