Túrin

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The name Túrin refers to more than one character, item or concept. For a list of other meanings, see Túrin (disambiguation).
This article is about the tragic hero of the First Age. For the King of Gondor, see Turambar (King of Gondor).
Túrin Turambar
Adan
"The Dragon-helm of Dor-lómin" by Elena Kukanova
Biographical Information
Other namesWoodwose, Neithan, Gorthol, Agarwaen, Mormegil (S)
(See below)
TitlesPrince of Dor-lómin
Lord of Dor-Cúarthol
Captain of the Gaurwaith
LocationDor-lómin, Doriath, Dor-Cúarthol, Nargothrond, Brethil
AffiliationMarchwardens, Gaurwaith, Two Captains[note 1][1]
LanguageSindarin
Halethian[2]
BirthF.A. 464
Dor-lómin, Hithlum
DeathF.A. 499 (aged 35)
Cabed-en-Aras (suicide)
Notable fordestruction of Nargothrond;
impulsive pride;
slaying of Glaurung;
suicide
Family
HouseHouse of Hador
ParentageHúrin and Morwen
SiblingsUrwen and Nienor
SpouseNíniel
ChildrenUnborn at Níniel's death
Physical Description
GenderMale
HeightTall[3]
Hair colorDark[4]
Eye colorGrey[3] or blue[5]
ClothingDragon-helm of Dor-lómin, elven mail, grey tunic and cloak[6]
Dwarf-mask[3]
WeaponryAnglachel/Gurthang
GalleryImages of Túrin Turambar

He was dark-haired as his mother and promised to be like her in mood also; for he was not merry and spoke little, though he learned to speak early and ever seemed older than his years. Túrin was slow to forget injustice or mockery, but his father's fire was also in him, and he could be sudden and fierce. Yet he was quick to pity, and the hurts or sadness of living things might move him to tears.

Túrin Turambar was a tragic hero of the First Age whose life was dominated by the curse of the Enemy. His deeds became the tale called Narn i Chîn Húrin ("The Tale of the Children of Húrin").

History

The Childhood of Túrin by Alan Lee

Dor Lómin

Túrin was the only son of Húrin Thalion and Morwen Eledhwen. He had a younger sister Urwen whom everyone called Lalaith, but she died in childhood from the Evil Breath, the first grievous event in Túrin's life. After Húrin was captured in the Nirnaeth Arnoediad ("Battle of Unnumbered Tears"), Túrin remained with his mother Morwen, who hid him from the Easterlings that Morgoth had sent to Hithlum, fearing they would kill Túrin or enslave him.

Túrin was friends with Sador, their household servant whom he helped in his work. Sador taught him many things and carved several things for him from wood.[7]

Doriath

When Túrin was nine years old, Morwen sent him to Doriath, away from his beloved mother and best friend, causing his heart to break for the third time since the curse was cast on him. She sent with him Gethron and Grithnir, long-time servants, to Húrin's house. Shortly after they departed from Dor-Lómin, Túrin's second sister, Nienor, was born. The road there was long and difficult, and the three travelers came close to dying of hunger and cold in the very outlying woods of their destination, but they were rescued by Beleg. In Doriath he was adopted by King Thingol as a son, being that his father Húrin was held in high honor in those lands. Thingol and Melian sent messengers inviting Túrin's mother to come to live in Doriath, which she declined, much to Túrin's grief.[8]

Túrin begs leave of Thingol and Melian by Anke Eißmann

In Doriath, Túrin learned many skills, such as hunting, woodcraft, archery, sword fighting, and speaking Sindarin. As he grew older, however, he became restless. He began inquiring about the Men of the North, as Thingol and Morwen frequently exchanged news for Túrin's sake. Through these messages, he learned of his younger sister Nienor, although he never saw her. As Morgoth's hold on the North increased, and news from Hithlum grew scarce, Túrin sought to travel there to join the fight against the Dark Lord and find out about his kin. He asked the King's permission to join Beleg Cúthalion in the northern marches of Doriath, fighting the Orcs of Morgoth. He wore the Dragon-helm of Dor-lómin, which was sent by his mother and brought to him by Thingol's messengers, and the Orcs began to fear him more than any other.[9]

