From Tolkien Gateway
"Middle-earth map (1 of 4)" by Stephen Raw
General Information
Other namesThe Lone-lands
LocationNorth-west Middle-earth, between the Misty Mountains and the Blue Mountains
DescriptionLarge region scattered with hills and forests
RegionsAngmar, Arnor, Eregion
People and History
InhabitantsSee below
EventsFoundation of Arnor
Forging of the Rings
War of the Elves and Sauron
Arrival of Hobbits
The Great Plague
The Fell Winter
Battle of Bywater
GalleryImages of Eriador

But there's no accounting for East and West, as we say in Bree, meaning the Rangers and the Shire-folk, begging your pardon.

Eriador was the large region in the north-west of Middle-earth, defined between Lindon and the Blue Mountains to the west and Rhovanion and the Misty Mountains to the east.

It was inhabited by all the Free peoples of Middle-earth, being the location of many of the most important events of the Second and Third Ages. By the end of the Third Age, its main inhabitants were Hobbits of the Shire and Men of the surrounding lands.


First Age

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The Three Kindreds of the Elves passed through Eriador on their way to Beleriand, to make the trip to Valinor. First came the Vanyar, followed closely by the Noldor, but the third kindred, the Teleri, tarried and were only urged forward at the behest of their lord, Elwë, who was keen to return to Valinor.[2] Later, some of the Nandor who remained behind eventually passed into Eriador, and dwelt there for a time, before Denethor gathered as many of the Nandor as possible and they removed to Ossiriand to become the Laiquendi.[2][3]

In F.A. 310, the first Men, tribes of the Edain (ancestors of the House of Bëor and House of Hador) traversed Eriador. Many sub-tribes of both peoples stayed behind, and when the shrinking teams (now led by Bëor and Marach) reached Beleriand, those who stayed behind occupied many parts of Eriador.[4][5]

The Bëorians were discovered by Finrod Felagund. These Men quickly made friendship with the Eldar and entered into their service, but Bereg, great-grandson of Bëor, was discontent and led those of like mind with himself back over the mountains into Eriador.[6]

Men were still drawn westwards; also living in Eriador during the late First Age were men known as Swarthy Men, who were led by Bór and Ulfang into Beleriand (F.A. 463), and they met with the Eldar.[7]

Second Age

Elves and Númenóreans

Template:See also Following the War of Wrath and the destruction of Beleriand, many Elves left for Aman whilst the remnants of the Edain removed to live on the newly-formed isle of Númenor. The remaining Elves moved to Lindon, and in S.A. 750 the remnants of the Noldor established the realm of Eregion in the south-east of Eriador.[8]

In the early Second Age, Galadriel and Celeborn crossed into Eriador with many Noldor in their following, together with Sindar and Green-elves; and for a while they dwelt in the country about Lake Nenuial ruling the Eldar in Eriador, including the wandering companies of the native Nandor.[9] Descendants of the Edain also dwelt there, side by side to those Elves. These Men also occupied the Weather Hills and the North Downs.[9][10]

In S.A. 600, the first Númenórean ships began to visit Middle-earth and when news of this reached the Men of Eriador they were amazed and scared. On the Tower Hills the Númenóreans met with just twelve Men from Eriador and both sides recognised their ancient kinship: the Númenóreans discovered that these people lived in the hills east of the Baranduin and were likely the descendants of the people of Bëor and Hador who never crossed the Blue Mountains.[10]

Ost-in-Edhil by Felix Sotomayor

In S.A. 725 Aldarion first visited Lindon and Eriador and began a long-lasting friendship with Gil-galad. He made many voyages to Middle-earth and established the haven of Vinyalondë (later known as Lond Daer) on the banks of the river Gwathir, a move which proved crucial in defeating Sauron later in the Second Age.[10] As a mariner, Aldarion had a great desire to build ships and to do this he began deforesting much of the Minhiriath and Enedwaith; this angered the native forest-dwelling Men who subsequently fled to the forest of Eryn Vorn.[11]

