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Gondolin

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Alan Lee - Gondolin.jpg
Gondolin
General information
PronunciationS, [ˈɡondolin]
Other namesOndolindë (Q)
The Hidden City
The Hidden Realm
See below
LocationNorth of Beleriand; in Tumladen, surrounded by the Echoriad
People
PopulationGondolindrim
LanguageSindarin, Quenya
GovernanceKing of Gondolin
History
Preceded byNevrast
ConstructedF.A. 116
DestructionF.A. 510
GalleryImages of Gondolin
"Rejoice that ye have found it and rest from endless war
for the seven-naméd city 'tis that stands upon the hill,
where all who strive with Morgoth find hope and valour still.
"
The Lay of the Fall of Gondolin

Gondolin, the great Hidden City of Turgon, was concealed from friend and foe alike during the First Age by the Encircling Mountains, and guarded from trespassers by the Eagles of Thorondor.

Some years after the Exile of the Noldor, Turgon was guided by Ulmo to the hidden valley of Tumladen, and there he founded Gondolin. Turgon's people, who had dwelt in Nevrast, travelled there secretly, becoming the Gondolindrim.

The city remained hidden for almost four hundred years, being the last Elven realm to endure against Morgoth, but it was finally discovered through the treachery of Maeglin and besieged. Turgon was lost in the Fall of the city, but some few escaped the destruction and dwelt as Exiles at the Mouths of Sirion.

Contents

[edit] History

[edit] Building

Turgon and Finrod on the bank of Sirion by Mysilvergreen

The round valley of Tumladen, within the Encircling Mountains, had originally been a lake, and in its centre stood a hill that had once been an island: Amon Gwareth.[1] The valley had been emptied a long time ago through the Dry River, creating the only entry to the valley, the secret path of Orfalch Echor.[2]

On F.A. 50,[3] Turgon left Nevrast and went with his cousin Finrod; both travelled together southward through Beleriand. While resting in the Meres of Twilight, Ulmo went to them and laid upon them a deep sleep and disturbing dreams. Neither told the other about his dreams, but both cousins began a search for hidden places in case Morgoth broke the Siege of Angband. Soon, Finrod found the place where he would build his realm: Nargothrond; but Turgon did not, so he came back to Nevrast. Three years later,[4] the Lord of Waters appeared to Turgon upon the shores and commanded him to travel forth alone. Guided by the Vala, Turgon found the valley of Tumladen and decided to found his city upon Amon Gwareth, as a memorial to Tirion upon Túna. However, he came back to Nevrast where he planned the building of his city.[5]

After the Dagor Aglareb, on F.A. 64,[6] Turgon felt unquiet again, and taking the most skilled of his people, he went in secret to the hidden vale and the first building of the city was begun. A watch was set around, but the power of Ulmo also protected them. During the next fifty-two years, Turgon dwelt mostly in Nevrast, until the city was completed. Then he gave his city the name Ondolindë in Quenya, the "Rock of the Music of Water", because of the fountains of Amon Gwareth, but in Sindarin this was rendered Gondolin, the "Hidden Rock".[1] On F.A. 116,[7] before leaving Vinyamar, Ulmo appeared to Turgon once more and told him:

Turgon by Marya Filatova
Now thou shalt go at last to Gondolin, Turgon; and I will maintain my power in the Vale of Sirion, and in all the waters therein, so that none shall mark thy going, nor shall any find there the hidden entrance against thy will. Longest of all the realms of the Eldalië shall Gondolin stand against Melkor. [...] Thus it may come to pass that the curse of the Noldor shall find thee too ere the end, and treason awake within thy walls. Then they shall be in peril of fire. But if this peril draweth nigh indeed, then even from Nevrast one shall come to warn thee...