Upon returning, Túrin accidentally caused the death of Saeros, one of Thingol's counselors who had provoked and attacked him. Before he could be either punished or forgiven, he fled,[9] eventually meeting up with a band of outlaws, the Gaurwaith who dwelt south of the Forest of Brethil. There he was only known by the epithet Neithan ("The Wronged"). Túrin killed their leader Forweg and became their leader in his place. During his rule, he stopped the outlaws from raiding houses of Men, and only hunted Orcs.[6]

Dor-Cúarthol

In the meantime, Beleg Cúthalion obtained leave from Thingol to seek out his friend.[10] Beleg found Túrin's outlaws at their camp, and when he could not persuade his friend to leave the outlaws, he left to return to Doriath.[6] While they were parted, and after such a long time living in the wild, Túrin's band captured Mîm the Petty-dwarf. Mîm was forced to share his halls on Amon Rûdh with them.[11]

Strongbow and Dragonhelm by Elena Kukanova

At Doriath, Beleg asked to be able to join his friend. Thingol allowed this and also gave him the black sword Anglachel, and Melian gave him lembas. Beleg returned to Túrin that winter, healing those of the band that had become sick with cold. Beleg brought with him the Dragon-helm, and the area around Amon Rûdh became known as Dor-Cúarthol, the "Land of Bow and Helm" (since Beleg was known as a mighty bowman)e Túrin took the name Gorthol, "The Dread Helm". Many warriors joined them, and much of West Beleriand was freed from evil for a while.

Eventually, Túrin was betrayed by Mîm, and he was captured and all his men slain.[12] Beleg survived and rescued Túrin from the Orcs in Taur-nu-Fuin with the help of Gwindor, an escaped slave of Morgoth, but Túrin accidentally killed Beleg with Beleg's sword Anglachel. Gwindor led Túrin, dazed, to the Pools of Ivrin, where he came back to his senses.[13]

Nargothrond

Gwindor then led Túrin to Nargothrond, where once he had lived. In Nargothrond Túrin hid his name, calling himself Agarwaen, son of Úmarth ("Bloodstained, son of Ill-fate"). He had Anglachel reforged and named it Gurthang ("Iron of Death"). Finduilas, daughter of Orodreth, fell in love with him, but he avoided her because she had previously been the beloved of his friend Gwindor. Túrin declined to tell her his name, so she called him Thurin ("The Secret"). He was also called Adanedhel ("Man-Elf") because he was so like an Elf, though he was a Man.[14]

His identity did not remain hidden for long. Gwindor revealed to Finduilas that 'Agarwaen' was in fact Túrin, and 'Úmarth' his famous father Húrin. Whether the news is reached Finduilas' father, King Orodreth, Túrin was given great honor and standing. Túrin believed revealing his identity thus would also bring home Morgoth's curse. [note 2]

Sack of Nargothrond by Donato Giancola

Túrin became a chief counselor of the weak Orodreth and was highly influential in Nargothrond. He encouraged the Elves of Nargothrond to abandon their practice of secrecy, and they built a great bridge before the gates. Because of his prowess with Gurthang, he became known as Mormegil ("Black Sword"). Morgoth sent the Dragon Glaurung to Nargothrond. Túrin was caught by the powerful gaze of Glaurung and stood by idly as Finduilas was dragged away, calling to him, a captive for Morgoth. Glaurung deceived him into believing Morwen and Nienor were suffering in Dor-lómin, and Túrin abandoned Finduilas to seek out his kin. In actuality, Morwen and Nienor were safely in Doriath, as Túrin's efforts had made the way passable.

Once in Dor-lómin, Túrin found his old home empty. He went to the wooden halls of the Easterling lord Brodda, who had taken Húrin's kinswoman Aerin as a wife and had taken Húrin's lands and possessions. From Aerin, Túrin learned that Morwen had left, and in his rage he killed Brodda, thereby sealing Aerin's fate. As an unintended consequence of Túrin’s problematic heroism, Aerin immolated herself alive in her halls, and the remainder of the House of Hador were persecuted by the Easterlings even more cruelly than before.

