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Misconceptions have arisen and circulated over numerous concepts within J.R.R. Tolkien's legendarium as a result of mistakes made by secondary authors and of changes made by adaptations.

Beginning of the First Age[edit | edit source]

"The title of this second part, The War of the Jewels, is an expression that my father often used of the last six centuries of the First Age: the history of Beleriand after the return of Morgoth to Middle-earth and the coming of the Noldor, until its end."
Christopher Tolkien[1]
Timeline of Arda, by Mukarram Ali

In the Appendix B and the Quenta Silmarillion J.R.R. Tolkien never gives dates of the First Age. In works such as The Annals of Aman and The Grey Annals, Tolkien measured the First Age with the Years of the Trees (YT),[2] or the Valian Years (VY) and then Years of the Sun (YS),[3] respectively.

Robert Foster among other Tolkienists attempted to chronicle the First Age; by convention these sources use the Years of the Sun as "First Age" keeping a format similar to Appendix B. For example, the twentieth Year of the Sun is referred to as I 20 or F.A. 20, and the Tolkien Gateway also uses this format. It should be however pointed out that according to Foster's own remark the definition YS 1 would be more accurate than FA 1,[4] and that his text itself does not clarify when exactly the First Age began.[5]

Unfortunately, this convention creates the widespread misconception that F.A. 1 was the first year of the First Age, or its beginning, marked as such by the first sunrise. This led to the fanonical term "Ages of the Sun" and the misconception that the Ages measured from the first rising of the Sun. According to that definition, the First Age 'proper' followed the Years of the Trees and lasted only c. 600 years until the beginning of the Second Age.

However, in the Appendix F to the The Lord of the Rings J.R.R. Tolkien himself wrote explicitly that the Return of the Noldor to Middle-earth, which resulted from their Exile, took place at at the end of the First Age, thus meaning that the year labeled F.A. 1 was in fact placed near the end of that long Age;[6] in the same Appendix, there is also mentioned that the Orcs were first bred by Morgoth in the Elder Days,[7] i.e. in the First Age,[8] but this happened before Utumno was broken and demolished.[9] Furthermore, in The Annals of Aman Tolkien mentioned that the First Age (of the Children of Ilúvatar) began when the Elves awoke at Cuiviénen in Y.T. 1050,[10][11] while in the twelfth volume of The History of Middle-earth he also pointed out that the First Age was the longest (of all Ages),[12] as well as in his Letter 131 to Milton Waldman, where Tolkien described the First Age as long.[13] Additionally, in The Nature of Middle-earth Tolkien also described the First Age beginning with the Awakening of the Elves and ending with the Downfall of Angband.[14] Therefore, all of this signifies that the term 'First Age' is required to be expanded long before the first rising of the Sun, and indeed Robert Foster in his Complete Guide of Middle-earth undoubtedly defined events of the Years of the Trees following the Awakening of the Elves as an integral part of the First Age,[4] as well as both J.E.A. Tyler in his Complete Tolkien Companion and Paul H. Kocher in his Reader's Guide to The Silmarillion.[15][16] Karen Wynn Fonstad also attributed the events before the first rising of the Sun to the First Age in her Atlas of Middle-earth.[17][note 1]

It is quite possible that the term "Age of the Sun" was in fact "invented" by David Day,[18] a Canadian author whose books are widely criticized for their inaccuracies and misinterpretations of J.R.R. Tolkien's mythology.[19][20][21]

Book Misconceptions[edit | edit source]

The following are misconceptions that have arisen independently of adaptations, though adaptations may contribute to furthering them.

The Arkenstone was a Silmaril[edit | edit source]