The people of Turgon were a third part of Fingolfin's followers and native Sindar of Nevrast, and they travelled from Nevrast and secretly entered the valley of Tumladen in discreet companies. After their arrival in the new city, the Gondolindrim continued to labour in its building, until it was said to rival even Tirion itself. Its walls stood high and white above the plain, and its most prominent feature was the great Tower of the King, where, among the fountains, Turgon himself made Glingal and Belthil, trees of gold and silver made in memory of the Two Trees of Valinor.[1]

[edit] Coming of Maeglin

Half Noldo by Sara M. Morello

There followed the two centuries of the Long Peace: Morgoth was besieged in the far north of the world, and the people of Gondolin lived undisturbed by the events outside their valley. However, a seed of discontent appeared: in F.A. 316,[8] Turgon's sister Aredhel became tired of her limited life in the valley and was determined to leave the city, much against Turgon's wishes, and journey into Beleriand. However, she was lost outside and Gondolin fell into sorrow for many years.[9]

More than eighty years later, in F.A. 400,[10] suddenly Aredhel returned with Maeglin, her son by Eöl the Dark Elf. Maeglin was enamoured of the city and Turgon welcomed him. But Eöl had followed his wife and son to Gondolin and was captured at the entranceway. After he was brought before Turgon, it was explained that the law of Gondolin did not allow any visitor to leave. Eöl refused to submit to Turgon's authority, and instead chose death for himself and his unwilling son. He threw a poisoned dart to slay Maeglin, but instead struck Aredhel, who fell ill with the poison and died. The body of Eöl was thrown off the Caragdûr for this.

Maeglin, though, had had no part in these evils, and Turgon accepted him, and he grew to be among the lords of the Gondolindrim. "Thus it was in Gondolin; and amid all the bliss of that realm, while its glory lasted, a dark seed of evil was sown".[9]

[edit] Two great battles

Húrin and Huor are Carried to Gondolin by Alan Lee

When Morgoth broke the Siege of Angband in the Dagor Bragollach, the people of Gondolin did not take part in any of its conflicts. However, in F.A. 458,[11] they were drawn into the events of those years, when two young brothers of the race of Men, Húrin and Huor, were cut off from their army and became lost amid the feet of the Crissaegrim. Thorondor brought them to Turgon's city. At the bidding of Ulmo, Turgon accepted them, and they remained in Gondolin for almost a year. Although the law of Gondolin did not allow any visitor to leave, Turgon made an exception and allowed them to return to their homes. Both brothers kept the promise of not telling anyone where they had been, but other Men could deduce it, and soon a rumour was spread that reached Morgoth's servants.[12]

Turgon now devised a new policy for the salvation of the Elves: he began secretly to send his people out westward across the great sea, to seek the land of the Valar and ask their pardon and aid. None of his mariners succeeded, but this was a wise course, as Turgon would know later.[12]

Some years later, Beren and Lúthien were saved by the Eagles, and flying south, Lúthien could see far below, as a white light starting from a green jewel, the radiance of Gondolin the fair. But Lúthien wept because her beloved was mortally wounded.[13]

But it is said in song that her tears falling from on high as she passed came like silver raindrops on the plain, and there a fountain sprang to life: the Fountain of Tinúviel, Eithel Nínui, most healing water until it withered in the flame.[14]

As the Elves of Beleriand began to arm for a counterstroke to the Dagor Bragollach, Turgon secretly began his own preparations. In F.A. 472,[15] the Union of Maedhros attacked Angband, and Turgon rode for the first time to war. Unknown and unbidden by his kin, he opened the leaguer of Gondolin and rode to their aid with an army of ten thousand. This was to be the disastrous battle that was to become known as the Nirnaeth Arnoediad.[16]

[edit] Encirclement

The army of the Gondolindrim escaped from the Fifth Battle thanks to the men of the House of Hador. The only survivor there was Húrin, who was captured. Morgoth had great fear of Turgon, who was now High King of the Noldor, and wished to destroy him more than any other enemy.[16] Therefore, the Dark Lord tortured Húrin and offered him freedom, but could not make him reveal the location of Gondolin.[17]

