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|Born||3 January, 1892|
|Died||2 September, 1973|
(aged 81 years)
|Education||University of Oxford|
|Website||Tolkien: The official site of the Tolkien Estate|
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, CBE, (3 January, 1892 – 2 September, 1973) was a philologist and writer, best known as the author of The Hobbit and its sequel The Lord of the Rings. He worked as reader and professor in English language at the University of Leeds from 1920 to 1925; as professor of Anglo-Saxon language at the University of Oxford from 1925 to 1945; and of English language and literature from 1945 until his retirement in 1959. Tolkien was a close friend of C.S. Lewis, and a member of the Inklings, a literary discussion group to which both Lewis and Owen Barfield belonged.
Tolkien created a legendarium, a fictional mythology about the remote past of Earth, of which Middle-earth in particular is the main stage. Parts of his legendarium are The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. The Silmarillion and The History of Middle-earth series (published by his son, Christopher Tolkien, posthumously) revealed Tolkien's lifelong work on that same legendarium, a process which he called "sub-creation". Tolkien's other published works includes philological essays, modern adaptations of medieval literature and rendering of stories originally told to his children but not directly related to the legendarium.
Biography[edit | edit source]
Family ancestry[edit | edit source]
- See also: Tolkien Family
Many of Tolkien's paternal ancestors were craftsmen. According to Tolkien's own understanding, the Tolkien family had its roots in Saxony (present-day Germany), but had been living in England since the 18th century, becoming "quickly and intensely English (not British)". The surname Tolkien is anglicised from Tollkiehn (i.e. German: tollkühn, "foolhardy", the etymological English calque would be "dull-keen", a literal translation of "oxymoron").
Childhood[edit | edit source]
Tolkien was born on January 3, 1892, in Bloemfontein in the Orange Free State (now the Free State province of South Africa) to Arthur Reuel Tolkien (1857 – 1896), an English bank manager, and his wife Mabel, née Suffield (1870 – 1904). Tolkien had one sibling, his younger brother, Hilary Arthur Reuel, who was born on February 17, 1894. He was addressed by his family as “Ronald” as it has no history of use in the Tolkien family.
While living in Africa he was bitten by a large 'baboon spider', and this echoes in his stories. However, Tolkien said that he did not develop a particular fear of spiders after this event, and, when he was older, recalled picking small spiders up and putting them outside.
When he was three, Tolkien went to England with his mother and brother on what was intended to be a lengthy family visit. His father, however, died in South Africa of a severe brain haemorrhage before he could join them. This left the family without an income, so Tolkien's mother took him to live with her parents in Birmingham, England. Soon after in 1896, they moved to Sarehole (now in Hall Green), then a Worcestershire village, later annexed to Birmingham. He enjoyed exploring Sarehole Mill and Moseley Bog and the Clent Hills and Lickey Hills, which would later inspire scenes in his books along with other Worcestershire towns and villages such as Bromsgrove, Alcester and Alvechurch and places such as his aunt's farm of Bag End, the name of which would be used in his fiction.
Mabel tutored her two sons, and Ronald, as he was known in the family, was a keen pupil. She taught him a great deal of botany, and she awoke in her son the enjoyment of the look and feel of plants. Young Tolkien liked to draw landscapes and trees. But his favourite lessons were those concerning languages, and his mother taught him the rudiments of Latin very early. He could read by the age of four, and could write fluently soon afterwards. He attended King Edward's School, Birmingham and, while a student there, helped "line the route" for the coronation parade of King George V, being posted just outside the gates of Buckingham Palace. He later attended St. Philip's School and Exeter College, Oxford.
His mother converted to Roman Catholicism in 1900, despite vehement protests by her Baptist family. She died of diabetes in 1904, when Tolkien was twelve, at Fern Cottage, Rednal, which they were then renting. For the rest of his life, Tolkien felt that she had become a martyr for her faith; this had a profound effect on his own Catholic beliefs. Tolkien's devout faith was significant in the conversion of C.S. Lewis to Anglicanism.
During his subsequent orphanhood he was brought up by Father Francis Xavier Morgan of the Birmingham Oratory, in the Edgbaston area of Birmingham. He lived there in the shadow of Perrott's Folly and the Victorian tower of Edgbaston waterworks, which may have influenced the images of the dark towers within his works. Another strong influence was the romantic medievalist paintings of Edward Burne-Jones and the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood; the Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery has a large and world-renowned collection of works and had put it on free public display from around 1908.