The Arkenstone was a Silmaril, probably the one thrown into a fiery pit by Maedhros, and found its way (geographically?) to the north, to be rediscovered by the Khazad of Erebor.
  • Cause: There are several reasons for this assumption.
    • One reason is the presence of superficial similarities between the Arkenstone and the Silmarils, as both are great luminous jewels.
    • Furthermore, one of the Silmarils was said to have been thrown into a fiery pit. It is possible to interpret the Lonely Mountain as being an inactive volcano, and the Arkenstone as being said Silmaril.
    • A final reason is the appeal of connecting two parts of the Legendarium in a way that is emotionally satisfying, as the focal point of one story becomes the focal point of another.
      • In an interesting piece of trivia, Tolkien himself may have seen some parallels between the two concepts. In a partial translation of early Silmarillion texts into Old English Tolkien used the etymologically related term 'Eorclanstanas' ('holy stones') to translate 'Silmarils' - suggesting that he may have borrowed the name and other concepts from the Silmarils in describing the Arkenstone.
  • Reality: The Arkenstone is not a Silmaril. There are several reasons why this theory is incorrect.
    • First, Tolkien wrote that the two lost Silmarils would remain lost until the end of Arda[22]. The Dwarves finding one of them would contradict this.
    • Second, a Silmaril is a gemstone hallowed by Varda which would not suffer the touch of mortal or evil hands.[23] Many mortals handled the Arkenstone without consequence, and not all had good intentions. It would have burned them and possibly burned Smaug as well if it were truly a Silmaril. Only once was a full mortal allowed to touch a Silmaril: Beren, when he cut a Silmaril from the Iron Crown of Morgoth. And it was not without cost, as he would soon lose the hand that held it[24].
    • Third, it should be noted that Maedhros threw himself into a fiery pit with his Silmaril[25], while the Arkenstone was found deep within a mountain. Therefore, unless Erebor was of volcanic origin, it is practically impossible for the Arkenstone to be a Silmaril. There is no evidence to support Erebor being volcanic. In addition, while a volcano is the likeliest place for a "fiery pit" to appear, it is not explicitly stated that said pit is even near a volcano.

Arwen, the Lastborn of the Elves[edit | edit source]

Arwen was the last Elf born in Middle-earth.
  • Cause: This concept derives from being the youngest Elf whose birth is mentioned in the Tale of Years, and perhaps from publicity for the films.
  • Reality: There is no indication in any of Tolkien's works that Arwen is the lastborn elf, nor any indication that Elves had stopped having children after her birth.

Buckland Merges With the Shire[edit | edit source]

When King Elessar gave the Westmarch to the Shire in the Fourth Age, Buckland, an independent sliver of land, was also given to the Shire and was renamed "Eastmarch" to mirror the former.
  • Cause: This misconception originates from the Prologue to the Lord of the Rings, and is repeated in several reference books, such as Robert Foster's Guide[26] and Fonstad's Atlas.[27]
  • Reality: Tolkien's actual quote in the Prologue speaks about "the East and West Marches: the Buckland; and the Westmarch added to the Shire".[28] The semi-colon added here in the second British edition (1966) serves to indicate that the "addition to the Shire" refers only to the Westmarch. This is further supported by the Tale of Years, where the creation of the Westmarch is mentioned, but not the addition of Buckland.[29]

Buckland Renamed to Eastmarch[edit | edit source]

Sometimes Buckland is given the name of "Eastmarch" in various publications.[30][31]
  • Cause: This phenomenon likely arises from the name of "Westmarch" that Tolkien gave to the part of the Shire added by King Elessar in the Fourth Age.
  • Reality: In the prologue of The Lord of The Rings Buckland is called the "East March" in the sense of its geographic location[28], but the name "Eastmarch" is never used in the text. Furthermore, the region is typically still referred to as "Buckland" rather than "Eastmarch", and there is never an official renaming of the area.

Déagol/Sméagol Relationship[edit | edit source]

Déagol is Sméagol's cousin.
  • Reality: Tolkien only calls him Sméagol's friend in The Lord of the Rings, though in The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien he writes that Déagol was "evidently a relative (as no doubt all the members of the small community were)" of Sméagol’s.[32]

Dorwinion[edit | edit source]

Dorwinion was only mentioned in passing until it appeared on Pauline Baynes' A Map of Middle-earth (1969), where it was placed on the western shore of the Sea of Rhûn. According to popular belief, its location was not decided by Tolkien, but by Baynes at random.

Dorwinion is marked on the decorated map by Pauline Baynes, as a region on the North-western shores of the Sea of Rhun. It must be presumed that this, like other names on that map, was communicated to her by my father, but its placing seems surprising.
The Lays of Beleriand, "The Lay of the Children of Húrin"

  • Reality: Tolkien himself decided the final location of Dorwinion, not Baynes. Evidence that Tolkien worked with Baynes on the map may be found in the transcribed map discovered in 2015.[34] On said map, Dorwinion's name was written down by Tolkien and not Baynes.

