Blue Wizards

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Blue Wizards
Maiar (Wizards)
"The Blue Wizards" by Daniel Pilla
Biographical Information
Other namesEarlier writings: Alatar and Pallando
Later writings: Morinehtar and Rómestámo; Palacendo and Haimenar
LocationRhûn and Harad[1]
AffiliationOrder of Wizards
Physical Description
GalleryImages of the Blue Wizards

The Blue Wizards (S. Ithryn Luin)[note 1] were the two Wizards who were sent into the far East and South of Middle-earth to contest the will of Sauron, but never returned.


Other versions of the legendarium

Tolkien's conception of the two Blue Wizards changed dramatically between his earlier and later writings.

Earlier writings

The idea that there were two other wizards in addition to Gandalf, Saruman, and Radagast was first conceived when Saruman in his wrath revealed that there were five members of the Order of Wizards:

Later! Yes, when you [Gandalf] also have the Keys of Barad-dûr itself, I suppose; and the crowns of seven kings, and the rods of the Five Wizards

Nothing more was said of these two wizards in The Lord of the Rings as it was published. However, whilst preparing (in 1954) an Index for The Return of the King, Tolkien wrote what his son later referred to as the 'essay on the Istari'. There it is said that of the chief wizards who went to the North of Middle-earth there were five, and two of these were clad in sea-blue. Little was known about these two in the West of Middle-earth; even their individual names were unknown, but they were known collectively as Ithryn Luin, the Blue Wizards. It is said they travelled into the East with Curunír but they did not return into the West. Their fate was unknown, but some held that they fell into evil and became servants of Sauron.[1]

Tolkien expanded upon this last point in a letter written in 1958:

I really do not know anything clearly about the other two [wizards] – since they do not concern the history of the N[orth].W[est]. I think they went as emissaries to distant regions, East and South, far out of Númenórean range: missionaries to 'enemy-occupied' lands, as it were. What success they had I do not know; but I fear that they failed, as Saruman did, though doubtless in different ways; and I suspect they were founders or beginners of secret cults and 'magic' traditions that outlasted the fall of Sauron.

Alatar: Darkness-slayer by Tom Cross[note 2]

Tolkien also suggests that only Gandalf returned to Valinor:

Wilt thou learn the lore || that was long secret
of the Five that came || from a far country?
One only returned. || Others never again

In a brief narrative about a council of the Valar, the origins of the other two Wizards are placed alongside those of the known three, Curumo (Saruman), Aiwendil (Radagast), and Olórin (Gandalf). Whilst in the essay on the Istari the Blue Wizards were given no names, here these two are called Alatar and Pallando. Oromë chose Alatar to send to Middle-earth (to contest the will of Sauron), and Alatar decided to bring along Pallando as his friend. Christopher Tolkien has speculated that their association with Oromë could be because he was the Vala who had the greatest knowledge of the furthest regions of Middle-earth and hence that is where the two Wizards journeyed.[1]

Pallando by Angus McBride

Based on the above material, the history of the two "Blue Wizards" can be determined as the following:

  • Manwë summons a council of the Valar. They decide to send emissaries to Middle-earth. Oromë chooses to send Alatar, and Alatar brings along his friend Pallando.[1]
  • The two Wizards arrive in Middle-earth at roughly the same time as the other wizards, c. T.A. 1000[3]
  • The two, known as the "Blue Wizards", travel into the East of Middle-earth with Saruman. Saruman returns to the North West, but the two do not.[1]
  • Together or independent of each other, the two fall from their appointed task. They may have founded 'magic' cults amongst the peoples of the eastern and southern regions, which existed beyond the downfall of the Lord of the Rings.[2]

Later writings

Slayer of Darkness by Jef Murray

Towards the end of his life Tolkien returned to the issue of the other two Wizards. In a brief outline he noted that the two Wizards were sent to Middle-earth in the Second Age and were destined to disrupt the work of Sauron in the East:

Their task was to circumvent Sauron: to bring help to the few tribes of Men that had rebelled from Melkor-worship, to stir up rebellion ... and after his first fall to search out his hiding (in which they failed) and to cause [?dissension and disarray] among the dark East ... They must have had very great influence on the history of the Second Age and Third Age in weakening and disarraying the forces of East ... who would both in the Second Age and Third Age otherwise have ... outnumbered the West.

Therefore Tolkien dramatically altered his conception of the two Wizards. They no longer arrived in Middle-earth along with Saruman, Gandalf, and Radagast in c. T.A. 1000. Instead they arrived much earlier, at roughly the same time as Glorfindel in c. S.A. 1600. Whilst Glorfindel was tasked with aiding Gil-galad and Elrond with the war in Eriador, the Wizards were destined to journey to the East and South. Instead of mentioning that they drifted from their mission, Tolkien points out that they played a decisive role in the downfall of Sauron at the end of both the Second Age and the Third Age. They were known as Morinehtar and Rómestámo, Darkness-slayer and East-helper, and were successful in preventing the forces of the East and South from outnumbering those of the Free peoples in the West.[4]

Based on these later writings, a history of the two Wizards can be summarised as the following:[4][5]

  • The two Wizards were sent to Middle-earth at roughly the same time as Glorfindel in c. S.A. 1600 (and similarly at the behest of the Valar), the Year of Dread, when Sauron forged The One Ring and completed the building of Barad-dûr.
  • The two Wizards journeyed into the East and South of Middle-earth, where they remained; they were not heard or seen west of Mordor.
  • They were known as Morinehtar and Rómestámo, Darkness-slayer and East-helper.
  • The two Wizards were able to hinder Sauron's operations in the East and South, aiding the defeat of Sauron in the War of the Elves and Sauron and the War of the Last Alliance.
  • During the early Third Age and until the end of the Watchful Peace, they were tasked with finding where Sauron dwelt. They failed.
  • They ensured that the forces of the East and South did not outnumber the West, thus helping secure victory for the Free peoples in the War of the Ring.


