Umbar

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This article is about the Haven of Umbar. For the Quenya word, see umbar.
Umbar
Haven
Turner Mohan - Umbar.jpg
"Umbar" by Turner Mohan
General Information
Other namesCity of the Corsairs
LocationThe coasts of Middle-earth, to the south of Gondor and west of Harad
TypeHaven
DescriptionNatural harbour of enclosing rock used as a seaport
People and History
InhabitantsVariously held by the Númenóreans, the Black Númenóreans, the Gondorians, the Corsairs and the Haradrim
CreatedFirst fortified in S.A. 2280
EventsAr-Pharazôn captures Sauron
Kin-Strife
Corsair Wars
Surprise Attack on Umbar
GalleryImages of Umbar

Umbar was a realm[1] on the coast south of Gondor in Middle-earth. It was also the name of the great cape and land-locked firth[2] and of the natural haven[3] in this realm. It was probably also the name of a fortified city in this realm, because the name Umbar was used in conjunction with it being made into a great fortress,[4] it being laid siege to[5] or it being invested,[6], which implies a very small fortified area.

Geography[edit]

Umbar was located south of the mouth of the river Anduin at the Bay of Belfalas in a natural haven that was formed by a peninsula that extended west from the coast of the Belegaer sea and then bent to the south and almost touched the coast that lay to its south. This form of the coastline left only a narrow entrance to the natural haven. The City of the Corsairs was at the easternmost point of the bay of Umbar.[7]

Umbar was the nearest to Gondor of the realms of the Harad.[1] It is possible that the realm of Umbar stretched along the coast up to the river Harnen and along the river Harnen as far its source in the Ephel Dúath before it became a part of Gondor or after it became an independent realm again, because Westron was still the native tongue in this area at the time of the War of the Ring[8].

It is possible that Umbar had a climate that was fluctuating between mild winters and very hot and dry summers.[9][note 1] It is also possible that Umbar had a vegetation of sparse woodlands,[10] because Umbar seems to have had the natural resources to build a fleet of fifty great ships and smaller vessels beyond count that had attacked Pelargir during the War of the Rings[11] thirtynine years after Argagorn had burnt a great part of the ships of the Corsairs in the haven of Umbar[12].

History[edit]

Foundation and Númenórean Rule[edit]

It is possible that the bay of Umbar was discovered by Aldarion, the son of the Númenórean king Tar-Meneldur when Aldarion scarcely escaped shipwreck in the Harad during a voyage with three ships[13], which lasted from S.A. 829 to S.A. 843.[14] After Sauron heard that Aldarion had become a great shipbuilder who sailed his ships to haven far down into the Harad, he chose Mordor as a stronghold to counter the threat of landings by the Númenoreans.[15]

Until the end of the reign of the Númenórean king Tar-Minastir in S.A. 1869[16] the Númenóreans came to Middle-earth as teachers and friends of the local population.[17]

Approximately in S.A. 1800 the Númenóreans began to establish dominions on the coasts[18], which possibly already included Umbar. It is possible that the son of Tar-Minastir, Ciryatan sailed to Umbar, because he voyaged south before he took the sceptre from his father in S.A. 1869.[19]

During the reign of the Númenórean kings Tar-Ciryatan and Tar-Atanamir the Númenóreans oppressed the men of Middle-earth and levied heavy tribute from the men of the coasts and their ships brought back metals and gems from Middle-earth.[20]

During the reign of the Númenórean king Tar-Ancalimon,[21] Umbar was made into a great fortress of Númenor in S.A. 2280.[4]

During the dissension arising when the Shadow fell on Númenor, Umbar was the northernmost settlement of the King's Men; Sauron, after trying to break the waxing Númenórean grip by instigation, attempted to attack the Númenórean havens and forts, invaded their coastlands, but Umbar resisted.[22][23]

In S.A. 3261[24] King Ar-Pharazôn of Númenor landed at Umbar to challenge Sauron and journeyed seven days with banner and trumpet.[25] Umbar remained a symbol of Númenórean pride ever after.

While Sauron was in Númenor and the Shadow and dissidence became greater, Umbar was one of the fortresses and dwellings upon the coasts, inhabited by the King's Men and servants in Middle-earth to his will; these evil lords concentrated mostly to the south, far from the dominion of Gil-galad.[25] Umbar must have been an important point of deportation of slaves and taxes to Númenor.