War with Sauron

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The Noldor of Eregion grew in unparalleled friendship with the Dwarves of Khazad-dûm, to the benefit of both peoples, and there was much traffic between the Elven city of Ost-in-Edhil and the West-gate of Moria. In his attempt to corrupt them, Sauron taught them how to create the Rings of Power.[12]

The Elves realised they had been tricked and they hid their Rings from him; Sauron, however, demanded that all the Rings be given to him as they were created with his help. When the Elves refused Sauron was vengeful and in S.A. 1693 began the War of the Elves and Sauron with an invasion of Eriador in 1695.[12] Elrond was sent by Gil-galad with a force to aid Celebrimbor, but all Elrond could do was to retreat with some survivors northwards.[9]

Death of Celebrimbor by Abe Papakhian

In 1697, with Eregion lain waste, Elrond founded the refuge of Imladris as a defence against Sauron, and was joined by Men and Elves, swelling his forces; Sauron had taken over all of Eriador by S.A. 1699, once he drove the Dwarves back into Khazad-dûm and the gates were shut. While Sauron sent most of his army west to attack Lindon he had to leave a strong detachment behind to contain Elrond[9] and besieged Imladris.[8]

Gil-galad sent word to King Tar-Minastir of Númenor calling for aid, but when the ships finally arrived in S.A. 1700 (landing in Lindon and Vinyalondë) Sauron was already preparing his invasion of Lindon. The forces of Gil-galad, Elrond and Ciryatur caused heavy losses at Sarn Ford before Sauron's forces were utterly destroyed at the Battle of the Gwathló, where Sauron barely escaped with his life. However, Eriador lay in ruins as many of the native Men, Elves and Númenóreans had been killed by Sauron and his forces had ravaged the lands and destroyed many of the remaining forests.[11]

The Elven lords decided in a Council that Imladris should become the new Elvish stronghold in eastern Eriador after the destruction of Eregion; Gil-galad also bestowed the ring Vilya upon Elrond and made him his vice-regent.[9]

Last Alliance

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The War of the Last Alliance in The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring

Throughout the Second Age the Númenóreans gradually increased their power in Middle-earth by creating coastal dominions; they eventually had the strength to confront Sauron and take him prisoner to Númenor. Whilst there, Sauron seduced the King and most of the people, and persuaded Ar-Pharazôn to break the Ban of the Valar, causing Ilúvatar to change the shape of the World, destroying Númenor in the process.[13] The Faithful, those Númenóreans who remained true to the Valar and friendly with the Elves, were spared, and in S.A. 3320 Elendil established the two Realms in Exile: Gondor in the south and Arnor in Eriador.[8]

Sauron, now unable to take fair form,[14] returned to Mordor and in S.A. 3429 attacked Minas Ithil, burning the White Tree.[8] Isildur son of Elendil fled north to join his father in Arnor, who took counsel with Gil-galad, for both foresaw the need to triumph over Sauron before his power grew unstoppable: in S.A. 3430 they formed the Last Alliance of Elves and Men. In S.A. 3431 Elendil and Gil-galad marched east to Imladris; the host was the fairest and most splendid in arms ever seen in Middle-earth and the greatest ever assembled since the Host of the Valar.[12]

Third Age

Arnor and Division

The One Ring by John Howe

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Following Sauron's defeat during the War of the Last Alliance, Isildur took the One Ring for himself as a weregild for his father, but, during the Disaster of the Gladden Fields the Ring betrayed him to his death; the Ring was lost and not found again for 2,500 years.[15] The kingship of Arnor passed to Isildur's only surviving son, Valandil, whose reign began an uneventful 800 years in the North-kingdom.[16]