Tuor reaches the Hidden City of Gondolin by Ted Nasmith

After returning from the Nirnaeth, Maeglin built the Gate of Steel, the last of the Seven Gates of Gondolin.[18]

In F.A. 495,[19] Ulmo appeared to Tuor and explained to him that the Curse of Mandos was coming to its fulfilment, but there was still a chance to avoid Doom upon Turgon and his people.[20] Thus, Tuor was guided to the Hidden City by Voronwë, one of those mariners sent by Turgon to the West, who had survived a shipwreck. Ulmo's warning was that Turgon must abandon the city and seek the sea. But the king, because of his pride and the love of his city, decided to ignore this warning. Tuor, however, was welcomed in the city by all save Maeglin. In later years, Tuor and Idril, the King's daughter, married and had a son: Eärendil.[21]

Despite rejecting the warning, Turgon felt unrest, remembering the Doom of Mandos and fearing treason. So he ordered the Gates of the Mountains to be closed and he forbade anyone to leave the city, be it for peace or war.[21]

Thorondor and Turgon, art by Marya Filatova

The first great blow to the security of Gondolin came by accident. Húrin, who had been held captive by Morgoth, was released to wander in the world. In F.A. 501,[22] he came to the edge of the Encircling Mountains, hoping to find the secret way to Gondolin. But the Way of Escape was closed, the Dry River blocked and the doors buried. Thorondor himself informed Turgon of the presence of Húrin. The King saw it as a bad omen and fearing what Morgoth might have done to Húrin, withheld rescue. On further consideration Turgon changed his mind, but it was too late. Húrin, seeing nothing, cried out in a loud voice "Turgon, Turgon, remember the Fen of Serech! O Turgon, will you not hear in your hidden halls?". Morgoth now knew the general area in which Gondolin lay, for his spies were watching this. Húrin turned away, broken and bitter.[23]

In F.A. 507,[24] Doriath fell, so Gondolin became the last Elven realm enduring against the power of Morgoth. Thorondor informed Turgon of the falls of Nargothrond and Doriath, but Turgon did not act, and swore he would never fight on the side of the Sons of Fëanor.[21]

[edit] Fall

Main article: Fall of Gondolin

In the following years after Húrin exposed Gondolin's region, Morgoth increased his search in the lands between the river Sirion and Anach. However, his spies and creatures could not go much further thanks to the protection of the Eagles. Meanwhile, in Gondolin there was peace, and nobody knew that the kingdom was encircled by the Enemy. All except Idril, who felt bad forebodings in her heart, so she ordered the construction of an escape tunnel that led to the plain in the northern part of the city. Only few were informed of this way, and she asked that Maeglin hear nothing about it.[21]

In F.A. 509,[24] Maeglin, disobeying Turgon's laws, strayed too far from the city while searching for ore. There he was captured by Orcs and taken to Angband. Daunted by tortures, Maeglin bought his life in exchange for betraying Gondolin, but he was also motivated by his hatred for Tuor and the desire for Idril. Therefore he gave Morgoth the exact location of the city, and the ways from where it could be reached and attacked. Morgoth felt very pleased, and promised to make him lord of Gondolin under his vassalage, and the hand of Idril; and this was considered the worst treason of the Elder Days. Maeglin was released to avoid suspicion and to make an inside attack when the moment came.[21]

Flight of the Doomed by Ted Nasmith

The next year,[24] when Eärendil was seven years old, Morgoth was prepared and sent a massive army, composed of Balrogs, Orcs, Wolves and Dragons. They crossed the northern part of the Echoriath, where the mountains were higher and therefore less guarded. In the city, the Gondolindrim were preparing the Gates of Summer, a festival in which they welcomed the sunrise, but instead of seeing the light from the east, a red light appeared in the north. Nothing stopped the enemy until it reached the walls of the city, and the siege began.