Gil-galad's father[edit | edit source]

Fingon was Gil-galad's father
  • Cause: This is in truth not quite a misconception so much as an editorial mistake by Christopher Tolkien. JRR Tolkien indeed once considered Gil-galad to be the son of Fingon., as in The Grey Annals, and it is mentioned so in The Silmarillion.
  • Reality: Christopher Tolkien admitted that it was a rushed choice as in his father's final scripts Orodreth was Gil-galad's father, and Fingon had no wife: even in The Silmarillion, Fingon was succeeded by Turgon as High King of the Noldor instead of his "son".

Gwaihir is the Great Eagle[edit | edit source]

The (unnamed) Lord of the Eagles from The Hobbit is identified in the Lord of the Rings as Gwaihir, as they are the same person.
  • Cause: This interpretation is stated by Robert Foster[35] and perhaps originates from the meaning of Gwaihir's name, which translates as "Windlord".
  • Reality: Tolkien never states that Gwaihir was the Lord of the Eagles and King of All Birds. Furthermore there are some problems with conflating the two characters:
    • The Great Eagle of The Hobbit is said to wear a golden crown[36] after the end of the book, but Gwaihir is not wearing one.
    • Near the end of Lord of the Rings Gandalf mentions that Gwaihir has carried him twice [37] (once from Orthanc and once from Celebdil); if Gwaihir was the Great Eagle, that would make it at least three times.

Ingwë, Finwë, Elwë, and/or Círdan awoke at Cuiviénen[edit | edit source]

Ingwë, Finwë and Elwë, the three ambassadors of the Elves to Aman, and later Kings of their people, were among the first 144 unbegotten Elves who awoke at Cuiviénen. Círdan the Shipwright is sometimes thought to be among that number as well.
  • Cause: The three ambassadors are among the first Elves named in The Silmarillion. Círdan is by far the oldest Elf to appear in The Lord of the Rings. Thingol (Elwë) makes an ambiguous reference to his origins at Cuiviénen when confronting the Dwarves over the Nauglamir:

"How do ye of uncouth race dare to demand aught of me, Elu Thingol, Lord of Beleriand, whose life began by the waters of Cuiviénen years uncounted ere the fathers of the stunted people awoke?"
The Silmarillion, "Of the Ruin of Doriath"

  • Reality: The Silmarillion does not conclusively identify any named Elf as one of the Unbegotten. The only Unbegotten Elves who are named anywhere in the Legendarium are the three founding couples: Imin and Iminyë, Tata and Tatië, and Enel and Enelyë. The Grey Annals state that Oromë found the Elves 500 years after the Awakening, which leaves ample time for the births of multiple generations of Elves. We also have specific reasons for identifying each of these four Elves as having been begotten in the usual manner.
    • Elwë
      • The Last Writings state that Elwë was the elder brother of Olwë, and Unfinished Tales includes another younger brother, Elmo. Though it is possible for unbegotten persons to be brothers, as the Ainulindalë states "Manwë was the brother of Melkor in the mind of Ilúvatar," it would be strange for Unbegotten Elves who were brothers "in the mind of Ilúvatar" to be of differing ages.
      • All the Unbegotten Elves awakened alongside their spouses. Elwë did not meet his wife Melian until reaching Beleriand, so he cannot have been among the Unbegotten.
    • Finwë
      • Finwë's wife Míriel bore the mother-name "Serindë," meaning she had a mother. Therefore, neither she nor her husband could have been Unbegotten.
    • Ingwë
      • If Indis was the sister of Ingwë, as in the genealogy given in Later versions of the Story of Finwë and Míriel, neither can be Unbegotten, as Indis was the second wife of Finwë.
      • However, Indis' relation to Ingwë is not consistent in all material. The genealogy given in The Shibboleth of Fëanor states that Indis was niece of Ingwë through her unnamed mother, his sister. In this case it is possible for Ingwë and his unnamed sister to have been Unbegotten and yet siblings "in the mind of Ilúvatar," but this situation would be without precedent and unique among all known Elves.
    • Círdan
      • Círdan is never said to have a spouse, so he cannot be one of the Unbegotten.
      • Círdan is said to be kin to Elwë in The Silmarillion. There are only two ways for Elwë, who we know to have been begotten (see above), to be kin to an Unbegotten Elf:
      • First, for Elwë to be directly descended from Círdan. We can rule this out because Círdan is never said to have a spouse, let alone offspring.
      • Second, for Elwë to be descended from a sibling "in the mind of Ilúvatar" of Círdan. This requires the assumption of many facts not in evidence, including a spouse for Círdan.