The unity of Arnor was broken, however, when in T.A. 861, following the death of the tenth king, Eärendur, the dissension amongst his three sons led to the division of Arnor into three kingdoms: Arthedain, Cardolan and Rhudaur. There was often strife between the kingdoms, especially over ownership of the Weather Hills and the chief Palantír of the North at Amon Sûl, and this quickened the waning of the Dúnedain.[17]

Arthedain was in the North-west and included the land between Brandywine and Lune, and also the land north of the Great Road as far as the Weather Hills. Rhudaur was in the North-east and lay between the Ettenmoors, the Weather Hills, and the Misty Mountains, but included also the Angle between the Hoarwell and the Loudwater. Cardolan was in the South, its bounds being the Brandywine, the Greyflood, and the Great Road.

The line of Isildur was maintained through the Kings of Arthedain all the way to Aragorn II, but the line of kings in Cardolan and Rhudaur quickly dwindled. By 1349, with the rule of Argeleb I, the Kings of Arthedain were once again claiming lordship over all of Arnor and prefixed their names with ar- in recognition of this.[18]

Rise of Angmar

The Witch King of Angmar by Rob Alexander

In the year T.A. 1300[16] evil things begin to return to the world with the Witch-king founding the evil realm of Angmar beyond the Ettenmoors in the far north-east of Eriador, hoping to utterly destroy the Dúnedain of the North, seeing hope in the fragmentation of Arnor.[17]

In league with Lindon and Cardolan, King Arveleg I of Arthedain successfully fortified the Weather Hills against Angmar whilst Rivendell was being besieged. However, in T.A. 1409, a great force came out of Angmar, surrounding Weathertop, defeating the Dúnedain, slaying Arveleg and the last prince of Cardolan whilst destroying the tower of Amon Sûl. The palantír was saved in retreat to Fornost but Cardolan was ravaged and Rhudaur became a vassal-state of Angmar. In response, Elrond brought Elves from Lothlórien and Círdan sent aid from Lindon to repel Angmar from the North Downs and Fornost - for a time, Angmar was subdued.[17]

During the Angmar War, the weather and climate in Eriador became unfriendly, and all these circumstances forced the Stoors to leave the Angle of Eriador. In T.A. 1636 the Great Plague came up from the south-east with many in Cardolan (especially in Minhiriath) and the Shire perishing; as Cardolan was deserted, the Witch-king sent evil spirits to dwell in the revered Barrow-downs.[17] The Plague marked the beginning of the desolation of Eriador, that continued being depopulated from Men for the rest of the Age.[19]

Destruction of Arnor

See also: Arnor#The Fall of Arthedain and Arvedui#Life as King

After many years of silence, King Araphant of Arthedain and King Ondoher of Gondor renewed communications between the two realms, as they perceived that there was a single power directing the enemies of both Arnor and Gondor,[20] as such in T.A. 1940 Araphant's son Arvedui married Ondoher's daughter Fíriel.[16] Despite the marriage, neither kingdom was able to send aid to the other as Angmar continued to attack Arthedain while the Wainriders attacked Gondor; in the Battle of the Camp of T.A. 1944 Ondoher was killed.

On the death of Ondoher and his sons, Arvedui of the North-kingdom claimed the crown of Gondor, as the direct descendant of Isildur, and as the husband of Fíriel, only surviving child of Ondoher. The claim was rejected. In this Pelendur, the Steward of King Ondoher, played the chief part.

The Council of Gondor answer: "The crown and royalty of Gondor belongs solely with the heirs of Meneldil, son of Anárion, to whom Isildur relinquished this realm. In Gondor this heritage is reckoned through the sons only; and we have not heard that the law is otherwise in Arnor."

