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Ralph Damiani - Armenelos.png
"Armenelos the golden" by Ralph Damiani
General Information
Other namesThe Golden, City of the Kings, Arminalêth (A)
LocationArandor, nigh Meneltarma
DescriptionCapital of Númenor
People and History
CreatedEarly Second Age
DestroyedS.A. 3319, Downfall of Númenor
GalleryImages of Armenelos

Armenelos, also known as the City of the Kings and Armenelos the Golden, was the capital city of Númenor. It was the fairest of all cities on the island and in later years possibly the largest after Andúnië declined.[1]

It was situated on a hill in eastern central Númenor, in the district called Arandor, the Kingsland, close to Meneltarma. The chief road of Númenor ran through the royal city, eastward it led to the haven of Rómenna while westward it led to Andúnië.

Armenelos contained the great house of the Kings, reportedly built with the help of the Maiar[source?] and the courts of the King where the White Tree Nimloth grew.


[edit] History

Armenelos was founded as far back as the end of the First Age, when the Edain first migrated to the island. Conceivably Arandor was the first district they settled after landing in a firth that later led to the haven of Rómenna.

In S.A. 32, the coronation of Elros in Armenelos marked the beginning of the Númenórean realm.[2]

The Elves of Eressëa brought many gifts to Númenor, one of which was a seedling of the White Tree Celeborn and it grew in the courts of the King in Armenelos and it was named Nimloth.[3]

In S.A. 870, the city celebrated the wedding of the King's Heir Aldarion and Erendis.[4]

Near the end of the Second Age, the Temple was built in the city by order of the King's adviser Sauron and the White Tree Nimloth was burned on its altar and later human sacrifice was performed there.[3]

The city was destroyed in the Downfall of Númenor.

[edit] Etymology

Armenelos is Quenya. Robert Foster suggest it means "royal-heaven-fortress",[1], analyzed as ar- + menel + ost.

The Adûnaic name is Arminalêth.[5] which appears to be a direct translation of the Quenya name, analyzed as ar- + minul (Adûnaic name of menel).[6]

[edit] Other versions of the legendarium

At early stages of writing, the city was called by other names: Númenos, Númar[7] or Nûmar[8] (at first used of what became Númenor). In later developments it was known as Antirion (the Golden).[9] The city's Adûnaic name was Ar-Minalêth or Arminalêth[10][11] which survived in later drafts of the Akallabêth. Additionally in The Peoples of Middle-earth, Christopher corrected a mistake he made in Sauron Defeated where he said the name Arminalêth was replaced by Armenelos, instead it replaced Tar Kalimos.[5]


  1. 1.0 1.1 Robert Foster, The Complete Guide to Middle-earth, entry "Armenelos"
  2. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Line of Elros: Kings of Númenor"
  3. 3.0 3.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Akallabêth: The Downfall of Númenor"
  4. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "Aldarion and Erendis: The Mariner's Wife"
  5. 5.0 5.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "V. The History of the Akallabêth" §7, pp. 145-6
  6. Helge Fauskanger, "Adûnaic", Ardalambion (accessed 25 September 2011)
  7. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Lost Road and Other Writings, "Part One: II. The Fall of Númenor, (ii) The first version of The Fall of Númenor", Commentary on the first version of The Fall of Númenor: §2, p. 14
  8. J.R.R. Tolkien, "Addenda and Corrigenda to the Etymologies — Part One" (edited by Carl F. Hostetter and Patrick H. Wynne), in Vinyar Tengwar, Number 45, November 2003, p. 26
  9. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Sauron Defeated, "Part Three: The Drowning of Anadûnê: (ii) The original text" §2, p. 347
  10. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Sauron Defeated, "Part Two: The Notion Club Papers Part Two: Notes" 75, p. 292
  11. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Sauron Defeated, "Part Three: The Drowning of Anadûnê: (iii) The second text" §20, p. 363
Andor · Atalantë · Elenna · Mar-nu-Falmar · Númenórë · Westernesse
Regions Andustar · Arandor · Emerië · Forostar · Hyarastorni · Hyarnustar · Hyarrostar · Kingsland · Mittalmar · Nísimaldar · Orrostar
Towns and cities Almaida · Andúnië · Armenelos · Eldalondë · Nindamos · Ondosto · Rómenna
Buildings Calmindon · Eämbar · King's Court · Temple · White House of Erendis
Natural features Bay of Eldanna · Bay of Rómenna · Firth of Rómenna · Meneltarma (mountain) · Nísinen (lake) · North Cape · Nunduinë (river) · Oromet (mountain) · Siril (river) · Sorontil (mountain) · Tarmasundar (ridges) · Tompollë
Plants and trees Fragrant Trees · Lairelossë · Laurinquë · Lavaralda · Nessamelda · Nimloth · Oiolairë · Taniquelassë · Vardarianna · Yavannamírë
Heirlooms Aranrúth · Bow of Bregor · Dramborleg · Elendilmir · Narsil · Palantíri · Ring of Barahir · Sceptre of Annúminas · Sceptre of Númenor · Tile and Textiles · Helmet
Concepts Adûnaic · Ban of the Valar · Council of the Sceptre · Downfall of Númenor · Númenórean Sindarin · Ruxöalë · Three Prayers (Eruhantalë · Erukyermë · Erulaitalë)
Key people Aldarion · Amandil · Elros (House of Elros) · Erendis · Faithful · Guild of Venturers · Isildur · Kings and Queens of Númenor · King's Men · Lords of Andúnië · Meneldur · Miriel · Palantir · Pharazôn · Sauron · Silmariën
Main texts The Silmarillion ("Akallabêth") · Unfinished Tales ("A Description of the Island of Númenor" · "Aldarion and Erendis: The Mariner's Wife" · "The Line of Elros: Kings of Númenor") · The Lord of the Rings ("Appendix A" · "Appendix B") · The Nature of Middle-earth ("Lives of the Númenóreans" · "Of the land and beasts of Númenor")