Little is told in the Quenta Silmarillion of the deeds of the Gondolindrim and the ruin of the city, but much is told in The Fall of Gondolin. There was a great siege, during which the captains of the noble houses and their warriors fell. The Tower of the King was defended, but it fell with great ruin and King Turgon died there. Meanwhile, attacking from the inside, Maeglin captured Idril and Eärendil, taking them to the walls. Tuor arrived in time to save them both, and after fighting Maeglin, threw Maeglin from the walls down into the flames.

Gathering as many of the people as they could find, Tuor and Idril escaped down their tunnel. In the plain they could run unnoticed thanks to the steams and smoke coming from the burning city and its now dry fountains. It was a hard road through the mountains; Glorfindel was killed by a Balrog that lay in ambush. But at last the Exiles of Gondolin came to Nan-tathren, and after resting there for some time they came down to the refuge at the Mouths of Sirion, where they mourned the loss of the White City.[21]

[edit] Legacy

Elrond by Anke Eißmann

Ages later, some legendary weapons of Gondolin were found by Thorin and Company in a Trolls' Cave. Elrond recognized them and explained that they ended up there after being plundered by dragons or goblins.[25] Even in the Third Age, some orcs of the Misty Mountains knew of the legendary sword of Turgon, remembering how the Elves of Gondolin killed hundred of goblins before their walls.[26]

The realm will be mentioned by Elrond during his Council,[27] and remembered by Galadriel,[28] and also sung in Dwarven lore.[29]

[edit] Etymology

Gondolin means "Hidden Rock" in Sindarin, from gond ("rock") + dolen ("hidden").[30] It was a name that evolved from the original Quenya Ondolindë.[1] However, Tolkien speculated that Gondolin was actually a hybrid between North Sindarin and Quenya.[31]

The name remained the same since early versions of the legendarium, but its meaning has evolved with the Elvish languages. In the first Gnomish concept, Gondolin meant "Stone of Song", from gonn ("great stone, rock") + dólin ("song").[32] In the Noldorin phase, it meant "Heart of Hidden Rock", from gonn ("rock") + doll ("dark, hidden, secret") + ind ("inner thought, heart").[33]

[edit] Other names

See also: #The Seven Names

Ondolindë is Quenya for "Rock of the Music of Water",[34] literally "Singing Stone" or "Stone of Music". A short form was Ondolin.[31] Tolkien speculated that the proper Sindarized form for Ondolin(dë) would be Gon(g)lin,[35] with the archaich variation Goen(g)lin.[31]

Other earlier names in Noldorin were Gondost ("City of Stone"), Gondobar ("Stone of the World") and Gondothrimbar.[33]

In Eriol's Old English translations, Gondolin is referred as Stangaldor(burg) ("stone-enchantment-city"), Folgenburg ("hidden city"), Galdorfaesten ("enchantment-fortress").[36]

[edit] Other versions of the legendarium

[edit] The Book of Lost Tales

[edit] History

The first tale of the legendarium written by Tolkien was "The Fall of Gondolin" in The Book of Lost Tales. No other version would tell with such detail the description of Gondolin, its lords and its fall, and the history differs much from the one presented above, especially in the foundation and aftermath.

Morgoth's force before Gondolin by John Howe

Before Turgon was even born, the prophet Amnon prophesied the fall of Gondolin and the fate of Turgon.[37] Turgon was born soon after the Flight of the Noldoli and later he participated in the Battle of Unnumbered Tears. He could run out of the battle, and save the women and children of the camps. Then he fled south along Sirion, and aided by its magic waters, he escaped into a secret place away from Melko. There the Noldoli built the secret city of Gondolin and Turgon became their king.[38] The people of Gondolin became known as Gondothlim, the dwellers in stone.[39]:155 They travailed for many years building Gondolin, and there was made a secret entry among the mountains, the Way of Escape, that was kept open and guarded for the Noldoli enthralled by Melko. When the city was finished, the folk became busy making weapons, armors and arrows in case they were attacked. All the encircling mountains had a constant guard, but this was not necessary, as the plain of Tumladin was smooth and everything could be seen from Amon Gwareth.[39]:163

