Amrod and Amras

From Tolkien Gateway
(Redirected from Ambarto)
Amrod and Amras
Noldor
"Amrod and Amras, sons of Feanor" by Jenny Dolfen
Biographical Information
Other namesPityafinwë and Telufinwë (Q, fn)
Umbarto/Ambarto and Ambarussa (Q, mn)
Minyarussa and Atyarussa (Q, epessë)
LocationEldamar, East Beleriand
AffiliationOath of Fëanor, Union of Maedhros
LanguageQuenya
BirthBetween Y.T. 1190 and 1362
Tirion
DeathF.A. 538
Third Kinslaying: Havens of Sirion
Family
HouseHouse of Fëanor
ParentageFëanor and Nerdanel
SiblingsMaedhros, Maglor, Celegorm, Caranthir, and Curufin
SpouseNever married
ChildrenNone
Physical Description
GenderMale
Hair colorCopper red
GalleryImages of Amrod and Amras

Amrod and Amras were Noldorin princes, the youngest of the seven Sons of Fëanor. They are most notable for being twins, greatly alike in mood and face, and of being hunters. They are among the least mentioned of the princes of the Noldor, with only six mentions each in the Quenta Silmarillion, and are almost always referred to jointly.

Throughout the majority of the legendarium, Amrod is noted as being the elder twin and Amras the younger. Only in a very late story, while working out the etymology of the names of the Sons of Fëanor, did Tolkien invert this and also gave Amrod a different fate. That story, however, was not incorporated into the published Silmarillion.

History

Life in Valinor

Amrod and Amras were twins, and the youngest of the seven sons of Fëanor and Nerdanel, born in Valinor during the Time of the Two Trees. They were both red-haired and alike in mood and face,[1] though the elder's hair colour grew darker, and he was more dear to his father. After childhood they were not to be confused.[2]

Fëanor and his sons abode seldom in one place for long, but travelled far and wide upon the confines of Valinor, going even to the borders of the Dark and the cold shores of the Outer Sea, seeking the unknown. Often they were guests in the halls of Aulë.[3]

During the unrest of the Noldor and the strife between Fëanor and his half-brother Fingolfin, Fëanor was banished from Tirion and took up residence in Formenos; he was followed by his father, King Finwë, and his sons.[4] Along with Finwë, the sons of Fëanor did not attend the high feast and were out riding when Formenos was attacked by Melkor and Ungoliant after the pair had killed the Two Trees. They attempted to return, but as they approached they were thrown from their horses and lay upon their faces, blind and without strength. Once the cloud passed and they could move again, they entered Formenos and found Finwë dead, the house ravaged, and the Silmarils stolen. They then sped to the Ring of Doom where Maedhros informed Manwë and, unknowingly, Fëanor who kept himself hidden during the conversation. Fëanor reacted by cursing both Melkor and the summons of Manwë, and then fleeing into the night; the sons of Fëanor followed him, dismayed that he might slay himself.[5]

Fëanor and his sons soon returned to Tirion where during a great speech by Fëanor, they took a terrible and blasphemous oath of enmity and vengeance against all or any who dares to claim any part or right in the Silmarils, and led most of the Noldor into exile. To obtain the ships needed to pursue Morgoth into Middle-earth, Fëanor's host seized them from the Falmari, killing many when they resisted, and thus came under the Doom of Mandos. After a long march northwards, the Noldor drew close to the Helcaraxë, a land bridge deemed impassable, and the narrow strait between Aman and Middle-earth they intended to sail. With too few ships remaining to ferry all the Noldor at once, and the fear of treachery between their houses, Fëanor and his sons stole away in them, abandoning the host of Fingolfin.[6]

Return to Middle-earth

After landing at the Firth of Drengist, and burning the ships to prevent any from sailing back, Fëanor's host traveled north and encamped on the northern shore of Lake Mithrim where they were attacked unaware by a host of Morgoth. In the battle that followed, Fëanor's forces were swiftly victorious, and pursued the routed orcs over the Mountains of Shadow into Ard-galen.[7]

