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Languages of Men started in Hildórien when the Edain divided to migrate to the west. The groups that would eventually be known as House of Bëor and House of Marach, used one language. The third tribe, that would be later known as the House of Haleth, used an unrelated tongue.
During the march, the tribes left behind various descendants in Eriador who continued their languages. In Beleriand, the House of Bëor quickly adopted Sindarin. However the language of Hador retained and was influenced by Khuzdul.
The language of the House of Hador during the Second Age evolved into Adûnaic. Meanwhile the descendants of Men of the First Age in the Westlands became the Éothéod from whom ultimately derives the Rohirric language. The House of Haleth also left descendants that spoke the various Pre-Númenórean languages.
Early Adûnaic mingled with many words of the languages of lesser men and became a Common Speech that spread thence along the coasts among all that had dealings with Westernesse.
After the Downfall, the Faithful considered Sindarin their mother tongue and used the Common Speech in their dealings with other folk and in the government of their wide realms; but they enlarged the language and enriched it with many words drawn from the Elven-tongues.
- Languages of the First and Third Houses of the Atanatári
- Taliska (two dialects; Bëor and Hador)
- Languages of Middle Men of Eriador during the Second Age
- Languages of Northmen
- Language of the Second House of the Atanatári (see Pre-Númenórean)
- Drûg languages
- Many Haradric languages
- Many tongues of Easterlings
Tolkien used real-life languages and names to present Mannish. The most known example is Westron, which is always replaced with modern English.
This logic went one step further by also presenting all languages akin to Westron in languages related to English, so that their "understandability" by the protagonists is simulated to the English reader. Since English belongs to the Germanic family, most names Tolkien used are Germanic (Norse, Gothic, et cetera) with some Celtic exceptions.
- Ancient names related to Rhovanion (such as "Vidugavia") are Gothic,' indicating a relationship to Dalish but not recognizable by Westron.
- Rohirric, the language of the Rohirrim was replaced by Old English, as Rohirric is an archaic relative of Westron, much as Anglo-Saxon is an archaic relative of English;
- The Dalish, the tongue of Dale (from which came the names of the Dwarves of Durin's Folk), was translated into Old Norse, a language related to Anglo-Saxon and modern English as Dalish was related to Rohirric and Westron;
- The hobbitish names of the Stoors, Buckland as well as some Bree-land names are Celtic;
Mannish languages unrelated to Westron that sounded alien to the protagonists (such as Dunlendish), were left in their "genuine" form.
Other versions of the legendarium
In the 1930s The Tree of Tongues, a schematic belonging to a later phase of the mythology, the "Tongues of Man" is derived from Lemberin (Avarin) and Khuzdul, as in the later legendarium, but also from "Orcish languages".
- Helge Fauskanger, "Various Mannish languages", Ardalambion
- Andreas Möhn, "Etymologies of Atani languages", Lalaith's Science Pages
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "Of Dwarves and Men"
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Sauron Defeated, "Part Two: The Notion Club Papers"
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Drúedain"
- J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix F
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Book of Lost Tales Part One, "X. Gilfanon's Tale: The Travail of the Noldoli and the Coming of Mankind": "Notes and Commentary"
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Lost Road and Other Writings, "Part Two: Valinor and Middle-earth before The Lord of the Rings, V. The Lhammas"
|Languages in Tolkien's works|
|Elvish languages||Avarin · Common Eldarin · Mátengwië · Nandorin · Primitive Quendian · Quenya (Exilic · Valinorean · Vanyarin) · Silvan · Sindarin (Doriathrin · Falathrin · Númenórean · Mithrimin · Old) · Telerin|
|Mannish languages||Adûnaic · Dalish · Drúadan · Dunlendish · Northern Mannish · Pre-Númenórean · Rohirric · Taliska · Westron (Hobbitish)|
|Dwarvish languages||Iglishmêk · Khuzdul|
|Other languages||Black Speech · Entish · Orkish · Valarin · Warg-language|
|Earlier legendarium||Gnomish · Ilkorin · Noldorin (Kornoldorin) · Qenya|
|Outside the legendarium||Animalic · Arktik · Mágol · Naffarin · Nevbosh|
|Real-world||AB language · Celtic · English (Old, Middle) · Finnish · Germanic · Gothic · Hebrew · Welsh|
|Scripts||Angerthas/Cirth (Daeron · Erebor · Moria) · Gnomic Letters · Goblin Alphabet · Gondolinic Runes · Moon-letters · New English Alphabet · Tengwar · Sarati · Valmaric script|
|"A Secret Vice" (book) · "The Lhammas" · "The Tree of Tongues" · Sub-creation|