While Melko expanded his armies through the Great Lands, the Noldoli only could find refuge in the realms of Artanor and Gondolin.[40] But when Beren and Tinúviel faded away after the first fall of Artanor, Gondolin became the last glorious kingdom and many Elves sought for it.[41]

Eventually, by order of Ulmo, Tuor wandered looking for the City of Stone, and this was known to Melko, who increased his watchfulness. Tuor was helped by the Gnome Voronwë, who found the secret entry, covered with enchantments that hid it to anyone who had no Gnomish blood.[39]:156-157 Once in Gondolin, Tuor was led to king Turgon and he gave him Ulmo's warning: that the Gondothlim had to march to war against Melko or leave the city and dwell beside the sea. Turgon refused both, but invited Tuor to live in his city, and Tuor accepted, as it was a fair place.[39]:161-162

Maeglin was taken prisoner by orcs by Catherine Karina Chmiel

Now Melko, wondering about the Man that had wandered alone, summoned a vast army of dark spies and sent them to look after the Noldoli that escaped years ago. They found the Way of Escape and could see the city in the distance, but the guard was strong and never approached there. Turgon was informed of this and felt unrest, so the guard was increased and preparations for war were made.[39]:165-167

In those days, Meglin, Turgon's nephew, was captured by Orcs while straying in the mountains alone. Before they knew that he was one of the Gondothlim, he offered knowledge about Gondolin in exchange for his life. Thus he was brought to Melko, and both devised a plan to conquer the city. Meglin gave Melko the description of Gondolin and the idea of building Iron Dragons that could cross the Encircling Mountains and the city walls. Then Meglin returned and Melko began building his war devices and gathering evil armies during seven years. Noticing that Melko's spies withdrew, the Gondothlim felt fearless and thought that Melko had desisted after seeing Gondolin's might. But Idril's concern increased and warned some Gondothlim, but they laughed believing that the city would stand forever like Taniquetil.[39]:168-171

For the feast of Tarnin Austa, the Gates of Summer, the Gondothlim gathered in silence the night before and wait for the dawn. However, when that night came, a new red light was seen in the northern mountains and explorers came telling that Melko's armies were coming. All the twelve houses of the Gondothlim prepared for battle and Turgon hold a council with all their lords. There Tuor asked to leave the city before the enemy came, so they could take women and children to a save place, but Meglin remembered the king how much wealth and work they had put into the city, so Turgon accepted to face siege.[39]:172-175

Gondolin in ruins by Matěj Čadil
For a detailed description of the siege see The Fall of Gondolin (chapter)#The battle of Gondolin.

As prophesied, Gondolin and its king fell in ruin, but a group of exiles could escape and took refuge in the mouth of Sirion. The fall of Gondolin will be esteemed as the worst deed of Melko and the most dread of sack upon Earth.[39]:196 The Lost Tale of Eärendel is only given in dispersed notes, so of the aftermath there are different versions which can be summarized as follows: After the fall, the doves and pigeons of Turgon's courtyard travelled to Valinor and told to Gods and Elves about the fate of Gondolin. This would uproar the Eldar, who marched to the Great Lands in a war against Melko. Unaware of this, Eärendel travelled during his travels back to Gondolin with Galdor. In the ruins of the city they found Men camping there miserabily and Gnomes searching for lost gems.[42]

[edit] Description

A map of Gondolin based on Karen Wynn Fonstad's The Atlas of Middle-earth

The hills of Tumladin formed a great circle around the plain, and Amon Gwareth, the Hill of Watch, was set therein, not directly in the middle, but nearer to the Way of Escape. Upon the hill rose the city of Gondolin, with its towers pricking the sky. The plain was so clear that anyone could walk there with no need of a guide. The many pathways from the mountains to the city took a day light's march to traverse, they were fair and leveled, crossing the sward covered here and there with smooth boulders or clean pools. Amon Gwareth could only be climbed by some winding stairs, which led to the main gate. This was westwards and was of great weight and strength, made of iron, although it seemed golden in the light of the sunset.[39]:158-160 There was another entry gate in the north,[39]:176 but it is not said if there were more.

