|The Witch-king of Angmar|
|"The Black Captain" by Melissa Hitchcock|
|Other names||Black Captain, Chief of the Nine, Lord of Minas Morgul|
|Position||Lord of the Nazgûl|
|Language||Black Speech, Westron|
|Birth||Second Age |
|Death||15 March, T.A. 3019 (aged 4200+) |
Battle of the Pelennor Fields
|Notable for||Fall of Arnor|
Fall of Minas Ithil and Osgiliath
Deaths of Eärnur, Boromir, and Théoden
|Height||Tallest of the Nazgûl|
|Weaponry||Morgul-knife; Black Breath; A great black mace|
|Gallery||Images of the Witch-king|
- "In rode the Lord of the Nazgûl. A great black shape against the fires beyond he loomed up, grown to a vast menace of despair. In rode the Lord of the Nazgûl, under the archway that no enemy ever yet had passed, and all fled before his face."
- ― The Return of the King, "The Siege of Gondor"
The Witch-king of Angmar was the chief of the Nazgûl, King of Angmar and Sauron's great captain in his wars. A wraith, the Witch-king of Angmar was nearly indestructible, a terrifying warrior, and a cunning strategist.
Some time after Sauron seized the Rings of Power in the Sack of Eregion, S.A. 1697 he gave nine of them to Mannish kings, sorcerers and other warriors. With the power of their rings, the Nine achieved glory and grew wealthy, but they eventually started hating life as they were slowly drawn under Sauron’s dominion. In the end, they all became the dreadful Ringwraiths.
The one later known as the Witch-king was one of these, likely one of the unnamed three lords of Númenor to take the rings. He first appeared in the histories as a Ringwraith in S.A. 2251. Being the most powerful of the Nazgûl, he became their chief and the most feared servant of his master Sauron.
 Early Power in Angmar
More than a thousand years later, in c. 1050 of the Third Age, Sauron began to rebuild his power in Dol Guldur. In c. 1300 his Nazgûl also reappeared and the Witch-king established his realm, Angmar, in the north. His capital was Carn Dûm, on the northernmost peak of the Misty Mountains. He summoned men, orcs and other creatures of evil inclination to his banner. No one knew that he was actually a servant of the long-dormant Sauron and few that he was a wraith.
In the north, disunity plagued the Dúnedain of Arnor. They had divided into three kingdoms: Cardolan, Rhudaur and Arthedain, and were constantly at war with one another. The Witch-king saw the North-kingdom of Arnor as more vulnerable than the South-kingdom of Gondor. He played upon their opposition, sending in infiltrators and taking over the hearts of the men of that land. By 1349, the government of Rhudaur was controlled by men secretly in his service, and he secretly aided them in their wars against the other kingdoms. He then struck at a time of great hostility among the three, in 1409. Rhudaur in the east fell first, and most of the Dúnedain there were hunted down and slaughtered by sorcerers. Cardolan was ravaged and its last prince slain; the tower of Amon Sûl, held by the men of Arthedain, was placed under siege. King Arveleg I was slain and the tower was destroyed, but the coveted palantír escaped in the hands of the surviving men of Arthedain and was brought to Fornost.
The Witch-king continued to press the men of Arthedain, laying siege to Fornost, and he might have taken over all of Arnor in that one offensive. But Araphor, the 18-year-old son of Arveleg, came to leadership and, with the help of the ancient elf Círdan of Lindon, repelled the Witch-king’s forces at Fornost and the North Downs. Elrond brought an army of Elves from Rivendell and Lothlórien, and the Witch-king was pushed back and subdued.
 Twilight of Angmar
The Witch-king sat silent in Carn Dûm, rebuilding his armies and preparing for a final assault on Arthedain, last of the Arnorian kingdoms. The Great Plague came and went in 1636, taking with it the last of the Dúnedain of Cardolan. The Witch-king sent barrow-wights to inhabit the barrows in Tyrn Gorthad. In 1974, he felt that his power was sufficiently restored to begin the advance.