After the Downfall of Númenor, Umbar remained in the hands of the Númenóreans, in essence a realm-in-exile alongside Arnor and Gondor. But unlike these others, Umbar had been used by the Black Númenóreans, who were not friendly to the Elves or to their fellow Faithful Númenórean survivors.

Two Black Númenórean lords, Herumor and Fuinur, were probably from Umbar, as at the end of Second Age they became very powerful amongst the Haradrim, a neighbouring people. No doubt, Númenóreans of Umbar were enlisted with Sauron in S.A. 3429. Their fate is unknown, but it is possible that they died during the War of the Last Alliance.

The fate of the other settlements of the Númenóreans further south of Umbar is unclear, but it is said that they were 'absorbed', and that no attempt was made to involve them in the wars. This could imply that they were simply too isolated, geographically and politically, and acting on their own behalf. Whatever befell them, they fell out of the picture of the West. [26]

Umbar as part of Gondor[edit]

Gondor's King Eärnil I repaired the haven of Pelargir, built a great navy and besieged Umbar by land and by sea.[5] In T.A. 933 he took Umbar.[27] Umbar was only taken at great cost, because its Black Núnmenorean inhabitants as descendants of the King's Men inherited their hatred of Gondor as a realm of the followers of Elendil[2] and probably defended Umbar vehemently because of that. As a result of the capture of Umbar by Gondor, the Black Númenorean lords of Umbar were driven from Umbar and Umbar became a great harbour and fortress of the power of Gondor.[5] Only three years later, in T.A. 936,[28] King Eärnil was lost at sea with many ships and men in a great storm off Umbar.[5]

Eärnil's son Ciryandil continued to build ships.[5] During his reign the Men of the Harad led by the Black Númenorean lords that had been driven from Umbar came with a large force and besieged Umbar.[29] In T.A. 1015 Ciryandil was killed in the siege of Umbar.[30]

The siege of Umbar lasted for many years, but Umbar could not be taken, because of the sea-power of Gondor[6], probably because Umbar could be resupplied and reinforced with ships from Gondor by sea. Ciryandil's son Ciryaher took enough time to gather an army and a navy, came down by land crossing the river Harnen and by sea and utterly defeated the Men of the Harad[6] in T.A. 1050.[31] As a consequence, Ciryaher took the name Hyarmendacil "South-victor" and the kings of the Men of the Harad had to acknowledge the overlordsip of Gondor. During his reign the realm of Gondor extended south to the river Harnen and along the coast to the peninsula and haven of Umbar and the sonst of the kings of the Harad lived as hostages in the court of king Ciryaher.[6]

After the capture of Umbar by Gondor, the Gondorians built a great white pillar on the highest hill of the headland above the Haven as a monument of the submission of Sauron to the Númenorean king Ar-Pharazȏn. The pillar was crowned with a globe of crystal that reflected the rays of the sun and the moon and shone like a bright star that could be seen in clear weather even on the coasts of Gondor or far out upon the western sea.[32]

When King Valacar of Gondor grew old there was already a rebellion in the southern provinces. Some of the Dúnedain refused to accept his son Eldacar as their future King, because Eldacar had been born in a foreign country, had been named Vinitharya in a foreign language in his youth and they feared that Eldacar would have a shorter life, because his mother, who came from a foreign country and who they perceived to be of a "lesser" race had only had a short life compared to the longer life of the Dúnedain.[33] After the death of King Valacar in T.A. 1432 a civil war, called the Kin-strife, began in Gondor.[34] The people of the great havens of Umbar and Pelargir and of the coasts supported the Captain of Ships, Castamir, who was one of those nearest by blood to the crown.[35] In T.A. 1437[36] Castamir deposed Eldacar, who fled to his kinfolk in Rhovanion.[35] Ten years later, in T.A. 1447[37] Eldacar returned from the north with a great army of Dúnedain from the northern parts of the realm and of Northmen, who had been in the service of Gondor and killed Castamir in a great battle at the crossings of the river Erui. However the sons of Castamir escaped to Pelargir and Eldacar besieged Pelargir[35] in T.A. 1447[37].