Now the streets of Gondolin were paved with stone and wide, kerbed with marble, and fair houses and courts amid gardens of bright flowers were set about the ways, and many towers of great slenderness and beauty builded of white marble and carved most marvellously rose to the heaven. Squares there were lit with fountains and the home of birds that sang amid the branches of their aged trees, but of all these the greatest was that place where stood the king's palace, and the tower thereof was the loftiest in the city, and the fountains that played before the doors shot twenty fathoms and seven in the air and fell in a singing rain of crystal: therein did the sun glitter splendidly by day, and the moon most magically shimmered by night. The birds that dwelt there were of the whiteness of snow and their voices sweeter than a lullaby of music.[39]:160

White stairs led to the doors of the palace, and in each side of these were the two trees called Glingol and Bansil, one golden, the other silver. Neither ever faded, for they were shoots of the Trees of Valinor before their destruction.[39]:160-161

The northwest entry to the Square of the Palace was the Road of Arches, which led to the Place of the Well. This could also be accessed by the Arch of Inwë in the west, and it was a place with many trees, oaks and poplars, that encircled a great well of vast depth with very pure water.[39]:181-182 Another entry to the Square of the Palace was the Alley of Roses, which was a fair place to see and to walk in.[39]:183

From the Square of the Palace, the Road of Pomps went southwards, leading to Gar Ainion, the Place of the Gods, where weddings were celebrated in its Place of Wedding. It was very open and in its middle was the highest ground of the city, so from there the Place of the King could be seen below. Another street to the southern part of the city was the Way of Running Waters, which led to the Fountains of the South.[39]:186 Past these was the house of Tuor upon the southern walls, where flowed free air and the dawn light shone.[39]:164 The folk of the Fountain also dwelt in the southern part,[39]:173 as well as Salgant, near the Lesser Market. East of the city was the Great Market, full of stores and fair workmanships.[39]:182

Glory dwelt in that city of Gondolin of the Seven Names, and its ruin was the most dread of all the sacks of cities upon the face of Earth. Nor Bablon, nor Ninwi, nor the towers of Trui, nor all the many takings of Rûm that is greatest among Men, saw such terror as fell that day upon Amon Gwareth in the kindred of the Gnomes; and this is esteemed the worst work that Melko has yet thought of in the world.[39]:196

[edit] The Seven Names

In later versions of the legendarium, Gondolin is still known as the City of Seven Names,[43] but only in the Lost Tales phase are these names given. "City of Seven Names" was Ostrin An Ost in Gnomish, and Tirios Otsoyáma in Qenya.[44] When Tuor sees the city for the first time, he asks about these names and a guard recites to him:

Tis said and 'tis sung: 'Gondobar am I called and Gondothlimbar, City of Stone and City of the Dwellers in Stone; Gondolin the Stone of Song and Gwarestrin am I named, the Tower of Guard, Gar Thurion or the Secret Place, for I am hidden from the eyes of Melko; but they who love me most greatly call me Loth, for like a flower am I, even Lothengriol the flower that blooms on the plain.'[39]:158

The Qenya cognate for Gondolin was Ondolinda.[45] The cognates for the other names were:[44]

  • Gondobar ("Stone House"): Ondomard- or Ondosta.
  • Gondothlimbar ("House of the Stone Folk"): Ondostamard-.
  • Gwarestrin ("Tower of Guard"): Tiri(o)stirion or Vara-, Vorastirin.
  • Gar Thurion ("Secret Place"): Ardalomba or Ardaurin.
  • Loth ("Flower"): Lossë ("Rose").
  • Lothengriol[note 1] ("Flower of the Vale" or "Lily of the Valley"): Endillos