His attack was sudden, but not unexpected. King Arvedui sent a message to King Eärnil II of Gondor the year before, but help did not arrive in time. Fornost Erain fell, and the Witch-king took up residence there in the palace. Arvedui held out as best as he might on the North Downs, but at last fled north with the treasured palantíri of Amon Sûl and Annúminas. He would not return, for he perished in a shipwreck in 1975. With him the palantíri were lost forever in the icy seas of Forod. The already-diminished North-kingdom ended, and Arnor fell.
Meanwhile, a coalition in the south had formed. Eärnil sent his son, Eärnur, north with a great fleet, all that Gondor could spare. They arrived at Lindon and joined with the folk of Círdan. Círdan summoned all that would come: surviving Dúnedain of Arnor and elves of Lindon. Even a company of hobbit archers went to their aide. The Witch-king had grown overconfident and, instead of staying behind his fortifications, initiated the attack. The Battle of Fornost was fought on the plain between Nenuial and the North Downs. The Witch-king may not have anticipated the strength brought against him, but for whatever reason the alliance gained the upper hand. His army began to fall back toward Fornost, but Eärnur’s magnificent horsemen struck from the north and the Witch-king was routed.
He decided to flee to Angmar and the safety of Carn Dûm, but the cavalry, with Eärnur himself in the lead, overtook him. Moreover, the ranks of the allies swelled, as an army of elves from Rivendell came led by the mighty hero of old, Glorfindel. Angmar was purged of men and orcs, and all seemed lost for the Witch-king in the face of such numbers. But the Witch-king himself came at the last, robed and masked in black and riding a black horse, and attempted to kill Eärnur with his own hands. But Eärnur’s horse shied away and fled, and the Witch-king laughed. But Glorfindel came on his white horse, and faced with such power the Witch-king fled. He vanished into the shadows and no-one marked where he had gone.
Eärnur wanted to pursue, but Glorfindel held him back and made his famous prophecy.
He will not return to this land. Far off yet is his doom, and not by the hand of man will he fall.
—Glorfindel, The Return of the King, Appendix A (iv)
 Lord of Minas Morgul
The Witch-king escaped to Mordor, and gathered the other Ringwraiths about him in 1980. Angmar and Carn Dûm were lost, and so in 2000 the Ringwraiths began a two-year siege of Minas Ithil, eventually capturing the place and turning it into his residence. The wraiths sent an aura of fear in Gondor, and much of Ithilien was deserted.
Eärnur succeeded his father as King of Gondor, and still held the Witch-king in especial hostility due to his humiliation at the Battle of Fornost. The year of his coronation the Witch-king sent him a taunting challenge, but Mardil the steward restrained Eärnur from rash action. Seven years later the challenge was repeated, and Eärnur rode with a small escort to Minas Morgul; none ever returned, and there was no longer a King in Gondor.
After this the Witch-king bided his time. He and the Nazgûl built up their armies, including the terrible new orc-race of uruks. In 2475 he sent them out to capture Osgiliath, which they did successfully. They were driven out by Boromir, Steward of Gondor, but Osgiliath now lay completely in ruins. Boromir went on to retake Ithilien, so that even the Witch-king feared him. But he was killed by a Morgul-wound, and so his rule was but twelve years.
 Hunt for the Ring
Sauron declared himself openly in 2951, and sent three of his Ringwraiths to Dol Guldur (though the Witch-king was left in Minas Morgul). Then, by lucky chance, the creature Gollum was captured and interrogated. Under torture, the wretched creature revealed the tale of the One Ring and how it came to be in his possession. But from his words Sauron misunderstod that the land of the hobbits who stole the Ring was on the banks of the Gladden River, whence Gollum originally came from. Sauron sent the Nine, under the leadership of the Witch-king, invisible and uncloaked, to search for the Ring after the assault of Osgiliath.
Khamûl, the Witch-king’s lieutenant, reported that he was unable to find the “Shire” in the vales of Anduin. The Witch-king was determined to search north and west until Gollum was found, or the Shire. But plans were halted when Sauron received word of the prophecy in Gondor and the doings of the turncoat Saruman, and concluded that the Wise did not yet have possession of the Ring. He sent the Ringwraiths to Isengard in the form of Black Riders, too late to prevent the escape of the captured wizard Gandalf, but had words with Saruman. Saruman, already a traitor to both sides due to his transparent lust for the Ring, fortified himself in Isengard. The Witch-king did not have enough power with him to assault Saruman in his great fortress, but had words with him. Saruman convinced the Witch-king that Gandalf alone knew where the Shire and the Ring was, and so the Nine passed into Rohan in search of him.