Corsairs of Umbar[edit]

In T.A. 1448,[38] after the sons of Castamir had gathered all the forces that they could in Pelargir, they sailed away to Umbar and established an independent lordship and a refuge for all enemies of the King of Gondor in Umbar.[39] It is possible that the rebels took their wifes and families with them to Umbar, because they had held out long with others of their kin in Pelargir and were able to gather people at Pelargir, because Eldacar had no ships to besiege Pelargir by sea. Umbar remained at war with Gondor for many lives of men and was a threat to the coastlands of Gondor and to all traffic on the sea. The region of South Gondor became a debatable land between the kings of Gondor and the Corsairs of Umbar.[39] As a result of the loss of Umbar the control of Gondor over the Men of the Harad decreased.[39]

After the Kin-strife often close relatives of the kings of Gondor who were suspected for treason or conspiring against the kings fled to Umbar and joined the rebels.[40]

In T.A. 1540, King Aldamir was killed in a war with the Harad and the Corsairs of Umbar.[41]

In T.A. 1551, his son[42] Hyarmendacil II defeated the Men of the Harad[43] and crushed Umbar.[44]

The leaders of the Corsairs of Umbar, Angamaitë and Sangahyando, the great-grandsons of Castamir, learned through spies that Minardil, the King of Gondor, was in the Gondorian port of Pelargir and that he did not suspect any danger, because his father had crushed Harad and Umbar.[44] In T.A. 1634,[45][46] the Corsairs of Umbar, led by Angamaitë and Sangahyando, made a raid up the river Anduin, killed Minardil in Pelargir[47], ravaged Pelargir and the coasts and escaped with great booty.[44]

During the reign of King Telumehtar, Minardil's great-grand nephew, the Corsairs raided the coasts of Gondor as far as the Anfalas. As a consequence, Telumehtar gathered his forces and took Umbar by storm[48] and drove out the Corsairs in T.A. 1810.[49] The last descendants of Castamir died during that war. After the reconquest of Umbar Telumehtar added the title Umbardacil (Umbar-victor) to his name.[48]

Umbar was again held for a while by the kings of Gondor, but was again lost in the new evils that soon befell Gondor and fell into the hands of the Men of the Harad.[48] It is possible that Umbar was held by the kings of Gondor at least until T.A. 1975. In T.A. 1899[50] King Calimehtar was free from other dangers when he led an army out of Ithilien to the plain of Dagorlad,[51] because the peoples of Harad were at this period engaged in wars and feuds of their own.[52] From T.A. 1899 to T.A. 1944 Gondor enjoyed a respite from war.[53] In T.A. 1944[54] during the war with the Wainriders, the Haradrim and the Men of Khand the southern army of Gondor was smaller, because the danger from the south was considered to be smaller,[55] because assistance from Umbar for an attack on Ithilien by enemies proceeding from Near Harad was not avaible.[56] In the autumn of T.A. 1973 King Eärnil II felt sufficiently secure to be able to send aid to Arthedain and sent an army of power for a war of great kings, although it was just a small force of the whole army of Gondor, on so many ships that they could scarcely find harbourage, although they filled the Grey Havens, Harlond and Forlond.[57] It seems unlikely that King Eärnil II would have felt sufficiently secure to send away such a large fleet from Gondor to the aid of Arthedain if he would have feared an attack on Gondor by ships from Umbar. It also seems unlikely that Gondor would not have been able to hold Umbar when it still had a fleet and a mighty army, because Umbar could not be taken in the past in the days of Ciryaher during a siege by the Men of Harad that lasted for many years, because of the power of the fleet of Gondor.[6]

Haradrim rule[edit]

During the reign of Steward Cirion (T.A. 2489-2567)[58], the Corsairs of Umbar attacked the coasts of Gondor.[59]

In T.A. 2746, the 15th Prince of Dol Amroth was killed by the Corsairs of Umbar.[60]

The Corsairs spent a long time to prepare a great fleet. In T.A. 2758 three fleets sailed from Umbar and Harad and landed at many places along the coasts of Gondor and even at the mouth of the river Isen[61] and at the mouth of the river Lefnui[62]. The troops from Umbar and Harad helped the Dunlendings who were led by Wulf, the son of Freca, a lord with wide lands on both sides of the river Adorn who was said to have much Dunlending blood and who had been killed by King Helm of Rohan, to invade Rohan from the west over the river Isen and down from Isengard.[62] Before the spring of 2759, Beregond, the son of Steward Beren defeated the Corsairs of Umbar and the Men of Harad that had invaded Gondor and subsequently sent troops to Rohan to help the Rohirrim to defeat the invaders.[61] As a result the Dunlendings were driven from Rohan and from Isengard.[63]

After the second arising of Sauron, Umbar fell under the domination of the servants of Sauron and the great white pillar that had been built on the highest hill of the headland above the haven by the followers of Elendil as a monument for the humiliation of Sauron by Ar-Pharazon was thrown down.[35] It is possible that those servants of Sauron were Men of the Harad, because Umbar had fallen into the hands of the Men of the Harad[48].