Instead, a distant relative, Eärnil, was chosen as King. Arvedui did not press his claim, but nor did the Dúnedain of the North forget it, for their kingdom diminished as foretold by Malbeth the Seer: in T.A. 1974 Angmar returned with renewed vigour, attacking the Dúnedain, capturing Fornost and destroying Arnor. After holding out for a while on the North Downs, Arvedui was forced to flee to the mountains where he stayed in old dwarf mines; out of hunger, he and his men travelled north and spent the winter with the Lossoth on the Icebay of Forochel. Arvedui perished and two palantíri were lost.[17]

Eärnil had told Arvedui, "I do not forget the royalty of Arnor, nor deny our kinship, nor wish that the realms of Elendil be estranged. I will send to your aid when you have need, so long as I am able."[20] In T.A. 1973 he received a request for aid and sent his son, Eärnur, north with a great host: they arrived at the Grey Havens too late. However, in T.A. 1975 Círdan and Eärnur amassed a great army and met the forces of Angmar on the plain by Lake Nenuial in the Battle of Fornost: the force was too strong for the Witch-king and his army fled but his retreat was cut off by Gondor's cavalry and a host of Elves led by Glorfindel who had come north from Rivendell.[16]

Despite the utter destruction of Angmar, Arthedain was also ended. Arvedui's son, Aranarth, took the title "Chieftain of the Dúnedain", and the heirlooms of Arnor were given into the keeping of Elrond.[16] The Dúnedain continued as a secretive and wandering people, fighting alongside the sons of Elrond to protect their former lands: they mostly lived out their full lives (save for Aragorn I who was slain by wolves) until the days of Arassuil when evil things began to multiply again.[17]

Foundation of the Shire

The Shire as seen in The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring

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Hobbits (or Periannath in Sindarin) first entered Eriador in T.A. 1050 when Harfoots came over the Misty Mountains from the Vales of Anduin in order to move away from the shadow which had fallen over Greenwood the Great. In around T.A. 1150 they were joined by the Fallohides, whilst the Stoors came over the Redhorn Pass and moved to Dunland and the Angle. With the rise of Angmar some Hobbits migrated westward and settle in Bree; in T.A. 1356 the Stoors left the Angle, some of whom returned to Rhovanion[16] to become a people of fisher-folk.[17]

In T.A. 1601, led by Marcho and Blanco, Hobbits obtained permission from King Argeleb II to settle in the region beyond the Brandywine River on the proviso that they maintain the Bridge of Stonebows and other bridges and roads, whilst acknowledging Argeleb's lordship. With the foundation of the Shire, the year Third Age 1601 became the year 1 in Shire-reckoning.[21] On the war with with Angmar the following is recorded:

The Shire-folk survived, though war swept over them and most fled into hiding. To the help of the king they sent some archers who never returned; and others went also to the battle in which Angmar was overthrown [...] Afterwards in the peace that followed the Shire-folk ruled themselves and prospered. They chose a Thain to take the place of the King [...] The first Shire-thain was one Bucca of the Marish, from whom the Oldbucks claimed descent. He became Thain in 379

For the next thousand years Hobbits were little-affected by the dangers of the world around them as they grew large in both number and wealth.[21] Despite the end of the Watchful Peace in T.A. 2460, with the passes across the Misty Mountains being barred by Sauron's creatures, Eriador was not attacked by Orcs until 2740.[16] Seven years later Bandobras Took led a group of hobbits in successfully defending the Shire against marauding orcs from Mount Gram led by Golfimbul in the Battle of Greenfields.[22] Hobbits faced further hardship in T.A. 2758 in the Long Winter, which killed thousands of hobbits and resulted in a dreadful famine. In T.A. 2911 the Fell Winter began, freezing the rivers and bringing white wolves from the north. In the floods which followed the city of Tharbad was destroyed.[16]

On 14 March T.A. 2941,[23] a chance encounter between the wizard Gandalf and King Thorin Oakenshield in Bree set in motion a series of events which led to the downfall of Sauron and the establishment of the Reunited Kingdom. Thorin was seeking assistance in regaining his father's kingdom and wealth. Gandalf, worried about the threat of the dragon Smaug, agreed to assist, and forcibly enlisted the help of Bilbo Baggins.[24] As the Company of fifteen (thirteen dwarves with Gandalf and Bilbo) travelled towards Rivendell they encountered three trolls. Thanks to Gandalf they avoided death whilst managing to gain the two Elvish swords Glamdring and Orcrist, and the dagger Sting. Later on this quest Bilbo obtained Gollum's magic ring.[25]