Though Morgoth's assaulting forces were destroyed, Fëanor recklessly drew far ahead of his host in pursuit of the remnant orcs, and was ambushed and mortally wounded at the confines of Dor Daedeloth. He was rescued by his sons, and just before his death he laid it on them to uphold their oath and to avenge him. Shortly after, Maedhros was taken captive after feigning to treat with Morgoth.[7]

The host of Fëanor remained at northern shore of Lake Mithrim until the arrival of Fingolfin's host, having successfully crossed the Helcaraxë, with first sunrise in F.A. 1. To avoid open hostilities with Fingolfin's larger forces, the remaining sons of Fëanor relocated to the southern shore of Lake Mithrim.[8]

The hatred between the houses began to be assuaged in F.A. 5, when Maedhros was rescued by Fingolfin's son Fingon, and two years later the Noldor held a great common council where Fingolfin was chosen to be overlord of the Noldor. Maedhros subsequently waived his claim to the title, and shortly after relocated the House of Fëanor to East Beleriand. In F.A. 20, Fingolfin held the great Feast of Reuniting where the Elven houses, both Noldor and Sindar, pledged common cause against Morgoth.[9]

Deeds in Beleriand

Double by Lída Holubová

The great Elf houses soon settled around Morgoth's dwelling in Angband, laying it to siege. Amrod and Amras settled the region between the rivers Celon and Little Gelion where few folk dwelt, and took it as their realm and hunting-ground.[10] They became renown as great hunters of the woods, though not more than Celegorm,[11] and seldom came northward while the Siege lasted.[12]

In F.A. 310, Finrod discovered and befriended the House of Bëor, the first Men in Ossiriand.[13]:215-8 The presence of Men was of discomfort to the Green-elves who dwelt there though, and by Finrod's advice Bëor's people relocated to the lands of Amrod and Amras, upon the east banks of the Celon south of Nan Elmoth, near to the borders of Doriath; and the name of that land thereafter was Estolad.[14]

In F.A. 455, Morgoth broke the Siege of Angband with a massive assault against the Noldor. The defences of the Sons of Fëanor were breached and Caranthir fled and joined the remnant of his people to the scattered folk of Amrod and Amras, and they further retreated past Ramdal in the south. Upon Amon Ereb they maintained a watch and some strength of war, and they had aid of the Green-elves. The Orcs came not into Ossiriand, nor to Taur-im-Duinath and the wilds of the south.[15]

In F.A. 466, the mortal Beren and the Elf-maiden Lúthien succeeded in their quest to retrieve a Silmaril from the Iron Crown of Morgoth.[16] This victory caused Maedhros to believe that Morgoth was not unassailable; and understanding that Morgoth would destroy them all, one by one, if they could not again unite, formed the Union of Maedhros to oppose him in force.[17]

In F.A. 472, the Union of Maedhros launched their disastrous assault on Morgoth. During the battle, their host was scattered and all of the sons of Fëanor were wounded, though none slain. Gathering a remnant of their forces, they managed to hew their way out, and escaped towards Mount Dolmed. In the aftermath of the battle, the sons of Fëanor were greatly diminished, and took to a woodland life, mingling with the Green-elves of Ossiriand.[17]

In F.A. 503, Dior, son of Beren and Lúthien, became king of Doriath following Thingol's death in a dispute with the Dwarves over the great treasure, the Necklace of the Dwarves bearing a Silmaril, and Doraith's subsequent ransacking by the Dwarves. Dior wore the Silmaril openly, and used its power to restore the realm. In F.A. 505 the sons of Fëanor learned of the Silmaril in Doriath and, initially restrained by Maedhros, sent a message to Dior demanding its return, to which Dior sent no response. In late F.A. 506 Celegorm roused the brothers and in winter they attacked Doriath. While the Fëanorian's ended up holding the field, it was a hollow victory: they took heavy losses, including the deaths of Celegorm (by Dior's hand), Curufin, and Caranthir; and the Silmaril escaped, now borne by Dior's daughter Elwing.[18]

In F.A. 538, the remaining Sons of Fëanor, still seeking the Silmaril now borne by Elwing, attacked the Havens of Sirion in an effort to reclaim it.[19] During this battle, not only did Elwing again escape with the Silmaril, but both Amrod and Amras were slain.[20]