Middle-earth is an underground world[edit | edit source]

Middle-earth is a world that exists inside the Earth, similar to the concept of "Hollow-Earth". Tolkien's stories are a kind of Subterranean fiction as they happen underground, at the center of the Hollow Earth.[38]
  • Cause: The misconception circulates mainly among the Greek audience and is explained by the Greek translation "Μέση-γη". Although the translation is accurate, the stem "μέσ-" can also be understood as inside by the occasional reader. The notion was popularised mainly by the Greek press, especially concerned with the occult or the paranormal. Those sources leave open the possibility that Tolkien possessed some esoteric or occult knowledge, whereas the fantasy races of Middle-earth are identified as the beings said to populate Agartha.
  • Reality: It is made clear in the Silmarillion that the Earth is called Arda floating in space with atmospheric layers such as Ilmen, Vaiya and Vista; and Middle-earth is a continent.[39] The term Middle-earth refers to "our earth" and is explained geographically as "surrounded by the ocean"[40] and not being inside something.

No Money[edit | edit source]

It is thought that Middle-earth is a utopia with no finance based economy.

Rings of Power for Non-Elves[edit | edit source]

The Elves of Eregion made specifically Seven Rings especially for the Dwarves, and Nine Rings for the Men. Occasionally it is believed that each group had its own powers to be used accordingly by Elves, Dwarves and Men. The Ring Verse ("...for the Elven-kings, ...for the Dwarf-Lords") indicates their purpose and destination as when Celebrimbor himself gave a ring to King Durin III[44].
  • Cause: This misconception likely arises from the wording of the Ring verse, as well as the way that the Rings of Power are referred to in distinct groups (i.e. Gandalf talking about the Seven, the Three, and the Nine at the Council of Elrond)
  • Reality: Nowhere in Tolkien's books is mentioned that the Seven and the Nine were different from each others nor that they were made for the Dwarves and Men. Everything shows that the Rings were mass-produced and were designed by the Elves for themselves. In addition, the Silmarillion states that it was Sauron who distributed the Seven and the Nine, not the Elves. The Ring that Celebrimbor gave to Durin was a notable exception, being the only one of the Seven or the Nine purposely intended for a non-Elf. Only the Three Rings were made uniquely.[45]

Tom Bombadil's house in the Old Forest[edit | edit source]

Various books[46][47][48][49] and Web sites[50][51][52] have said that Tom Bombadil lives in the Old Forest.

  • Cause: Not clear.

Misconceptions Caused by Adaptations[edit | edit source]

The following are misconceptions which have arisen primarily as a result of various adaptations of Tolkien's work, such as the movies created by Peter Jackson or the many games centered around Middle-earth.

Male Elves have short hair[edit | edit source]

Female Elves have Long hair and Male Elves have shorter hair.
  • Cause: Elves portrayed in adaptations including Peter Jackson's movies have been depicted as having long hair. There have been some debates, however that have sparked over whether Peter Jackson's portrayal is faithful to Tolkien or his own interpretation. Some artists have also portrayed Elves with short hair, adding to the confusion of whether Elves have long or short hair.
  • Reality: Even though there is a lack of clarity for all Elves having long hair there are many quotes by Tolkien implying that long hair on both male and female Elves was distinctive to Elves. There are definite examples of a few named Elves who did canonically have long hair. Both Elwë and Olwë had long hair, as well as Fingon.[54] Celegorm was also described as having long hair, in Quenta Silmarillion his hair is described as "golden was his long hair,"[55] explicity, although his hair is not mentioned in Of Beren and Luthien.[56] There is some evidence however on Elves collectively having long hair. The Teleri Elves are explicitly described by Tolkien to have long hair, "But most it was their wont to sail in their swift ships upon the waters of the Bay of Elvenhome, or to walk in the waves upon the shore with their long hair gleaming like foam in the light beyond the hill." The later Quenta Silmarillion part 1. History of Middle-earth vol 10.[57]
    • And regarding Finwë and the other Noldor, "Ingwë had curling golden hair. Finwë (and Míriel) had long dark hair, so had Fëanor and all the Noldor, save by intermarriage which did not often take place between clans, except among the chieftains, and then only after settlement in Aman. Only Finwë’s second son by Indis had fair hair, and this remained generally characteristic of his descendants, notably Finrod. Elwë and Olwë had very pale hair, almost white. Melian was dark, and so was Lúthien." from The Nature of Middle-earth - "Hair,"[58] Suggesting that the Noldor, including Finwë had long hair. There is also a note that, "all the Eldar had beautiful hair (and were especially attracted by hair of exceptional loveliness), but the Noldor were not specially remarkable in this respect, and there is no reference to Finwë as having had hair of exceptional length, abundance, or beauty beyond the measure of his people."[54] This does in fact imply that long hair was an attactive trait for Elves in particular, but the Noldor were not especially well known for it, and that Finwë's hair was no longer than other Elves.
    • Glorfindel's hair was grabbed by a Balrog when defending Gondolin. Glorfindel's hair must have been long enough for the Balrog to grab it.[59] Glorfindel clearly had long golden hair, "his golden hair flowed shimmering in the wind of his speed."[60]