See also: Quest for Erebor

War of the Ring

See also: The Lord of the Rings and War of the Ring

By that time, large portions of Eriador had been deserted, as had other parts of the Westlands.[26]

Ted Nasmith - Storming the Bank

Following Bilbo's disappearance in T.A. 3001, Bilbo's "nephew", Frodo, inherited all of Bilbo's possessions, including Bilbo's ring.[27] Bilbo travelled through Eriador, eventually staying with Elrond in Rivendell, whilst Frodo continued to live in Bag End. However, by T.A. 3018, Frodo, with Sam, Merry and Pippin, was forced to set out from the Shire to head towards Rivendell in order to deliver what had been discovered to be the One Ring. On the way, the Hobbits encountered the Black Riders and Barrow-wights, as well as Farmer Maggot, Gildor Inglorion and Tom Bombadil. In Bree, the Travellers met a man called "Strider", who had been sent to safely escort the hobbits to Rivendell.[28] Despite being pursued by Black Riders, they eventually arrived at Rivendell. There, a Council decided that a group of nine people should take on a quest to destroy the Ring.[15]

Following the eventual success of the quest, the destruction of the One Ring and downfall of Sauron, and the coronation of "Strider" (Aragorn) as King Elessar of Gondor, the four hobbits and Gandalf returned to Eriador.[29] Gandalf left the hobbits at the Old Forest, choosing to visit Tom Bombadil, but when they arrived at the Brandywine Bridge they saw that the Shire had been badly affected by Saruman via his puppet "Chief" and the use of ruffians. After breaking many of the new "rules", the four hobbits were escorted to Hobbiton by a troop of Shirriffs, where they began a rebellion in the form of the successful Battle of Bywater: the ruffians were killed (as was Gríma Wormtongue) or captured and the Shire-folk were liberated (at the cost of 19 lives).[30]

Following the Battle of Bywater and the end of the War of the Ring, Frodo temporarily took the position of Deputy Mayor whilst Sam used his gift from Galadriel to replenish the Shire of its lost flora (bringing a Mallorn tree to the Party Field).[31] On September 21, T.A. 3021, Frodo and Sam set out from the Shire to meet the Last Riding of the Three Keepers: on September 29 they reached the Grey Havens where Frodo, Bilbo, Gandalf, Galadriel and Elrond departed Middle-earth; the Red Book of Westmarch was left with Sam.[32]

Fourth Age

In the year 1422 of Shire-reckoning, the Fourth Age began following the departure of the Ring-bearers, the defeat of Sauron and re-establishment of Arnor in the north and Gondor in the south. In Fo.A. 6 King Elessar of Arnor made the Shire a Free Land under the protection of the Northern Sceptre and declared that no man should ever enter the Shire.[33]

In Fo.A. 15 Elessar stayed at Lake Evendim, meeting his friends at Brandywine Bridge; in Fo.A. 31 he gave the Westmarch, the area between the Far Downs and Tower Hills, to the Shire as well as officially adding Buckland to the Shire.[21] In Fo.A. 61 Sam eventually passed over the sea and in Fo.A. 63 Merry and Pippin left the Shire and travel south to Rohan and Gondor.[33]

It is unknown how many, if any, Elves were left in Eriador during the Fourth Age; presumably very few Noldor, at least.[31]


Physical characteristics

See also: Category:Eriador and Category:Cities, towns and villages of the Shire

Eriador was a large, inhabited temperate region in the north-west of Middle-earth which experienced warm summers and increasingly cool winters.[21] At its widest extent, it stretched for around 675 miles from east-to-west, around 690 miles from north-to-south, 740 miles from northeast-to-southwest and 750 miles from northwest-to-southeast.[34]