[edit] Later versions

Tolkien never fully developed the story of Gondolin in later versions of the legendarium, so while editing The Silmarillion, Christopher Tolkien had to make some choices about certain details, the main one being the discovery of Gondolin. As detailed above, in The Book of Lost Tales it is told that Melko discovered Gondolin after hearing of a man (Tuor) wandering near Sirion and sending an army of spies which saw the hidden city in the distance. When Meglin is captured, he betrays the city by attacking from the inside during the siege and by giving Melko the idea of building the Iron Dragons. In the next phase of the story, the Quenta Noldorinwa, it is Meglin who gives Morgoth the location of Gondolin when he is captured.[46] .

However, in Tolkien's last revision, it is Húrin who accidentally gives the location of Gondolin to Morgoth when he called to Turgon in the Echoriad. Here it is said that "Morgoth smiled, and knew now clearly in what region Turgon dwelt".[47] Tolkien then recovered the idea of Maeglin's betrayal as it was in the first version, as said in some notes:

Later when captured and Maeglin wished to buy his release with treachery, Morgoth must answer laughing, saying: Stale news will buy nothing. I know this already, I am not easily blinded! So Maeglin was obliged to offer more – to undermine resistance in Gondolin [...] and to compass the death of Tuor and Eärendel if he could. If he did he would be allowed to retain Idril (said Morgoth).[48]

For his edition of The Silmarillion, Christopher used both texts of the Quenta Noldorinwa and the Wanderings of Húrin. He therefore had to edit the first one so Maeglin would give Morgoth "the very place of Gondolin.[48]

[edit] Inspiration

Aeneas fleeing from Troy by Pompeo Batoni (1753)

There are notable similarities between Gondolin and Troy, especially between the more detailed early Lost Tale and the account of the Fall of Troy as told by Virgil in his Aeneid. Both cities have their origins in the God of the Sea, as the walls of Troy were built by Poseidon/Neptune. Both also are doomed because of treachery (one internal, the other external) and while their citizens celebrated a feast. Both Aeneas and Tuor are destined to survive the destruction, managing to kill all enemies while wandering through the battle and seeing the death of their respective kings. Both also secretly lead survivors to escape the city, accompanied by their relatives (while Aeneas carries his father, Tuor carries his son).[49]

[edit] See also

Notes

  1. Earlier forms of the name Lothengriol were Losengriol and Lósengriol. Cf. The Book of Lost Tales Part One, p. 172; and The Book of Lost Tales Part Two, p. 202