The Eye of Sauron[edit | edit source]

After being separated from the Ring, Sauron lost his humanoid shape and turned into a great eye.
  • Cause: Sauron was portrayed as a giant eye wreathed in flame in the movies made by Peter Jackson. He was portrayed similarly in other adaptations such as the Fellowship of the Ring game for Playstation 2 and the 1980 Return of the King special by Rankin-Bass.
  • Reality: In Letter 246 Tolkien explained that "Sauron had a humanoid form, large, but not gigantic." In The Two Towers Gollum comments that Sauron had only four fingers on the Black Hand, which implies that Sauron had taken a humanoid form that somehow still bore wounds he had suffered in the War of the Last Alliance.

Gollum's age[edit | edit source]

Sméagol was born in the year 2430 of the Third Age, found the Ring on his 33rd birthday in 2463, and thus was 589 years old when he died in 3019.
  • Cause: 33 is the age a Shire Hobbit becomes officially an adult. Sméagol "found" the Ring on his birthday. The filmmakers evidently decided that the day Sméagol found the Ring was his 33rd birthday.
  • Reality: Sméagol was not a Shire Hobbit, but a Stoor, and these had different customs - Tolkien states that the Stoors of Rhovanion received, and did not give gifts on their birthdays (in Unfinished Tales, The History of Middle-earth and Letters); and T.A. 2463 as the date of the discovery of the Ring is an approximate, not a precise date. Thus, there is no exact indication of Gollum's age in Tolkien's books. See http://www.theonering.net/movie/char/smeagol.html

Hobbit feet[edit | edit source]

Hobbits have comparatively large, hairy feet.
  • Cause: Hobbit feet are portrayed so in several adaptations, such as illustrations by the Brothers Hildebrandt and the movies, where the feet are actually prosthetics.
  • Reality: Tolkien wrote: "their feet had tough leathery soles and were clad in a thick curling hair, much like the hair of their heads"[61]. However, Tolkien does not mention that the size of their feet is disproportionately large.

Legolas' age[edit | edit source]

Legolas is 2931 years old during the War of the Ring, and thus was born in T.A. 87.
  • Cause: This information also comes from film publicity and is never stated in the films or books. It may derive from the fact that Aragorn was born in the year T.A. 2931. The date of T.A. 87 for Legolas' birth agrees with another common fan theory, namely that Legolas was born during the period of peace at the beginning of the Third Age.
  • Reality: Tolkien never supplied a birthdate for Legolas.

Legolas' hair color[edit | edit source]

Legolas is blond.
  • Reality: Tolkien never specifies Legolas' hair color (although The Hobbit mentions that Thranduil, Legolas' father, was blond). Legolas' hair color is one of the most enduring controversies in Tolkien fandom.