The Sindarin name Ithryn Luin consists of ithryn ("wizards"; plural of ithron) and luin ("blue").[6]

Νames and etymologies

Alatar and Pallando are Quenya names. The first is not clear, and possibly contains the Quenya elements for "radiance" (cf. Alatariel) and/or the ending -tar "lord" (cf. Annatar).[7] Pallando, according to Christopher Tolkien, possibly contains the element palan- "far"[1]:401

Morinehtar is described as meaning "Darkness-slayer",[8] likely based on the Quenya words mori- ("darkness") and nehtar ("slayer").[9]

Rómestámo or Róme(n)star is a Quenya name meaning "East-helper".[8]

When sent to Cuiviénen with the other Guardians, they were called Palacendo ("*Far sighted one") and Haimenar ("*Far-farer").[10][7]

Portrayal in adaptations

The Blue Wizards have not appeared physically in any adaptation of Middle earth works so far, and they are mentioned and implied only in the following adaptations:

2007: The Lord of the Rings Online:

The Khundolar tribe of the Easterlings had among them the "Blue Caste" of sorcerers. Their Master, "Yirokhsar the Blue", forbade his followers to march with the Dark Lord's forces, but many still joined their kings who had fallen under the sway of Sauron. Also, the Jangovar Easterlings viewed Sauron as a god, but were confused why their master, "Yetkeyin the Violet", refused to obey Sauron.

2012: The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey:

Gandalf mentions the Blue Wizards when he explains the number of Wizards, and says that he has forgotten their names.
Since the film production team did not have the rights to include material from sources other than The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, the decision to include the line "Blue Wizards" (only appearing in Unfinished Tales[11]) has been regarded as legally controversial.[12]

2014: Middle-earth: Shadow of Mordor:

In the game,three artefacts describe the encounter of two wizards whose names couldn't be remembered travelling side by side into Mordor. It is implied to be the Blue Wizards from the description of the artifact. Furthermore, a figurine depicting them has been carved out of azurite, a blue stone. More lore tells the player that the Black Hand could have been a king that brought Sauron the heads of two Istari. Whether or not this is true is unknown.


  1. The term "Blue Wizards" is mentioned only in an "essay" and is the only source where they are assigned a color; although Tolkien revisited the concept of the remaining two Wizards, giving them different names and backgrounds, their assigned color (whether blue or other) or title, is never specified again. However the term "Blue Wizards" is used by the fans to refer to all concepts of these two Wizards.
  2. Tolkien did not associate Alatar with Morinehtar (which means "Darkness-slayer") and they should not be considered synonymous.


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Istari"
  2. 2.0 2.1 J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 211, (dated 14 October 1958)
  3. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age"
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "XIII. Last Writings", pp. 384-85
  5. J.R.R. Tolkien, Carl F. Hostetter (ed.), The Nature of Middle-earth, "Part Three. The World, its Lands, and its Inhabitants: XVIII. Note on the Delay of Gil-galad and the Númenóreans"
  6. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, Index
  7. 7.0 7.1 Paul Strack, "[1]", Eldamo (accessed 20 September 2023)
  8. 8.0 8.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "XIII. Last Writings", pp. 384-5, 391, note 28
  9. Helge Fauskanger, "Quenya-English Wordlist", Ardalambion (accessed 12 September 2012)
  10. J.R.R. Tolkien, Carl F. Hostetter (ed.), The Nature of Middle-earth, "Part One. Time and Ageing: XIII. Key Dates", "Notes", p. 102, note 7
  11. Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (eds), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, p. 244
  12. Janet Brennan Croft, "Source Material (message #23828)" dated 17 December 2012, MythSoc mailing list (accessed 27 February 2023)
Valar Lords Manwë · Ulmo · Aulë · Oromë · Mandos · Irmo · Tulkas · Melkor
Valier Varda · Yavanna · Nienna · Estë · Vairë · Vána · Nessa
Maiar Arien · Blue Wizards · Eönwë · Gandalf · Ilmarë · Melian · Ossë · Radagast · Salmar · Saruman · Tilion · Uinen
Úmaiar Sauron · Balrogs (Gothmog · Durin's Bane) · Boldogs
Concepts and locations Almaren · Aratar (indicated in italics) · Creation of the Ainur · Fana · Máhanaxar · Ainulindalë · Order of Wizards (indicated in bold) · Second Music of the Ainur · Timeless Halls · Valarin · Valinor · Valimar