In T.A. 2980 Aragorn served Steward Ecthelion II as a captain in disguise under the name Thorongil, gathered a small fleet, attacked Umbar by night, burned a great part of the ships of the Corsairs, overthrew the Captain of the Haven in a battle upon the quays and then withdrew his fleet with small losses.[12]

War of the Ring[edit]

During the War of the Ring folk of Umbar and Harad had sailed up the river Gilrain to the city of Linhir and fought against men of Lamedon who defended the fords of the river. When Aragorn came to Linhir with the Army of the Dead both the defenders and the attackers fled to the east in the direction of Pelargir. The main fleet of Umbar consisting of fifty great ships and smaller vessels beyond count had sailed to Pelargir. Many of the rowing slaves that were chained to the oars of those ships were folk of Gondor that had been taken by the Corsairs of Umbar during raids. When the Army of the Dead reached Pelargir and came to the ships that were drawn up and to the ships that were anchored all the terrified mariners leaped overboard. Some ships had put off to try to escape down the river or to reach the far shore and many of the smaller craft were burning. Aragorn was able to capture the remaining ships, to man them with troops from Lebennin, the Ethir Anduin and Lamedon and to row and sail them up the river Anduin to relief the city of Minas Tirith from the siege by the troops of Sauron.[11]

After the War of the Ring the newly crowned king of the Reunited Kingdom, Aragorn, made peace with the peoples of Harad.[64] It is possible that king Elessar completely subdued Umbar[39] in a war on the far fields of the South with the aid of king Éomer and the cavalry of the Mark.[65]

Culture[edit]

Politics and rule[edit]

It is not known how the Númenórean colony of Umbar was ruled before the Downfall of Númenor when it was a stronghold of the King's Men who were afterwards called the Black Númenóreans. No "King of Umbar" is mentioned in the Annals of the Kings and Rulers after the Down fall of Númenor. It is possible that the Black Númenóreans regarded the Heirs of Elendil as usurpers. It is also possible that they did not decide on a new King as the successor of King Ar-Pharazôn, because they did not know if Ar-Pharazôn had survived the invasion of Aman and had achieved his desire of immortality there or had died in Aman or in the Drowning of Númenor.

It is not known, if Herumor and Fuinur, who rose to power among the Haradrim in the wide lands south of Mordor,[66] were rulers of Umbar.

In T.A. 1634 Angamaitë and Sangahyando were the leaders of the Corsairs of Umbar.[44]

At the time of the War of the Ring Umbar was occupied by hostile people whose lords were originally rebel Númenóreans and were currently pirates.[67] The names and the number of those lords who ruled Umbar during the War of the Rings are not known.

Language[edit]

In the course of the Third Age Westron had become the native language of nearly all Men that lived within the borders of the old kingdom of Gondor, including all along the coasts from Umbar northward and inland as far as the Ephel Dúath. At the time of the War of the Ring Westron was still the native tongue in this area.[8][68]

Other versions of the legendarium[edit]

The label "Havens of Umbar" is written below a bay that lies south of South Gondor near the bottom edge of the General Map of Middle-earth that was included in earlier editions of The Lord of the Rings. The City of the Corsairs lies at the easternmost point of the bay of Umbar on this map.[7]

Etymology[edit]

The origin of the name Umbar was forgotten. Umbar already received its name before the ships of the Númenóreans sailed the sea.[69] As a consequence, it is a name in one of the pre-Númenórean languages. Despite the coincidental similarity, the name Umbar is not related to the Quenya word umbar, which means fate.[70]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