Drawing by J.R.R. Tolkien showing the Withywindle

The most important rivers were: the Lune (Sindarin Lhûn) which flowed through the Blue Mountains to form the Gulf of Lune; the Brandywine (Sindarin Baranduin) which flowed out of Lake Evendim (Nenuial) to form the eastern-boundary of the Shire; and the Greyflood (Gwathló) which formed the southern-border of Eriador. Other rivers included: the Glanduin, which flowed out of Hollin (Eregion) and into the Greyflood above Tharbad, forming the Swanfleet (Nîn-in-Eilph) marsh; the Loudwater (Bruinen), passing Rivendell (Imladris) in the Ford of Bruinen; the Hoarwell (Mitheithel) which flowed out of the Ettenmoors and over which the Last Bridge passed; the Withywindle of the Old Forest; and The Water, Stock-brook, Shirebourn and Thistle Brook which all flowed into the Brandywine from in the Shire.[35][36]

Central Eriador was scattered with many groups of hills including the Tower Hills (Emyn Beraid), Hills of Evendim (Emyn Uial), Weather Hills as well as the Far Downs, White Downs, South Downs, North Downs and Barrow-downs (Tyrn Gorthad); Fonstad noted that the "longitudinal axes [of the hills] formed concentric rings".[37] Despite large deforestation by the Númenóreans during the Second Age[11] some wooded areas remained, such as the Old Forest, Woody End, Bindbole Wood (sometimes seen as "Bindbale"), Chetwood around Bree-hill, the Trollshaws, and, largest of all, Eryn Vorn;[36] Hollin was so named due to the large numbers of holly trees which grew there.[38] Other geographic features included the Midgewater Marshes, Rushock Bog, and Overbourn Marshes.[35]

The East-West Road crossed Eriador from Rivendell in the east to the Grey Havens in the west whilst the Greenway ran south from Fornost, linking Arnor and Gondor;[1] the Greenway and the East-West Road met at Bree. Key Elvish settlements included the Grey Havens, Ost-in-Edhil[12] and Rivendell; for the Dúnedain there were Weathertop, Annúminas, and Fornost Erain, as well as the Númenórean ports of Tharbad and Lond Daer (earlier known as Vinyalondë).


First Age

Middle-earth in the First Age by Steven White Jr.

It is known that the Blue Mountains existed during the First Age more formidable and longer than in the later Ages;[39] whereas Melkor reared the Misty Mountains before the arrival of the Elves in order to hinder Oromë.[2] These ranges surrounded the eastern and western borders of Eriador.

The Iron Mountains (Ered Engrin) stretched across the north of the world in a curve from east to west, standing on the border of the region of everlasting cold[40] and can be considered the northern border of Eriador.[41]

It is unclear what the borders of Eriador were to the south; it is unknown whether the Greyflood or Lune rivers even existed in the First Age. Presumably the Greyflood followed the same route through Eriador to the lower end of the extended Blue Mountains, before reaching the sea somewhere to the west of the White Mountains.[42]

Later history

Eriador was of old the name of all the lands between the Misty Mountains and the Blue; in the South it was bounded by the Greyflood and the Glanduin that flows into it above Tharbad.

In the Second, Third and Fourth ages, the boundaries of the region - listed clock-wise from due north - were as follows:

Region of Eriador
Blue Mountains Icebay of Forochel, Forodwaith Misty Mountains, Forodwaith
Blue Mountains, Gulf of Lhûn, Lindon Misty Mountains, Rhovanion
Belegaer Gwathló, Enedwaith Glanduin, Dunland


Free Peoples

The five free peoples as reckoned by Treebeard, after the inclusion of Hobbits:-


Wolves by John Howe


There are at least two, slightly different, versions of the etymology of Eriador:

  1. Eriador as Sindarin (derived from Noldorin), whose derivation is quoted by Carl F. Hostetter from an unnamed note dated 1949-53. This explains that Eriador is derived from eryā, "isolated, lonely" and dor, "land", thereby translating Eriador as "wilderness".[47]
  2. In another manuscript, Tolkien stated that Eriador was a Silvan Elvish name, meaning "Lonely land" (deriving from *eryā, S eir, air).[48]

Both translations are noticeably similar to the "Lone-lands" mentioned in The Hobbit;[46] it is unknown whether they are the same or simply coincidental.