They came upon the traitor called Wormtongue and questioned him. The terrified man told them everything he knew; that Gandalf had passed through Rohan, where the Shire was, and even that Saruman had lied to them. The Witch-king spared Wormtongue’s life, foreseeing that Wormtongue would bring ruin to Saruman. He divided his wraiths into four pairs, and went with the swiftest to Minhiriath. Along the way they captured several spies of Saruman, and found to their delight charts and maps of the Shire. They sent along the spy to Bree, warning them that they now belonged to Mordor, not Saruman.
They came to Sarn Ford, but the Dúnedain Rangers prevented them from crossing. They sent for their great captain, the chieftain Aragorn II, who alone could well resist the wraiths, but he was away, and the Ringwraiths captured the ford and killed many of the Rangers. The Witch-king sent three Ringwraiths under Khamûl into the Shire while he went east with the others. But they had come too late: the Ring had moved on in the hands of a hobbit, Frodo Baggins.
 Pursuit of the Ring
Khamûl was unsuccessful, but brought word from the spy they had spared in Bree. The man had witnessed a vanishing act on Frodo's part, and had organized an attack on the inn. The Witch-king guessed that Frodo would head east, and sent four wraiths to Weathertop, the ruins of the tower he had destroyed long ago. He went south along the Greenway and discovered nothing. Gandalf followed them, but the Witch-king let him slip ahead, and attacked him on Weathertop. Gandalf escaped at dawn, and again the Witch-king divided his force and sent four after the wizard.
The Ring walked almost right into his hands. The captain of the Dúnedain, Aragorn II, had become the guide of the hobbits, and led them to Weathertop, where they were spotted and attacked. The Witch-king advanced on Frodo, and the terrified hobbit put on the Ring, seeing them as they truly were. When Frodo resisted, and invoked the name of Elbereth, the Witch-king stabbed Frodo in the shoulder. The tip of his blade broke off and sent poison through the hobbit’s veins. Then Aragorn counterattacked with flaming brands. The Witch-king departed with the other Nazgûl, believing that his objective was completed.
He resumed the pursuit quickly, though, and found that Khamûl had been driven from the Last Bridge by his old enemy Glorfindel. The Witch-king, who only had one companion with him, was likewise unable to confront him openly. They regrouped and went south, rejoining with the other four. They managed to pick up the trail of the company of the Ring, and despite hindrance from Glorfindel and Aragorn managed to pursue Frodo alone on Asfaloth. The pursuit came to the Ford of Bruinen, and there Frodo compelled the horse to stop. The Witch-king saw his defiance and laughed, breaking his sword with a movement of his hand. But the waters of the Bruinen rose at Elrond's command, sweeping the Nine downstream.
 War of the Ring
The Witch-king took the only surviving horse back to Mordor, arriving there in December. He then sent aid to the other eight Nazgûl, and they returned in secret. In Minas Morgul they prepared for a grand invasion of Gondor at the order of their master. The Witch-king was given by Sauron added "demonic" force. On 10 March 3019, the signal was given and Minas Morgul was emptied. The Witch-king rode at the head of the army in black, upon a black horse, as he had in the time of the wars of Angmar. As the Witch-king passed out of the gates of the dead city, he sensed the presence of Frodo. He was disturbed, but continued on through Ithilien.
With the Witch-king in command, Osgiliath soon fell. The defeat was attributed to his superior numbers, and his terrible presence which made all hearts to quail. The Rammas Echor was breached, and the Pelennor Fields were overrun. Other wraiths he sent out mounted on Fell beasts. Faramir, Steward Denethor II's son, was wounded by a dart and the black breath, but his company was saved by a sortie. Then the Witch-king laid siege to Minas Tirith itself, sending fire and the heads of the dead Gondorians into the city via catapults. Then he launched the assault.