Túrin next tried to find Finduilas, but by the time he picked up the Orc's trail he came too late: the woodsmen of Brethil informed him she had been killed as they had tried to rescue the prisoners of Nargothrond. Túrin collapsed on the mound she was buried in, and was brought to Brethil.

Brethil

In Brethil, Túrin again took up his life, now calling himself Turambar ("Master of Fate") in the act of bravado, deciding that his curse was now finally over. One day he found a naked young woman on Haudh-en-Elleth, and calling her Níniel, he later took her as his wife.

Túrin's happiness ended when Glaurung came near Brethil. Túrin, with two others, set out to kill the dragon, but he was the only one to reach the drake. With his black sword, he killed Glaurung at Cabed-en-Aras but was hurt and fell in a swoon. As Níniel came to search for him, Glaurung with his last word, revealed to her she was Túrin's sister. Horrified, Níniel killed herself.

Dragon's Curse by John Howe

When Túrin awoke he was told by Brandir, lord of the Haladin of Brethil what had happened, and he killed Brandir, refusing to believe. When he learned from Mablung of Doriath who had come to seek him that Brandir had told the truth, he killed himself on Gurthang, his black sword.

Túrin was buried near Finduilas' grave, and on his tombstone, the Haladin wrote in the Cirth of Doriath:

TÚRIN TURAMBAR DAGNIR GLAURUNGA
(Túrin, Conqueror of Fate, Slayer of Glaurung)

Beneath that they also wrote:

NIENOR NÍNIEL

though her body could not be found.

Legacy

Two years later, Morwen and Húrin came separately to Túrin's grave and met for the last time. Morwen passed away that night and Húrin buried her near their son, inscribing her epitaph on the same stone. The burial mound survived the War of Wrath and sinking of Beleriand to become Tol Morwen, the westernmost isle off the coast of Lindon in the Second and Third Ages.[15]

Túrin was a first cousin of Tuor, father of Eärendil. There are many parallels between the circumstances of their lives (both lost their fathers in the Nirnaeth Arnoediad, were raised in part by Elves, spent time as outlaws and as prisoners, and were war-leaders in the greatest Noldorin fortresses), but the outcome of Tuor's life was quite different. (Even Túrin's coloring was dark, enhancing his resemblance to the Noldorin Elves but further setting him apart from his fair-haired cousin.) The two never actually met, but Tuor did once see his cousin in passing on his way to Gondolin (not an everyday occurrence in the wilds of Beleriand).

There were several prophecies that Túrin would return from death. The Wise-woman Andreth of the Edain prophesied that Túrin "in the Last Battle should return from the Dead, and before he left the Circles of the World for ever should challenge the Great Dragon of Morgoth, Ancalagon the Black, and deal him the death-stroke."[2][note 3]

According to the Second Prophecy of Mandos, at the end of time Morgoth will return to Valinor to wage a final battle against the Valar and Túrin will return to "deal unto Morgoth his death and final end."[16]



Whether the tragedies in Túrin's life were the result of Morgoth's curse, his own arrogance, or some combination of the two is debatable. Túrin is one of the few heroes of the Elder Days to have committed suicide and several of the others (such as Aerin, Húrin and Nienor) are connected with his story.

Etymology

See: Túrin (disambiguation) and Turambar (disambiguation)

It's possible that during Túrin's lifetime (First Age), the name was pronounced as Túrind before simplified in the following centuries. The Quenya form of his name is Turindo.[17]

Other names

Túrin took and was given many names through his life, listed here in chronological order:

  • Woodwose or Wildman of the Woods, first given by Saeros as an insult, Túrin used it when questioned about his identity by the woodsmen he had rescued.[18]
  • Neithan, (S. "The Wronged"), taken by Túrin when he joined the outlaws.[19]
  • Gorthol, (S. "The Dread Helm"), taken by Túrin when he claimed lordship of Dor-Cúarthol in reference to the Dragon-helm of Dor-lómin.[20]
  • Agarwaen, son of Úmarth, (S. "Bloodstained, son of Ill-fate"), the names Túrin gave himself and his father while in Nargothrond in an attempt to hide his identity as a child of Húrin.[21]
  • Adanedhel, (S. "Elf-Man"), given to him by the Elves of Nargothrond, who recognized the nobility he had acquired while in Doriath.[22]
  • Thurin, (S. "The Secret"), given to him by Finduilas, who doubted that his true name was Agarwaen.[23]
  • Mormegil, (S. "Black Sword"), acquired by Túrin while he dwelt in Nargothrond, in reference to his black sword, Gurthang.[24]
  • Turambar, (Q. "Master of Doom"), taken by Túrin when he lived among the Men of Brethil, signifying his perceived freedom from the curse of Morgoth.[25]
  • Dagnir Glaurunga, (S. "Glaurung's Bane"), given after he killed Glaurung and carved with Runes of Doriath on the Stone of the Hapless.[26]
  • Naeramarth, (S. "Evilfated"), given within Tolkien's genealogical tree of the Half-elven kinship.[27]

Genealogy

Bregolas
Halmir
Hador Lórindol
Belegund
Baragund
Hareth
Galdor of Dor-lómin
Morwen Eledhwen
Húrin Thalion
Huor
TÚRIN TURAMBAR
Lalaith
Nienor

Other versions of the legendarium

"...It is a long tale..." — Aragorn
This article or section needs expansion and/or modification. Please help the wiki by expanding it.

The broad strokes of the story of Túrin in the legendarium originates in Tolkien's attempted retelling of Kullervo's tale from Elias Lönnrot's Kalevala.[28]

In an early linguistic text, the Gnomes of Nargothrond gave Túrin the name Gormagli, which is Noldorin for "Great Bear". Its cognate in Qenya is Oromatsilë.[29]:149

Inspiration

Unpublished drafts of the story, later edited by Christopher Tolkien and published in Unfinished Tales and The History of Middle-earth series, tell the story in greater detail. These have been carefully edited together with other drafts to form The Children of Húrin, released in 2007.

The supposed resemblance of Túrin to figures from medieval tales can be confirmed by part of a letter Tolkien wrote to Milton Waldman concerning the publication of his works:

There is the Children of Húrin, the tragic tale of Túrin Turambar and his sister Níniel — of which Túrin is the hero: a figure that might be said (by people who like that sort of thing, though it is not very useful) to be derived from elements in Sigurd the Volsung, Oedipus, and the Finnish Kullervo.

Again one may detect certain literary influences: the hero's [Túrin's] fight with a great dragon [Glaurung] inevitably suggests comparison with the deeds of Sigurd and Beowulf, while his unknowing incest with his sister and his subsequent suicide were derived quite consciously from the story of Kullervo in the Kalevala.

Túrin shares several common traits with all of the characters below, like coming closer to their fate when attempting to evade it. Another significant trait is their gifted but hot tempered nature and strong will paired with their reluctance to heed wise counsels that would save them from their fate.

Oedipus

Oedipus was a prince of Thebes, but his parents heard a prophecy that he would cause their demise. To evade it, they order a shepherd to kill him. However the shepherd spares the baby and gives him to a childless family. Oedipus grew ignorant of his heritage; he then heard a prophecy according to which he will kill his father and marry his mother. He left in self-exile to take himself away from his (foster) parents.

However this brought himself closer to Thebes and his actual parents. On his way, he kills a man who unknown to him, is his actual father, the King of Thebes, fulfilling therefore part of the prophecy. Then he enters the city and after defeating the Sphinx, the people name him to replace the lost King of Thebes; furthermore, Oedipus marries the King's widow, who is in fact his mother.

Years later, while investigating the death of the former King, he realizes all the truths in his life: the King was the very man he had killed, and furthermore, he and his Queen were his parents. Oedipus blinds himself and leaves in self-exile with his two daughters/half-sisters while his mother/wife strangles herself.

Kullervo

Template:See also In the Kalevala, Kullervo's tribe is killed by his uncle, and himself is separated by his family, something that fills him with hate and desire for revenge. As a slave, he uses magic to kill his masters and returns to his tribe; afterwards he seduces a girl, who commits suicide after discovering she is his lost sister.