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Noldor in Beleriand"
  2. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "Of Tuor and his Coming to Gondolin", pp. 44-46
  3. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Jewels, "The Grey Annals": §74
  4. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Jewels, "The Grey Annals": §76
  5. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Return of the Noldor"
  6. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Jewels, "The Grey Annals": §89
  7. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Jewels, "The Grey Annals": §112
  8. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Jewels, "The Grey Annals": §118
  9. 9.0 9.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of Maeglin"
  10. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Jewels, "The Grey Annals": §120
  11. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Jewels, "The Grey Annals": §161
  12. 12.0 12.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Ruin of Beleriand and the Fall of Fingolfin"
  13. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of Beren and Lúthien"
  14. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Lost Road and Other Writings, "Part Two: Valinor and Middle-earth before The Lord of the Rings, VI. Quenta Silmarillion", p. 301
  15. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Jewels, "The Grey Annals": §217
  16. 16.0 16.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Fifth Battle: Nirnaeth Arnoediad"
  17. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Children of Húrin, "The Words of Húrin and Morgoth"
  18. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "Of Tuor and his Coming to Gondolin", p. 49
  19. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Jewels, "The Grey Annals": §299
  20. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "Of Tuor and his Coming to Gondolin", p. 29
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 21.5 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of Tuor and the Fall of Gondolin"
  22. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Jewels, "Part Three. The Wanderings of Húrin and Other Writings not forming part of the Quenta Silmarillion: I. The Wanderings of Húrin", p. 254
  23. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Ruin of Doriath"
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Jewels, "Part Three. The Wanderings of Húrin and Other Writings not forming part of the Quenta Silmarillion: V. The Tale of Years", p. 351
  25. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit, "A Short Rest"
  26. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit, "Over Hill and Under Hill"
  27. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "The Council of Elrond", "...Eärendil was my sire, who was born in Gondolin before its fall..."
  28. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "The Mirror of Galadriel", "...for ere the fall of Nargothrond or Gondolin I passed over the mountains..."
  29. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "A Journey in the Dark", "Song of Durin"
  30. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Appendix: Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names", entry gond
  31. 31.0 31.1 31.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, "Words, Phrases and Passages in Various Tongues in The Lord of the Rings: Eldarin Roots and Stems", in Parma Eldalamberon XVII (edited by Christopher Gilson), p. 29
  32. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Book of Lost Tales Part One, Appendix: Names in the Lost Tales – Part I, entry Gondolin
  33. 33.0 33.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Lost Road and Other Writings, Part Three: "The Etymologies", entries "GOND", "DUL"
  34. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Jewels, "Part Two. The Later Quenta Silmarillion: Of Turgon and the Building of Gondolin (Chapter 12)", p. 201
  35. J.R.R. Tolkien, "Words, Phrases and Passages in Various Tongues in The Lord of the Rings: Eldarin Roots and Stems", in Parma Eldalamberon XVII (edited by Christopher Gilson) p. 133
  36. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Shaping of Middle-earth, "III. The Quenta: Appendix 1: Fragments of a translation of The Quenta Noldorinwa into Old English, made by Ælfwine or Eriol; together with Old English equivalents of Elvish names", p. 210
  37. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Book of Lost Tales Part One, "VII. The Flight of the Noldoli", pp. 167, 172
  38. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Book of Lost Tales Part One, "X. Gilfanon's Tale: The Travail of the Noldoli and the Coming of Mankind", pp. 238-242
  39. 39.00 39.01 39.02 39.03 39.04 39.05 39.06 39.07 39.08 39.09 39.10 39.11 39.12 39.13 39.14 39.15 39.16 39.17 39.18 39.19 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Book of Lost Tales Part Two, "III. The Fall of Gondolin"
  40. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Book of Lost Tales Part Two, "II. Turambar and the Foalókë", p. 77
  41. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Book of Lost Tales Part Two, "IV. The Nauglafring", p. 241
  42. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Book of Lost Tales Part Two, "V. The Tale of Eärendel", pp. 253, 255, 257-258, 263
  43. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "Of Tuor and his Coming to Gondolin", "Notes", note 31
  44. 44.0 44.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, "The Alphabet of Rúmil & Early Noldorin Fragments", in Parma Eldalamberon XIII (edited by Carl F. Hostetter, Christopher Gilson, Arden R. Smith, Patrick H. Wynne, and Bill Welden), p. 102
  45. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Book of Lost Tales Part One, Appendix: Names in the Lost Tales – Part I, entry "Gondolin"
  46. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Shaping of Middle-earth, "III. The Quenta: [Section] 16", p. 143
  47. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Jewels, "Part Three. The Wanderings of Húrin and Other Writings not forming part of the Quenta Silmarillion: I. The Wanderings of Húrin", pp. 272-273
  48. 48.0 48.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Jewels, "Part Three. The Wanderings of Húrin and Other Writings not forming part of the Quenta Silmarillion: I. The Wanderings of Húrin", "Notes", p. 302, note 30
  49. Alexander M. Bruce, "The Fall of Gondolin and the Fall of Troy: Tolkien and Book II of The Aeneid", Mythlore 117/118, pp. 106-109