Notes

  1. J.R.R. Tolkien wrote on his son's map of Middle-earth for Pauline Baynes that Umbar is approximately at the latitude of Cyprus and that Minas Tirith is approximately at the latitude of Ravenna, but more to the east near Belgrade. He wrote that these references are so that Pauline Baynes can roughly judge the climate and the fauna and flora for her map of Middle-earth. In addition, he wrote in a letter to Charlotte and Denis Plimmer that the city of Pelargir is approximately at the latitude of ancient Troy. Cyprus is on the same latidue as Tangiers, a city in northwest Africa at the southern entrance to the Mediterranean Sea.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Two Towers, "Of Herbs and Stewed Rabbit", statement of Damrod about Umbar, p. 659
  2. 2.0 2.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion", footnote concerning Umbar in the entry for king Eärnil I
  3. J.R.R. Tolkien, "Unfinished index for The Lord of the Rings", in Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (eds), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, p. 466
  4. 4.0 4.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Second Age", entry for the year 2280, p. 1083
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion", entry for King Eärnil I, pp. 1044-1045
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion", entry for King Ciryaher, p. 1045
  7. 7.0 7.1 Christopher Tolkien, General Map of Middle-earth
  8. 8.0 8.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix F, "The Languages and Peoples of the Third Age", first and second paragraph, p. 1127
  9. Karen Wynn Fonstad (1991), The Atlas of Middle-earth, pp. 182-183
  10. Karen Wynn Fonstad (1991), The Atlas of Middle-earth, pp. 184-185
  11. 11.0 11.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "The Last Debate", p. 875
  12. 12.0 12.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion", "The Stewards", entry for Steward Ecthelion II and entry for Steward Denethor II, Denethor II succeeded his father in TA 2984 four years after Thorongil departed from Gondor after the attack, p. 1055
  13. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "Aldarion and Erendis: The Mariner's Wife", in the first quarter of the chapter
  14. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "Aldarion and Erendis: The Mariner's Wife", "Notes", Chronology, first paragraph
  15. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The History of Galadriel and Celeborn", "Concerning Galadriel and Celeborn", ninth paragraph
  16. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Line of Elros: Kings of Númenor", entry XI Tar-Minastir
  17. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Númenor", entry after the entry for Tar-Minastir
  18. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Second Age", entry for the year c. 1800, p. 1083
  19. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Line of Elros: Kings of Númenor", entry XII Tar-Ciryatan
  20. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Line of Elros: Kings of Númenor", entry XII Tar-Ciryatan and entry XIII Tar-Atanamir
  21. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Line of Elros: Kings of Númenor", entry XIV Tar-Ancalimon
  22. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "VI. The Tale of Years of the Second Age"
  23. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "V. The History of the Akallabêth"
  24. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Second Age", p. 1084
  25. 25.0 25.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Akallabêth: The Downfall of Númenor"
  26. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Istari"
  27. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age", entry for the year 933, p. 1085
  28. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age", entry for the year 936, p. 1085
  29. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion", entry for King Ciryandil, p. 1045
  30. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion", entry for the year 1015, p. 1085
  31. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age", entry for the year 1050, p. 1085
  32. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion", entry for King Eldacar, p. 1047
  33. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion", entry for King Valacar, p. 1046
  34. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age", entry for the year 1432, p. 1086
  35. 35.0 35.1 35.2 35.3 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion", entry for King Eldacar, pp. 1046-1048
  36. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age", entry for the year 1437, p. 1086
  37. 37.0 37.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age", entry for the year 1447, p. 1086
  38. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age", entry for the year 1448, p. 1086
  39. 39.0 39.1 39.2 39.3 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion", entry after the death of Castamir, p. 1047
  40. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion", entry following the death of King Eärnur, p. 1052
  41. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age", entry for the year 1540, p. 1086
