Ruling Queens of Númenor

From Tolkien Gateway

The Ruling Queens of Númenor were women who ruled the kingdom of Númenor. Of Númenor's twenty-five rulers, three were female.

Laws of Succession

Main article: Law of Succession in Númenor

In the early days of Númenor, the custom (as there was no official law regarding succession) was that, once the King became too old to rule, he would surrender the Sceptre to his eldest son. If he had no son, the Kingship would pass instead to the nearest male relative of male descent of Elros Tar-Minyatur. Under this system it was impossible for a woman to become ruler of Númenor. In S.A. 892, Tar-Aldarion changed the system of succession to full agnatic primogeniture, in which the heir to the Kingship of Númenor would be the eldest child of the King or Queen regardless of gender.[1]

History

Tar-Ancalimë

Queen Ancalime the Princess Shepherdess by Anke Eißmann

Tar-Ancalimë (S.A. 873-1285) was the first Ruling Queen of Númenor.[2] She was the only child of Tar-Aldarion, and under the old law the Sceptre would have passed to her cousin Soronto.[3] In S.A. 892, at the age of nineteen,[note 1] she was declared the King's Heir by Tar-Aldarion, who changed the law to allow his daughter to rule.[1]

Under the new law, the Queen was forced to resign after a certain time if she remained unwed or without children. This law was later changed by Tar-Aldarion, although it is not known whether this was before or after she married. Despite lacking any interest in men or marriage, she wed Hallacar in S.A. 1000. There are several accounts of why this may have happened: in one story, she agreed to marry him due to his persistence and the urgings of the Council; in another, it was to spite her cousin Soronto, who had long desired the position of King, and who tried to use both the law that she must wed and that she must have children.[1]

Tar-Aldarion left her as Regent several times during his voyages.[1] Tar-Ancalimë become Queen in S.A. 1075.[3] She reigned for 205 years, longer than any ruler after Elros; she surrendered the Sceptre in S.A. 1280 to her son Tar-Anárion, and died in S.A. 1285.[2]

After the death of her father, it is told that she neglected all her father's policies and gave no further aid to Gil-galad in Lindon.[2]

Tar-Telperiën

Tar-Telperien by Shyangell

Tar-Telperiën (S.A. 1320-1731) was the second Queen of Númenor. She was the daughter of Tar-Súrion[note 2] whose mother was the first Queen of Númenor, Tar-Ancalimë. She was the only Queen who also had a brother, but as she was older than him, under the new law she became the rightful ruler.[4] She ruled for 175 years from S.A. 1556 until her death at the age of 411. She chose not to marry and had no children, so the Kingship passed to Tar-Minastir, the son of her brother Isilmo.[5]

Notable events during her reign include the forging of the Rings of Power in S.A. 1600,[6] the beginning of War of the Elves and Sauron in S.A. 1693,[7] and, seven years later, an army being sent from Númenor to Lindon to aid the Elves and route the forces of Sauron at the Battle of the Gwathló.[note 3][8]

Tar-Vanimeldë by Juliana Pinho

Tar-Vanimeldë

Tar-Vanimeldë (S.A. 2277-2637) was the third and final Queen of Númenor. She ruled for 111 years from S.A. 2526 until her death.[9]

She gave little thought to ruling, caring more for music and dance, so during her reign the power was wielded more by her husband Herucalmo. Upon her death the Kingship, under Númenórean law, should have gone to her son, Alcarin, but Herucalmo, who took the royal name Tar-Anducal, refused to give up his power and ruled until his death in S.A. 2657, when the Kingship passed back to the rightful King.[9]

Tar-Míriel

Upon the death of her father, Tar-Palantir, in S.A. 3255,[10] Tar-Míriel (S.A. 3117-3319) should have been made the fourth Ruling Queen,[11]but her cousin Ar-Pharazôn married her, against both her will and the laws of Númenor, and declared himself King.[10]