Names of the Nazgûl[edit | edit source]

The names of all nine Nazgûl are known: Er-Murazor (the Witch-king of Angmar), Khamûl, Dwar of Waw, Ji Indur Dawndeath, Akhorahil, Hoarmurath, Adunaphel the Quiet (female), Ren the Unclean and Uvatha the Horseman.
  • Related misconception: one or more of the Nazgûl was a woman.
  • Reality: Tolkien consistently referred to the Nine as "Men" and "kings" throughout his texts, but there is enough ambiguity in context that the point could be argued.
"Men" as a descriptor of the human race includes women. "Kings" as used in the Ring-verse includes queens: "three rings for the elven kings," apparently including Galadriel.
In The Silmarillion, in Of the Rings of Power and The Third Age, Tolkien wrote "Men proved easier to ensnare. Those who used the Nine Rings became mighty in their day, kings, sorcerers and warriors of old." The preceding sentences relate to the effect of the rings on Dwarves, so "Men" likely means "humans" and not "males."
Since Tar-Aldarion changed the law of succession so that daughters could become ruling queens of Númenor, it is possible that women in Númenor could rise to positions of power, so it cannot be excluded that a Númenórean woman could be one of the three "great Lords of Númenórean race" that were among the Ringwraiths.
Peter Jackson's film adaptation The Fellowship of the Ring shows all nine Nazgûl as males at the time they received their Rings of Power.

Saruman, creator of Uruk-hai[edit | edit source]

Saruman is believed to be the creator of the race of Uruk-hai (Uruks), the larger, stronger breed of Orcs.
  • Cause: The misconception originates from the fact that Saruman perhaps created a race of Orc-men or Men-Orcs in his service[63]. This is visualized in The Lord of the Rings (film series) which further established this view. However the Orc-men are not the same as the Uruk-hai, which are instead the elite fighting force used by Saruman. The movie also established wrongly that "Uruk-hai" are a stronger race of Orcs, while in reality it is simply a Black Speech term for the Orcs proper themselves (excluding the Snaga).

Tengwar on Sting[edit | edit source]

The Sindarin words Maegnas aen estar nin dagnir in yngyl im are engraved on the blade of Sting. The words translate as "Maegnas (Sharp-point) is my name, I am the spider's bane".
  • Cause: The origin of this inscription is the depiction in the movies, where Sting is depicted as being engraved.
  • Reality: In the books, Tolkien describes Sting as a rather plain weapon with a simple leather sheath[65]. Unlike Glamdring and Orcrist, it bears no runes for Elrond to translate. It first receives a name from Bilbo Baggins after he uses it against the giant spiders of Mirkwood[66].

The War in the North[edit | edit source]

The War of the Ring included a "War in the North", which involved fighting in Eriador and around Rivendell.


  1. It is perhaps interesting that in their Reader's Companion to The Lord of the Rings both Wayne Hammond and Christina Scull also mistakenly identified the first sunrise wiith the beginning of the First Age, but later they corrected this: "p. 136, ll. 12–13 from bottom: For ‘only at the beginning of the First Age when the Sun first rose in the heavens’ read ‘when the Sun first rose in the heavens late in the First Age’."