  42. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "The Realms in Exile", "The Southern Line: Heirs of Anarion", entry for Hyarmendacil II (Vinyarion), p. 1038
  43. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age", entry for the year 1551, p. 1086
  44. 44.0 44.1 44.2 44.3 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "VII. The Heirs of Elendil", manuscript C, The Heirs of Elendil, The Southern Line of Gondor: the Anarioni, 25. Minardil, p. 199
  45. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age", entry for the year 1634, p. 1086
  46. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "VIII. The Tale of Years of the Third Age", manuscript T4, entry for the year 1634
  47. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion", entry for King Telemnar, p. 1048
  48. 48.0 48.1 48.2 48.3 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion", entry for King Telumehtar, p. 1048
  49. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age", entry for the year 1810, p. 1086
  50. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age", entry for the year 1899, p. 1086
  51. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "Cirion and Eorl and the Friendship of Gondor and Rohan", "(i) The Northmen and the Wainriders", sixth paragraph
  52. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "Cirion and Eorl and the Friendship of Gondor and Rohan", "Notes", note 9
  53. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "Cirion and Eorl and the Friendship of Gondor and Rohan", "(i) The Northmen and the Wainriders", seventh paragraph
  54. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age", entry for the year 1944, p. 1086
  55. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "Cirion and Eorl and the Friendship of Gondor and Rohan", "(i) The Northmen and the Wainriders", eleventh paragraph
  56. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "Cirion and Eorl and the Friendship of Gondor and Rohan", "Notes", note 14
  57. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion", entry for King Eärnil II, p. 1050
  58. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "The Realms in Exile", "The Southern Line: Heirs of Anarion", Ruling Stewards, year after Boromir and year after Cirion, p. 1039
  59. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion", The Stewards, entry for Steward Cirion, p. 1053
  60. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "VII. The Heirs of Elendil", The House of Dol Amroth, entry for the 15th prince of Dol Amroth
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  62. 62.0 62.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The House of Eorl", entries about King Helm, p. 1066
  63. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The House of Eorl", entries about King Fréaláf, p. 1067
  64. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "The Steward and the King", p. 968
  65. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The House of Eorl", "The Kings of the Mark", Third Line, last paragraph, p. 1071
  66. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age"
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  70. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix E, "Writing", "The Fëanorian Letters", Note, The names of the letters, p. 1124
Route of the Fellowship of the Ring
Aragorn, Gimli and Legolas
Rivendell · Eregion · Caradhras · Moria · Lothlórien · Caras Galadhon · Anduin · Parth Galen · Amon Hen · Eastemnet · Fangorn Forest · Rohan · Edoras · Hornburg · Isengard · Dunharrow · Paths of the Dead · Gondor · Erech · Lamedon · Linhir · Lebennin · Pelargir · Minas Tirith · Osgiliath · Cross-roads · Ithilien · Dagorlad · Black Gate · Field of Cormallen · Cair Andros · Gondor · Minas Tirith · Anórien · Rohan · Edoras · Isengard
Boromir
Rivendell · Eregion · Caradhras · Moria · Lothlórien · Caras Galadhon · Anduin · Parth Galen · Amon Hen
Frodo and Sam
Rivendell · Eregion · Caradhras · Moria · Lothlórien · Caras Galadhon · Anduin · Parth Galen · Amon Hen · Emyn Muil · Dead Marshes · Black Gate · Ithilien · Henneth Annûn · Cross-roads · Morgul Vale · Stairs of Cirith Ungol · Cirith Ungol · Shelob's Lair · Tower of Cirith Ungol · Mordor · Morgai · Plateau of Gorgoroth · Mount Doom · Field of Cormallen · Cair Andros · Gondor · Minas Tirith · Anórien · Rohan · Edoras · Isengard
Gandalf
Rivendell · Eregion · Caradhras · Moria · Celebdil† · Lothlórien · Fangorn Forest · Edoras · Hornburg · Isengard · Rohan · Anórien · Gondor · Minas Tirith · Osgiliath · Cross-roads · Ithilien · Dagorlad · Black Gate · Field of Cormallen · Cair Andros · Gondor · Minas Tirith · Anórien · Rohan · Edoras · Isengard
Merry
Rivendell · Eregion · Caradhras · Moria · Lothlórien · Caras Galadhon · Anduin · Parth Galen · Amon Hen · Emyn Muil · Eastemnet · Fangorn Forest · Wellinghall · Derndingle · Isengard · Hornburg · Dunharrow · Drúadan Forest · Gondor · Minas Tirith · Anórien · Rohan · Edoras · Isengard
Pippin
Rivendell · Eregion · Caradhras · Moria · Lothlórien · Caras Galadhon · Anduin · Amon Hen · Parth Galen · Emyn Muil · Eastemnet · Fangorn Forest · Wellinghall · Derndingle · Isengard · Rohan · Anórien · Gondor · Minas Tirith · Osgiliath · Cross-roads · Ithilien · Dagorlad · Black Gate · Field of Cormallen · Gondor · Cair Andros · Minas Tirith · Anórien · Rohan · Edoras · Isengard