See also

Notes

  1. This was unusual as it had been previously customary for heir to be declared when he reached 100 years of age.
  2. Tar-Súrion had two older sisters and as such either could have been made Queen of Númenor but both refused (Something male heirs could not do, though they could resign and pass the Sceptre to their son immediately upon accession), so the Kingship went to Tar-Súrion.
  3. In other writings it is stated that the Númenórean fleet was sent by Tar-Minastir, however it arrived S.A. 1700 which is during the reign of Tar-Telperiën. Christopher Tolkien was unable to account for the discrepancy.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "Aldarion and Erendis: The Mariner's Wife", The Further Course of the Narrative
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Line of Elros: Kings of Númenor", entry VII Tar-Ancalimë
  3. 3.0 3.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Line of Elros: Kings of Númenor", entry VI Tar-Aldarion
  4. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "Aldarion and Erendis: The Mariner's Wife", "Notes", note 8
  5. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Line of Elros: Kings of Númenor", entry X Tar-Telperien
  6. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Second Age", entry for the year c. 1600 of the Second Age, p. 1083
  7. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Second Age", entry for the year 1693 of the Second Age, p. 1083
  8. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The History of Galadriel and Celeborn", "Concerning Galadriel and Celeborn"
  9. 9.0 9.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Line of Elros: Kings of Númenor", entry XVI Tar-Vanimeldë
  10. 10.0 10.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Line of Elros: Kings of Númenor", entry XXIV Tar-Palantir (Ar-Inziladûn)
  11. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Line of Elros: Kings of Númenor", entry XXV Ar-Pharazôn (Tar-Calion)
Kings of Númenor
Elros Tar-Minyatur (S.A. 32 - 442) · Tar-Vardamir* (442) · Tar-Amandil (442 - 590) · Tar-Elendil (590 - 740) · Tar-Meneldur (740 - 883) · Tar-Aldarion (883 - 1075) · Tar-AncalimëQ (1075 - 1280) · Tar-Anárion (1280 - 1394) · Tar-Súrion (1394 - 1556) · Tar-TelperiënQ (1556 - 1731) · Tar-Minastir (1731 - 1869) · Tar-Ciryatan (1869 - 2029) · Tar-Atanamir (2029 - 2221) · Tar-Ancalimon (2221 - 2386) · Tar-Telemmaitë (2386 - 2526) · Tar-VanimeldëQ (2526 - 2637) · Tar-Anducal (2637 - 2657) · Tar-Alcarin (2657 - 2737) · Tar-Calmacil (2737 - 2825) · Tar-Ardamin (2825 - 2899) · Ar-Adûnakhôr (2899 - 2962) · Ar-Zimrathôn (2962 - 3033) · Ar-Sakalthôr (3033 - 3102) · Ar-Gimilzôr (3102 - 3177) · Tar-Palantir (3177 - 3255) · Ar-Pharazôn (3255 - 3319)
* Immediately abdicated in favour of his son · Q Ruling Queens · Usurped throne. Later struck off the Line of Kings · Usurped throne from his cousin Tar-Míriel
Númenor
Andor · Atalantë · Elenna · Mar-nu-Falmar · Númenórë · Westernesse
Regions Andustar · Arandor · Emerië · Forostar · Hyarastorni · Hyarnustar · Hyarrostar · Mittalmar · Nísimaldar · Orrostar
Towns and cities Almaida · Andúnië · Armenelos · Eldalondë · Moriondë · Nindamos · Ondosto · Rómenna
Buildings Calmindon · Eämbar · King's Court · Temple · White House of Erendis
Natural features Bay of Eldanna · Bay of Rómenna · Firth of Rómenna · Hallow of Eru · Meneltarma (mountain) · Nísinen (lake) · North Cape · Nunduinë (river) · Oromet (mountain) · Siril (river) · Sorontil (mountain) · Tarmasundar (ridges) · Tompollë
Plants and trees Fragrant Trees · Lairelossë · Laurinquë · Lavaralda · Nessamelda · Nimloth · Oiolairë · Taniquelassë · Vardarianna · Yavannamírë
Heirlooms Aranrúth · Bow of Bregor · Dramborleg · Elendilmir · Narsil · Palantíri · Ring of Barahir · Sceptre of Annúminas · Sceptre of Númenor · Tile and Textiles · Helmet
Concepts Adûnaic · Ban of the Valar · Council of the Sceptre · Downfall of Númenor · Great Bear-dance · Heirship · Númenórean Sindarin · Three Prayers (Eruhantalë · Erukyermë · Erulaitalë)
Key people Aldarion · Amandil · Anárion · Captain of the King's Ships · Elendil · Elros (House of Elros) · Erendis · Faithful · Great Armament · Guild of Venturers · Guild of Weaponsmiths · Isildur · Kings and Queens of Númenor · King's Archers · King's Men · Lords of Andúnië · Meneldur · Miriel · Palantir · Pharazôn · Sauron · Silmariën
Main texts The Silmarillion ("Akallabêth") · Unfinished Tales ("A Description of the Island of Númenor" · "Aldarion and Erendis: The Mariner's Wife" · "The Line of Elros: Kings of Númenor") · The Lord of the Rings ("Appendix A" · "Appendix B") · The Nature of Middle-earth ("Lives of the Númenóreans" · "Of the land and beasts of Númenor")