  1. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Jewels, "Foreword"
  2. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Morgoth's Ring, "Part Two. The Annals of Aman: Second section of the Annals of Aman", p. 70
  3. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Jewels, "The Grey Annals": §3-53, pp. 5-30
  4. 4.0 4.1 Robert Foster, The Complete Guide to Middle-earth, Appendix A, pp. 553-557
  5. Robert Foster, The Complete Guide to Middle-earth, entry "First Age", p. 184
  6. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix F, "The Languages and Peoples of the Third Age", "Of the Elves", p. 1128
  7. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix F, "The Languages and Peoples of the Third Age", "Of Other Races", p. 1131
  8. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Index of Names", entry "First Age"
  9. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Coming of the Elves and the Captivity of Melkor"
  10. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Morgoth's Ring, "Part Two. The Annals of Aman: First section of the Annals of Aman", §10, p. 51
  11. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Jewels, "Part One. The Grey Annals", entry "VY 1050", §3, p. 5
  12. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "VI. The Tale of Years of the Second Age", p. 172
  13. J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 131, (undated, written late 1951): "Several tales of victory and tragedy are caught up in it; but it ends with catastrophe, and the passing of the Ancient World, the world of the long First Age."
  14. J.R.R. Tolkien, Carl F. Hostetter (ed.), The Nature of Middle-earth, "Part One. Time and Ageing: XVII. Generational Schemes", p. 123
  15. J.E.A. Tyler, The Complete Tolkien Companion, entry "First Age", pp. 242-247
  16. Paul H. Kocher, A Reader's Guide to The Silmarillion, Chronology of the First Age, pp. 252-264
  17. Karen Wynn Fonstad, The Atlas of Middle-earth, Introduction to the section "First Age"
  18. David Day, Tolkien: The Illustrated Encyclopedia, section "History", pp. 14-15
  19. "Recommended books on Tolkien", David Bratman's Home Page (accessed 21 January 2015)
  20. Steuard Jensen, "Notes on David Day's Tolkien Books", Tolkien Meta-FAQ (accessed 11 April 2012)
  21. "Tolkien Transactions XXXIII" dated 1 February 2013, Parma-kenta (accessed 21 January 2015)
  22. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Voyage of Eärendil and the War of Wrath"
  23. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Silmarils and the Unrest of the Noldor"
  24. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of Beren and Lúthien"
  25. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Voyage of Eärendil and the War of Wrath"
  26. Robert Foster, The Complete Guide to Middle-earth, entry "Buckland", p. 70
  27. Karen Wynn Fonstad, The Atlas of Middle-earth, entry "The Shire", pp. 69-72
  28. 28.0 28.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, "Prologue", "Of the Ordering of the Shire", p. 9
  29. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Chief Days from the Fall of Barad-dûr to the End of the Third Age", entry 1452, p. 1097
  30. Karen Fonstad, The Atlas of Middle-earth, p. 69, The Shire
  31. Michael Drout, J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia: Scholarship and Critical Assessment, p. 607
  32. J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 214, (undated, written late 1958 or early 1959)
  33. Did Pauline Baynes Choose the Location of Dorwinion?
  34. https://www.tolkiensociety.org/2015/11/tolkiens-annotated-map-of-middle-earth-transcribed/
  35. The Complete Guide to Middle-earth entry "Gwaihir"
  36. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit, "Queer Lodgings"
  37. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "The Field of Cormallen"
  38. Example article in a Greek occult forum
  39. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Ainulindalë: The Music of the Ainur"
  40. Dennis Gerrolt, Tolkien's interview to BBC, 1971
  41. The Complete Guide to Middle-earth, entry "Money"
  42. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "At the Sign of the Prancing Pony" p. 179
  43. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "II. The Appendix on Languages", manuscript F2 with alterations, On Translation, paragraph $41
  44. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age"
  45. FAQ of the Rings: How did the Seven and the Nine differ? and Were the Seven and Nine Rings originally intended for Dwarves and Men?
  46. Madeline Evelyn Wright, “The Vision of Cosmic Order in the Oxford Mythmakers”, in Charles A. Huttar, ed., ‘’Imagination and the Spirit; Essays in Literature and the Christian Faith, Presented to Clyde S. Kilby’’, p. 265
  47. Christopher A. Snyder, ‘’The Making of Middle-earth: A New Look Inside the World of J.R.R. Tolkien, entry “Tom Bombadil”, p. 132.
  48. Agnes Perkins and Helen Hill, “The Corruption of Power”, in Jared Lobdell, ed., ‘’A Tolkien Compass’’, second edition (2003). p. 59.
  49. Dr. N. Ravikumar, ‘’J. R. R. Tolkien: A Critical Study’’, p. 208
  50. Matthew Lyons, "Find the inspiration for The Lord of the Rings and the The Hobbit in the British countryside”, BBC Countryfile.
  51. Tedoras, “Tom Bombadil - Master and Mystery”, TheOneRing.net
  52. The Lord of the Rings - Other Characters, TVTropes
  53. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "The Old Forest"
  54. 54.0 54.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "XI. The Shibboleth of Fëanor"
  55. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Lost Road and Other Writings, "Part Two: Valinor and Middle-earth before The Lord of the Rings, VI. Quenta Silmarillion"
  56. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of Beren and Lúthien"
  57. The later Quenta Silmarillion part 1. History of Middle-earth vol 10.
  58. The Nature of Middle-earth - "Hair
  59. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Book of Lost Tales Part Two, "III. The Fall of Gondolin"
  60. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "Flight to the Ford"
  61. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, "Prologue" p.3
  62. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Hunt for the Ring", "(i) Of the Journey of the Black Riders"
  63. http://tolkien.slimy.com/faq/Creatures.html#Urukhai
  64. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A
  65. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit, "Roast Mutton"p. 42
  66. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit, "Flies and Spiders"p. 156
  67. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "Homeward Bound" p. 992
  68. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "Durin's Folk" p. 1080