He sent Grond out first, accompanying it in person so as to be the first to enter the city. Three times Grond struck the gate, empowered by the sorcery of the Witch-king. The third time the Gate shattered in a flash of fire. The Witch-king passed into Minas Tirith, but was confronted by Gandalf on Shadowfax. Gandalf forbade him entry, but the Witch-king laughed and put on a show of power.
The Black Rider flung back his hood, and behold! he had a kingly crown; and yet upon no head visible was it set. The red fires shone between it and the mantled shoulders vast and dark. From a mouth unseen there came a deadly laughter.
'Old fool!' he said. 'Old fool! This is my hour. Do you not know Death when you see it? Die now and curse in vain!' And with that he lifted high his sword and flames ran down the blade.
—The Return of the King, "The Siege of Gondor"
As Gandalf stood resolute before the Witch-king, the Rohirrim arrived. Thus he departed, mounting a fell beast and descending upon King Théoden who led the attack. Snowmane, the King's horse, collapsed with a dart in the side, and Théoden was crushed beneath him. But the rider Dernhelm defied the Witch-king. The Witch-king threatened Dernhelm with a terrible death, but the rider revealed that she was a woman, Éowyn, and the Witch-king remembered the words of Glorfindel. He hesitated, but then moved forward. Éowyn decapitated the fell beast, but the Witch-king rose and struck her down with his mace, breaking her shield-arm. Then the hobbit Meriadoc Brandybuck stabbed him in the sinew of his leg with the blade of Westernesse (though there was much pain in Meriadoc's arm afterward), as he drew back to kill the woman. Then Éowyn rose and drove her sword through where his invisible head was, and the sword broke as his crown toppled. The Witch-king gave a great and horrible wail, perishing at last (in the Letters it is said he was “reduced to impotence”).
So the prophecy of Glorfindel was fulfilled, for the Witch-king did not fall at the hands of a man, but at the hands of a woman and a hobbit. With his defeat, and the coming of Aragorn II in the black ships, the Battle of the Pelennor Fields was lost by Sauron.
 Other versions of the legendarium
In the early versions of the story, the Witch King was planned to survive the Pelennor Fields battle and appear as the ambassador at the Black Gate instead of the Mouth of Sauron. In early manuscripts he even survived after Frodo has thrown the Ring in Sammath Naur, blocking the door and saying: “Here we all end together”. At this point, either Sam appears at his back and stabs him, or Frodo commands him to follow the Ring leaping into the Chasm of Fire.
In the rare manuscript The Hunt for the Ring: Time Scheme - Black Riders, Tolkien speculates that the Witch-King might be afraid of Frodo, as he invoked Elbereth (a “name of terror for the Nazgûl”) and he could have slain the Barrow-wight.
While in modern English witch has mostly female connotations, referring to a hag or sorceress, in middle-English wicche had no gender distinction; the preference of witch for female persons (the males referred more usually as wizzards) evolved later through the centuries.
 Other names
This article or section needs more/new/more-detailed sources to conform to a higher standard and to provide proof for claims made.
- Witch-king of Angmar - "Witch" most likely coming from his background in sorcery, and "king" after his establishment of the realm of Angmar in 1300.
- Witch-lord of Angmar - A variant of the above title.
- Lord of the Nazgûl
- Lord of the Ringwraiths
- Chieftain of the Ringwraiths
- Lord of the Nine Riders
- King of the Nine Riders
- High Nazgûl
- Lord of Morgul
- King of Minas Morgul
- Black Captain
- Captain of Despair
- Lord of Carrion
- Number One
The prophecy that the Witch-king would fall "not by the hand of man" and the fulfillment of the prophecy occurring as a technicality (being slain by a hobbit and a woman) bears a striking resemblance to the prophecy regarding the title character's death in Shakespeare's Macbeth, where it was foretold that Macbeth will be slain "not by man born of woman" and is then killed by Macduff, born by caesarian section. Tolkien was familiar with the play, having reputedly taken inspiration for the Last March of the Ents from the same source (See article Ents for details).