Then he repeats his vows: he refuses to hear any words of reconsideration and gets a broadsword which he uses to slay the enemy tribe. On his return, he sees all his family dead. He asks the magic sword to slay him, which replies, and then he falls on it.

Sigurd

Sigurd's mother marries a King and Sigurd himself is fostered by a Dwarf. The Dwarf tells him about the hoard of the dragon Fafnir (who is his brother) and remakes a broken heirloom sword for him. Sigurd slays Fafnir by waiting for him in a pit, stabbing him with the sword as he passes over it. The gold he wins, however, is cursed.

Balin

Sir Balin was a knight of the King Arthur's court in Le Morte d'Arthur who possessed a magic sword. By this he was unknowingly cursed to slay his own brother. Through a well-meaning act of his, he is further cursed to make the most dolorous strike ever made by man, save only the piercing of Christ's side. Later, while in King Pellam's castle, he kills Pellam's brother and maims Pellam, ruining the castle and making all the surrounding lands into a wasteland, much as Túrin slayed Brodda in his own house and how his pride brought about the destruction of Nargothrond. Eventually, he kills his brother Balan, but is mortally wounded in doing so, and outlives him by only a few hours. They were then both laid in one grave.

See also

Notes

  1. Both Beleg and Túrin were referred to as this by the leaderless Elves and Men who had been dispossessed through battle and defeat, came to Dor-Cúarthol seeking the Bow and Helm that supposedly fell within Dimbar.
  2. Christopher Tolkien makes clear that this was not the case. Cf. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Children of Húrin, "Introduction", p. 18.
  3. According to Christopher Tolkien, Andreth predicted the War of Wrath at the end of the age in this prophecy making unclear whether it was Eärendil or Túrin who killed Ancalagon in the War of Wrath.

References

  1. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Children of Húrin, "The Land of Bow and Helm", pp. 145-146
  2. 2.0 2.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "XII. The Problem of Ros", "Notes", Note 17, p. 374
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of Túrin Turambar"
  4. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Children of Húrin, "The Childhood of Túrin"
  5. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "Narn i Hîn Húrin (The Tale of the Children of Húrin)"
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Children of Húrin, "Túrin among the Outlaws"
  7. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Children of Húrin, "The Childhood of Túrin", p. 41
  8. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Children of Húrin, "The Departure of Túrin"
  9. 9.0 9.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Children of Húrin, "Túrin in Doriath"
  10. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Children of Húrin, "Túrin in Doriath", p. 96
  11. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Children of Húrin, "Of Mîm the Dwarf"
  12. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Children of Húrin, "The Land of Bow and Helm"
  13. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Children of Húrin, "The Death of Beleg"
  14. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Children of Húrin, "Túrin in Nargothrond"
  15. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Ruin of Doriath"
  16. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Lost Road and Other Writings, "Part Two: Valinor and Middle-earth before The Lord of the Rings, VI. Quenta Silmarillion", p. 333
  17. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Lost Road and Other Writings, Part Three: "The Etymologies", entry "TUR"
  18. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Children of Húrin, "The Coming of Túrin into Brethil", p. 194
  19. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Children of Húrin, "Túrin among the Outlaws", p. 101
  20. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Children of Húrin, "The Land of Bow and Helm", p. 146
  21. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Children of Húrin, "Túrin in Nargothrond", p. 159
  22. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Children of Húrin, "Túrin in Nargothrond", pp. 163-164
  23. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Children of Húrin, "Túrin in Nargothrond", p. 165
  24. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Children of Húrin, "Túrin in Nargothrond", p. 160
  25. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Children of Húrin, "The Coming of Túrin into Brethil", p. 196
  26. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Children of Húrin, "The Death of Túrin", p. 257
  27. Kinship of the Half-elven, main image
  28. The Story of Kullervo
  29. J.R.R. Tolkien, "The Alphabet of Rúmil & Early Noldorin Fragments", in Parma Eldalamberon XIII (edited by Carl F. Hostetter, Christopher Gilson, Arden R. Smith, Patrick H. Wynne, and Bill Welden)


Gaurwaith
Túrin · Forweg · Algund · Andróg · Andvír · Orleg · Ulrad · Beleg