Tolkien Gateway

Harad

Harad
Region
The Lord of the Rings (film series) - Harad map.jpg
Map of Harad from The Lord of the Ring film series
General Information
Other namesHaradwaith, Sunlands, Sutherland
LocationSouth of Harondor and Mordor
TypeRegion
DescriptionA vast hot area, filled with deserts and jungles
InhabitantsHaradrim

Harad was the name of the immense lands to the South of Gondor and Mordor. It was inhabited by many different tribes called Haradrim.

Contents

[edit] History

[edit] First Age

After Men first awoke in Hildórien they began migrating west, some eventually reached Harad and settled in the area.[1] Historians in Gondor believed that the Drúedain were the first Men to cross the Anduin, passing through Harad, but before reaching Harad's coastline, they turned northward into Ithilien.[2]

[edit] Second Age

In the early years Sauron exerted his influence in Harad.[3] When the Men of Númenor began sailing east they explored the coasts of Middle-earth, including the coast lands of Harad. The Númenóreans initially benefited the people in the lands they explored by teaching them many things about agriculture and craftsmanship,[4] and later made settlements on the southern coasts, including the Havens of Umbar which was later fortified in 2280.[5]

In the 9th century of the Second Age, the great mariner Aldarion explored the coast of Harad far to the south and was nearly shipwrecked.[6]

After the reign of Tar-Ciryatan, the Númenóreans began to set themselves up as lords in Middle-earth as they demanded tribute of goods and wealth, causing the oppression of the Haradrim. The Númenóreans expanded their control over Harad and Sauron did not at first dare to challenge them. But after the forging of the Rings of Power and the emergence of the Nazgûl, Sauron began to attack the Númenórean settlements on the coast.[7]

Ar-Pharazôn, the king of Númenor, landed at Umbar in 3261[5] with a great fleet and the people on the coasts fled before them. Ar-Pharazôn and his host marched through Harad to meet Sauron's forces but they fled from the Númenóreans and Sauron allowed himself to be taken to Númenor where he corrupted the King and his followers. Under Sauron's influence, the Númenóreans became even more ruthless to the locals of Harad, enslaving them and using them for sacrifices.[7]

The Númenóreans who lived in Harad survived the destruction of Númenor in 3319.[5] They later became known as the Black Númenóreans because they remained under the influence of Sauron and their mighty lords made their home in Harad where they "rose to great power amongst the Haradrim".[3]

[edit] Third Age and later history

Harad came under the control of Gondor when Ciryaher won a great victory over the Men of Harad in 1050.[8]

After the Kin-strife Castamir's sons fled to Umbar and made it a refuge for all enemies of Gondor, this resulted to Gondor losing much influence over Harad which later came under the dominion of Sauron's servants.[9]

After the War of the Ring the newly crowned king of the Reunited Kingdom, Elessar, made peace with the Men of Harad[10] and extended his realm south, reconquering Umbar and much of Harad's western coast.[9][11] Harad's eastern lands remained independent.

[edit] Geography

Harad was located south of Mordor, with the Mountains of Shadow forming part of the northern border of Harad. The River Harnen flowed westward from the Mountains of Shadow to the Bay of Belfalas and was Harad's border with South Gondor - a deserted region contested between Gondor and Harad. The Harad Road ran from Harad northward through South Gondor and on to Ithilien.

To the north-east of Harad was Khand, a land that also had ties with Sauron. It is not known how far eastward or southward Harad stretched. On the west, Harad was bounded by the Bay of Belfalas and the Sea.

The northernmost part of Harad was called Near Harad and the southern part was Far Harad. On the coast there was a natural harbour with a narrow cape curving around it. The coastal region around the harbour was known as Umbar, and the harbour was called the Havens of Umbar. The seafaring raiders known as the Corsairs lived there. At the eastern end of the harbour was the City of the Corsairs.[12]

The South had many towns,[13] fields[14] and "dark forests" with apes.[15] In Far Harad lived also camels and the gigantic Oliphaunts,[16][17] which were used by the Haradrim as moving war towers.

Harad was called the "Sunlands" by the Hobbits of the Shire,[18] suggesting the climate was warmer and sunnier. Even the constellations in Harad's night sky down in the southern hemisphere[19] were different from those in northern Middle-earth (Aragorn had travelled far into Harad "where the stars are strange"[20]).

[edit] Inhabitants

Haradrim Camp by Jan Pospíšil
Main article: Haradrim

The Men of Harad were also known as the Haradrim to the peoples of north-western Middle-earth. There were many tribes of the Haradrim often mutually hostile. The men of Near Harad were brown-skinned, with black hair and dark eyes,[17] while the race known as "half-trolls" out of Far Harad had black skin.[21]

[edit] Etymology

Harad means "South" in Sindarin.[22] The word is derived from root KHYAR, and is cognate to Quenya hyarmen ("south").[23] It is also called Haradwaith which includes gwaith ("people").

The Men of Harad were called Haradrim ("Southern-host").[20]

[edit] Other versions of the legendarium

An early name of Harad was (Sun)Harrowland, which is derived from the Old English name of the Aethiopans, Sigerhearwan, and therefore meaning "Aethiopia" (See also: Sigelwara Land).[24]

[edit] Inspiration

Given the descriptions of the inhabitants of Middle-earth's southern lands,[17] the early etymologies of their name,[25] and the overall shape of the southern lands as shown in the Ambarkanta maps,[26] it is likely that Harad may have been based on the lands of northern and northeastern Africa and perhaps the Middle East in our world.

References

  1. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of Men"
  2. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Drúedain", pp. 339-340.
  3. 3.0 3.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age"
  4. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Númenor"
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Second Age"
  6. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "Aldarion and Erendis: The Mariner's Wife"
  7. 7.0 7.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Akallabêth: The Downfall of Númenor"
  8. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age"
  9. 9.0 9.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion"
  10. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "The Steward and the King"
  11. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The House of Eorl"
  12. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, "The West of Middle-earth at the End of the Third Age" [map]
  13. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age"
  14. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The House of Eorl"
  15. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Two Towers, "Helm's Deep"
  16. A Map of Middle-earth
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Two Towers, "The Black Gate is Closed"
  18. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Two Towers, "The Black Gate is Closed"
  19. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Istari", Note #10}}
  20. 20.0 20.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "The Council of Elrond"
  21. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "The Battle of the Pelennor Fields"
  22. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix E, "Pronunciation of Words and Names", "Consonants"
  23. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Lost Road and Other Writings, Part Three: "The Etymologies", KHYAR
  24. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Treason of Isengard, "XXV. The Story Foreseen from Fangorn", Note 4
  25. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Treason of Isengard, "XXV. The Story Foreseen from Fangorn", Note 4
  26. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Shaping of Middle-earth, "V. The Ambarkanta", p. 250-251