 Portrayal in adaptations
The Witch-king's true name is never given, and therefore among Tolkien fans, the Witch-king is often simply called Angmar, after the name of the realm he founded and led. It is possible that he was one of the three Black Númenóreans Tolkien stated had become Nazgûl, or possibly Isilmo, a Númenórean prince and father of Tar-Minastir. This possibility was adopted by the now defunct Middle-earth Role Playing game and Mithril Miniatures where he is named Er-Murazor, a Númenórean prince and younger son of Tar-Ciryatan.
|The Witch-king in adaptations|
- The Witch-king is shown with no distinction from the other Ringwraiths; all are robed in brown and black, and none seem to be able to talk clearly.
- The Witch-king is portrayed as a humanoid figure with no head. Red eyes glare under a golden crown. His dialogue is more or less as in the books, albeit in a strange and somewhat unfitting electronic voice. After a stab from behind by Merry, Éowyn beheads him. It is worthy of note that the Witch-king is seen with the Red Eye of Barad-dûr as his emblem and faction, rather than the grim moon of Minas Morgul.
2001-03: The Lord of the Rings (film series):
- The Witch-king is called the "Witch-king of Angmar", the "Lord of the Nazgûl", and the "Greatest of the Nine" by Gandalf in The Return of the King; however, no other mention of the kingdom of Angmar itself is made. Also, in that film, there is no mention of Glorfindel's prophecy; there is only a claim among the enemy that "no man can kill" the Witch-king. Like the other Nazgûl, he is depicted as a humanoid figure shrouded in a hooded black robe; his only distinguishing feature is a mask-like spiked helmet with a huge mouth. His first mention is when Gandalf tells Pippin while in Minas Tirith that the Dark Lord has not yet revealed his "deadliest" servant: the Witch-king, the one that "stabbed Frodo on Weathertop".
- During the Battle of the Pelennor Fields, the Witch-king's army uses the ram Grond to break through the city gates early in the battle (after the failure of a lesser ram), and the Witch-king is not present to confront Gandalf as he is in the book. The confrontation takes place later, as Pippin and Gandalf race to the tombs to save Faramir, and the Witch-king intercepts them. Unlike in the book, this meeting decisively favors the Witch-king, who breaks Gandalf's staff and throws the wizard to the ground before leaving to deal with the arrival of the Rohirrim. Gandalf's face shows obvious fear in this scene, in comparison to the resolution (for "victory or death") in the books.
- The Witch-king's final stand on the battlefield occurs with less dialogue than in the book, and the weapons used to defeat him are both mundane: Merry's sword is not a dagger from the Barrow-downs, but rather the Rohirric sword that Théoden had as a child. This does makes it somewhat confusing in the film whether the Witch-King was truly destroyed in this fight (as he was in the book), or whether we was temporarily incapacitated (as at the ford of Bruinen) and later perished along with his fellow Nazgul due to the One Ring's destruction.
- Eight actors are known to have played some part of the Witch-king.
- An unidentified extra portrayed the "King of Men" in the prologue. He was chosen to be the Witch-king simply because he was the smallest of the nine.
- Shane Rangi did the horse chase.
- Fran Walsh provided the "Ringwraith scream".
- Effects technician Ben Price played the Witch-king in "many scenes"
- Brent McIntyre is officially credited as the Witch-king in The Fellowship of the Ring. He stabbed Frodo.
- Lawrence Makoare filled the robe of the Witch-king in The Return of the King.
- Mark Ferguson filled the heavy armoured costume when Makoare felt claustrophobic.
- Andy Serkis provided the voice of the Witch-king in The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring.
2012-14: The Hobbit (film series) :
- The Witch-king is mentioned to have been defeated years ago, and his body sealed by the "Men of the North" in a very deep and dark tomb in the "High Fells of Rhudaur". His wraith, apparently summoned by the Necromancer, is encountered by Radagast in the ruins of Dol Guldur, but the Wizard fends him off and salvages the Witch-king's Morgul blade in the struggle.
- In the Attack on Dol Guldur, The Witch-King, along with the other Nazgûl, participates by fighting Saruman and Elrond, members of the White Council. In the end, he and the other Nine are driven back to Mordor by Galadriel and her phial, his master also eventually following suit.
- The Witch-king is shown without distinction of the other Nazgûl.He was portrayed through computer-graphics.