Etymology

Amrod is directly Sindarized version of the Quenya name Ambarto [amba ("up"; "upwards"; "top") + arata ("high"; "noble"; "exalted"; "lofty"; "excellent")].[2][21][note 1]

Amras is a directly Sindarized version of the Quenya name Ambarussa ("top-russet") [amba ("up"; "upwards"; "top") + russa ("red-haired"; "copper coloured")].[2][21][note 2]

Other names

Pityafinwë ("Little Finwë"),[note 3] shortened as Pityo, was the father-name of the elder-twin.[2]

Telufinwë ("Last Finwë"), shortened as Telvo, was the father-name of the younger-twin.[2]

Minyarussa ("First-russa") and Atyarussa ("Second-russa") were the names others called them by;[21] the twins themselves called each other Ambarussa.[2]

Umbarto ("Fated") is Quenya, the masculinzed form of umbar ("fate"); in Sindarin form it would have been Amarthan.[21] The name Ambarto/Umbarto was used by no one.[2] Details on this name are provided below.

Damrod was the name used for Amrod for most of the earlier Silmarillion material. It was the Noldorin translation of the Qenya name Nambarauto [namba ("to hammer") + rauta ("metal")].[note 4][22]

Diriel was the name used for Amras for most of the earlier Silmarillion material. It was Exilic Noldorin and derived from Old Noldorin Dirghel [dîr ("adult male" (of any race)) + gel ("joy"; "shout of triumph")].[22] The initial name, written in pencil and scarcely legible, was possibly Maithog or Mailweg; this was overwritten in ink with either Dinithel or Durithel.[23]

In The Earliest Annals of Valinor the translation of Damrod into Old English is given as Déormód ("brave-hearted"), and Díriel as Tirgeld [tír ("glory") + -geld ("gild", in names has meaning "of worth")]. They are collectively known as huntan ("the hunters").[24]

Genealogy

Mahtan
b. Y.T.
 
Míriel
d. Y.T. 1170
 
Finwë
d. Y.T. 1495
 
Indis
b. Y.T.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Nerdanel
b. Y.T.
 
 
 
Fëanor
Y.T. 1169 - 1497
 
Findis
b. Y.T.
 
Fingolfin
Y.T. 1190 - F.A. 456
 
Írimë
b. Y.T.
 
Finarfin
b. Y.T. 1230
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Maedhros
d. F.A. 587
 
Maglor
b. Y.T.
 
Celegorm
d. F.A. 506
 
Caranthir
d. F.A. 506
 
Curufin
d. F.A. 506
 
AMROD
d. F.A. 538
 
AMRAS
d. F.A. 538
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Celebrimbor
d. S.A. 1697
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Other versions of the legendarium

Early legendarium

In The Earliest Annals of Beleriand, from the fourth volume of The History of Middle-earth, Damrod (Amrod) and Díriel (Amras) were the Sons of Fëanor who resolved to win the Silmaril from the Havens, and subsequently ravaged Sirion; Maidros (Meadhros) and Maglor gave reluctant aid.[25] Christopher Tolkien states in his commentary that "Damrod and Díriel now emerge as the most ferocious of the surviving sons of Fëanor, and it is on them that the blame for the assault on the people of Sirion is primarily laid".[26]

Later legendarium

The Legend of the fate of Amrod

Ambarussa 2 by Ten Thousand Leaves

In The names of the Sons of Fëanor with the legend of the fate of Amrod, from the twelfth volume of The History of Middle-earth, the order of the twins was reversed, with Amras being the older and Amrod being younger.

Here, Nerdanel initially named both twins Ambarussa and, when Fëanor begged that their names should be different, she then provided Umbarto, though not to any twin specifically. Either disturbed by such an ominous name, or because he misheard her, Fëanor changed it to Ambarto and gave it as the mother-name to Telufinwë, the younger twin.