Other versions of the legendarium

In the First Map of The Lord of the Rings, Eriador is called "Forodwaith" - the name which is now applied to the very cold region in the north of Middle-earth.[49]

See also


  1. 1.0 1.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "At the Sign of the Prancing Pony"
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Coming of the Elves and the Captivity of Melkor"
  3. 3.0 3.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Sindar"
  4. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Jewels, "Part Two. The Later Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Coming of Men into the West (Chapter 14)", pp. 215 and 226
  5. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "Of Dwarves and Men"
  6. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Coming of Men into the West"
  7. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Ruin of Beleriand and the Fall of Fingolfin"
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Second Age"
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The History of Galadriel and Celeborn", "Concerning Galadriel and Celeborn"
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "Aldarion and Erendis: The Mariner's Wife"
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The History of Galadriel and Celeborn"
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age"
  13. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Akallabêth: The Downfall of Númenor"
  14. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Númenor"
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "The Council of Elrond"
  16. 16.00 16.01 16.02 16.03 16.04 16.05 16.06 16.07 16.08 16.09 16.10 16.11 16.12 16.13 16.14 16.15 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age"
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 17.6 17.7 17.8 17.9 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Eriador, Arnor, and the Heirs of Isildur"
  18. 18.0 18.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "The Realms in Exile", "The Northern Line: Heirs of Isildur", note 4
  19. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "X. Of Dwarves and Men", "Notes", #59
  20. 20.0 20.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion"
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, "Prologue", "Concerning Hobbits"
  22. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit, "An Unexpected Party"
  23. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "Durin's Folk"
  24. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Quest of Erebor"
  25. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit, "Riddles in the Dark"
  26. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix F, "The Languages and Peoples of the Third Age"
  27. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "A Long-expected Party"
  28. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "Strider"
  29. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "Homeward Bound"
  30. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "The Scouring of the Shire"
  31. 31.0 31.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "The Grey Havens"
  32. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Chief Days from the Fall of Barad-dûr to the End of the Third Age"
  33. 33.0 33.1 33.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "Later Events Concerning the Members of the Fellowship of the Ring"
  34. Estimates by User:Mith based on the map from The Lord of the Rings
  35. 35.0 35.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "A Part of the Shire" map
  36. 36.0 36.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Map 1
  37. Karen Wynn Fonstad, The Atlas of Middle-earth, revised edition, p. 72
  38. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "A Journey in the Dark"
  39. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Map of Beleriand and the Lands to the North"
  40. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of Beleriand and its Realms"
  41. It is also seen in this map drawn by Tolkien
  42. Karen Wynn Fonstad, The Atlas of Middle-earth, revised edition, p. 4
  43. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Two Towers, "Treebeard"
  44. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The History of Galadriel and Celeborn", "Appendix D: The Port of Lond Daer"
  45. Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (eds), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, p. 183
  46. 46.0 46.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit, "Roast Mutton"
  47. "Letters to VT" in Carl F. Hostetter (ed.), Vinyar Tengwar, vol. 42, July 2001, p. 4
  48. J.R.R. Tolkien, "Words, Phrases and Passages in Various Tongues in The Lord of the Rings", in Parma Eldalamberon XVII (edited by Christopher Gilson), p. 28
  49. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Treason of Isengard, "XV. The First Map of The Lord of the Rings", "Map II", pp. 305-306