 Radio series
- The role of The Lord of the Nazgul, as he is always credited in this production, is expanded with material from The Hunt for the Ring. He is the second speaking character in the series: he is the one who captures Gollum, though he is not identified as such until the credits. Philip Voss provided the voice for The Lord of the Nazgul.
- The Witch-king of Angmar is played by Christian Mey. The character is credited as the Lord of the Nazgul.
2001-2003: Pán prsteňov (2001-2003 Slovak radio series):
- The voice of the Witch-king of Angmar is provided by Jozef Švoňavský. The character is credited only as the Lord of the Nazgul, not by his Witch-king epithet.
- The Witch-king is shown without distinction of the other Nazgûl.
- The Witch-king's role and voice are similar to that of the film, but his appearance is different. An early helmet design, that had been removed from the film because it resembled Sauron's helm too much, was used here, presumably because there was no time to make a new character model.
- Witch-King is one the main "Hero" units for the Servants of Sauron, his signature ability is being able to turn Wights into Nazgûl. The evil campaign storyline shows him reclaiming Dol Guldur for Sauron.
- Witch-King is a "Hero" unit for Mordor faction. He is an airborne unit riding on a Fell Beast and one of the strongest units in the game.
- In addition to his appearance from the first game, the Witch-King can now also dismount and become a landscape unit armed with a mace.
2007: The Lord of the Rings Online:
- The Witch-king is a non-playable character present in several scenes. His most memorable appearance takes place in the Great Barrow within the Barrow-Downs. There are also multiple references to him in quest dialogue, the most notable is that the Witch-King for whatever reason cannot return to rule Carn Dum and instead has erected a Steward named Mordirith to rule in his place, in mockery of the Stewards of Gondor.
- In the campaign for the "Evil" side, the Witch-King is revived by other Nazgûl after Sauron reclaims The One Ring.
- The Witch-king appears in a flashback of the playable characters during the prologue of the game. He and the other Nazgûl attack and destroy the Ranger camp at Sarn Ford. Shortly after he speaks with Agandaûr, who explains that he has assembled an army in Fornost. The Witch-king commands him to return and attack immediately, to aid in the Hunt of the Ring.
'2017: Middle-earth: Shadow of War:
- The Witch-king is featured in the game. Voiced by Matthew Mercer, he serves as the main antagonist of the game.
 See also
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age", p. 289
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Akallabêth: The Downfall of Númenor", p. 267, Ballantine Books p. 320
- ↑ Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (eds), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, p. 20
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A (iii), Houghton Mifflin p. 320
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 The Peoples of Middle-earth, The Heirs of Elendil, entry for Malvegil, HarperCollins p. 193-194
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "VII. The Heirs of Elendil", entry for Argeleb I, p. 194
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "VII. The Heirs of Elendil", entry for Arveleg I, p. 194
- ↑ Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (eds), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, "Fog on the Barrow-downs", pp. 144-5; Index, 'Cardolan, last prince of'
- ↑ Unfinished Tales, The Palantíri, note 16, Houghton Mifflin p. 413
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A (iii), Houghton Mifflin pp. 321-322
- ↑ 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A (iv), Houghton Mifflin pp. 331-332
- ↑ 13.0 13.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion"
- ↑ The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A (iv), Houghton Mifflin p. 333
- ↑ 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Hunt for the Ring", p. 338-341
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "Flight to the Ford"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 210, (undated, written June 1958), p. 272
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "The Siege of Gondor"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "The Battle of the Pelennor Fields"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Ring, "Part Three: Minas Tirith", "XIII. The Black Gate Opens"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Sauron Defeated, "Part One: The End of the Third Age"
- ↑ Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (eds), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, “Mount Doom”
- ↑ Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (eds), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, "Flight to the Ford", p. 180
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "The Land of Shadow"
- ↑ http://www.decipher.com/content/2004/07/072904lotrwetaprops.html
- ↑ http://www.markferguson.net/articles/interview_Nautilus20.html
- ↑ Radio Times, Volume 133, No. 1727, December 14, 1956
- ↑ The Lord of the Rings: War in the North, Prologue
- ↑ Middle-earth: Shadow of War, Prologue