Later, after Fëanor's rebellion and as he was preparing his host for Exile and return to Middle-earth, Nerdanel approached him and begged that he should leave her youngest twin sons, or at least one of them. Fëanor rejected this, and stated that by deserting him (in not joining the Exile) she was deserting all their children as well. In anger Nerdanel retorted that he would not keep all of them, and one at least would never set foot on Middle-earth.

When Fëanor later stole the Telerian ships, abandoning Fingolfin's host, Telufinwë was shocked by the treachery. After landing in Middle-earth, Fëanor's host disembarked and camped on land, though Telufinwë remained on-board, claiming that he would not come ashore to sleep in discomfort. It is thought that it was in his mind to sail his ship back and rejoin Nerdanel.

Thus, the morning after Fëanor burned the Telerian ships, only six of his seven sons were to be found when his host was mustered. At that point Pityafinwë (Ambarussa / Amras) went pale with fear and asked Fëanor if he had roused Telufinwë who had not left the ship.

Fëanor guessed Telufinwë's purpose for remaining on-board and, hiding his dismay, answered that he destroyed that ship first. Pityafinwë then spoke: "Then rightly you gave the name to the youngest of your children, and Umbarto 'the Fated' was its true form. Fell and fey are you become." No one dared to speak again of this matter to Fëanor.[2]

Notes

  1. In Gnomish, Amrod has the meaning "wondering, living in the woods" [am ("upwards") + -ra (verb suffix)]
  2. In later writings, Ambarussa was Sindarized as Amros instead of Amras
  3. Tolkien amended this to Nityafinwë (also meaning "Little Finwë")
  4. Rauta was changed from it's original meaning of "copper"

References

  1. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of Eldamar and the Princes of the Eldalië"
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "XI. The Shibboleth of Fëanor", "The names of the Sons of Fëanor"
  3. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of Eldamar and the Princes of the Eldalië"
  4. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Silmarils and the Unrest of the Noldor"
  5. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Morgoth's Ring, "Part Three. The Later Quenta Silmarillion: (II) The Second Phase: Of the Rape of the Silmarils", §§7-12
  6. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Flight of the Noldor"
  7. 7.0 7.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Return of the Noldor"
  8. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Jewels, "Part One. The Grey Annals": §59
  9. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Jewels, "Part One. The Grey Annals": §61-72, p. 48
  10. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Lost Road and Other Writings, "Part Two: Valinor and Middle-earth before The Lord of the Rings, VI. Quenta Silmarillion", §111
  11. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Shaping of Middle-earth, "III. The Quenta: [Section] 3"
  12. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of Beleriand and its Realms"
  13. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Jewels, "Part Two. The Later Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Coming of Men into the West (Chapter 14)"
  14. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Coming of Men into the West"
  15. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Ruin of Beleriand and the Fall of Fingolfin"
  16. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of Beren and Lúthien"
  17. 17.0 17.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Fifth Battle: Nirnaeth Arnoediad"
  18. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Jewels, "Part Three. The Wanderings of Húrin and Other Writings not forming part of the Quenta Silmarillion: V. The Tale of Years", pg. 467-8
  19. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Jewels, "Part Three. The Wanderings of Húrin and Other Writings not forming part of the Quenta Silmarillion: V. The Tale of Years", p. 348
  20. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Voyage of Eärendil and the War of Wrath"
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 J.R.R. Tolkien, "From The Shibboleth of Fëanor" (edited by Carl F. Hostetter), in Vinyar Tengwar, Number 41, July 2000, p. 10
  22. 22.0 22.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Lost Road and Other Writings, Part Three: "The Etymologies", pp. 279-295
  23. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Book of Lost Tales Part Two, "IV. The Nauglafring": "Notes and Commentary", p. 245
  24. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Shaping of Middle-earth, "III. The Quenta: Appendix 1: Fragments of a translation of The Quenta Noldorinwa into Old English, made by Ælfwine or Eriol; together with Old English equivalents of Elvish names", p. 124
  25. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Shaping of Middle-earth, "VII. The Earliest Annals of Beleriand: [The first version of The Earliest Annals of Beleriand (Text AB I)]"
  26. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Shaping of Middle-earth, "VII. The Earliest Annals of Beleriand: Commentary on the Annals of Beleriand (text AB I)"