Youth[edit | edit source]
Tolkien met and fell in love with Edith Mary Bratt, three years his senior, at the age of sixteen. Father Francis forbade him from meeting, talking, or even corresponding with her until he was twenty-one. He obeyed this prohibition to the letter.
In 1911, while they were at King Edward's School, Birmingham, Tolkien and three friends, Robert Gilson, Geoffrey Bache Smith and Christopher Wiseman, formed a semi-secret society which they called "the T.C.B.S.", the initials standing for "Tea Club and Barrovian Society", alluding to their fondness of drinking tea in Barrow's Stores near the school and, illegally, in the school library. After leaving school, the members stayed in touch, and in December 25 1914, they held a "Council" in London, at Wiseman's home. For Tolkien, the result of this meeting was a strong dedication to writing poetry.
In the summer of 1911, Tolkien went on holiday in Switzerland, a trip that he recollects vividly in a 1968 letter, noting that Bilbo's journey across the Misty Mountains ("including the glissade down the slithering stones into the pine woods") is directly based on his adventures as their party of twelve hiked from Interlaken to Lauterbrunnen, and on to camp in the moraines beyond Mürren. Fifty-seven years later, Tolkien remembers his regret at leaving the view of the eternal snows of Jungfrau and Silberhorn ("the Silvertine (Celebdil) of my dreams"). They went across the Kleine Scheidegg on to Grindelwald and across the Grosse Scheidegg to Meiringen. They continued across the Grimsel Pass and through the upper Valais to Brig, and on to the Aletsch glacier and Zermatt.
On the evening of his twenty-first birthday (1913), Tolkien wrote to Edith a declaration of his love and asked her to marry him. She replied saying that she was already engaged, but had done so because she had believed Tolkien had forgotten her. The two met up and beneath a railway viaduct renewed their love, with Edith returning her ring and choosing to marry Tolkien instead. A condition of their engagement was that she was to convert to Catholicism for him. They were engaged in Birmingham, in January 1913.
With his childhood love of landscape, he visited Cornwall in 1914 and he was said to be deeply impressed by the singular Cornish coastline and sea.
By late 1914, his final year at the University of Oxford, he joined the Officer's Training Corps.. After his graduation (Exeter College, Oxford) with a first-class degree in English language in 1915, Tolkien joined the British Army effort in World War I. In late '15 he received military training at Rugeley Camp in Staffordshire and served as a second lieutenant in the eleventh battalion of the Lancashire Fusiliers.
Tolkien married Edith in Warwick, England, on March 22, 1916 before leaving for the War. His battalion was moved to France in 1916, where Tolkien served as a communications officer during the Battle of the Somme, until he came down with trench fever on October 27, and was moved back to England on November 8. Many of his fellow servicemen, as well as many of his closest friends, were killed in the war. During his recovery in a cottage in Great Haywood, Staffordshire, England, he began to work on what he called The Book of Lost Tales, beginning with The Fall of Gondolin. Throughout 1917 and 1918 his illness kept recurring, but he had recovered enough to do home service at various camps, and was promoted to lieutenant. When he was stationed at Thirtle Bridge, East Yorkshire, one day he and Edith went walking in the woods at nearby Roos, and Edith began to dance for him in a clearing thick with hemlock plants in bloom. This incident inspired the account of the meeting of Beren and Lúthien, and Tolkien often referred to Edith as his Lúthien.
Tolkien and Edith had four children: John Francis Reuel (November 16, 1917 - January 22, 2003), Michael Hilary Reuel (October 22, 1920 - February 27, 1984), Christopher John Reuel (November 21, 1924 - 16 January, 2020) and Priscilla Anne Reuel (June 18, 1929 - February 28, 2022).
Leeds and Oxford[edit | edit source]
Tolkien's first civilian job after World War I was at the Oxford English Dictionary (among others, he initiated the entries "wasp" and "walrus"). In 1920 he took up a post as Reader in English language at the University of Leeds, and in 1924 was made a professor there. The start was rough: though Gordon found Tolkien a room in Leeds, Edith and young John still lived in Oxford. In weekends, Tolkien would go to his family - now expanded with the birth of Michael. Not until 1921 did Tolkien get full housing for his family, first at 5 Holly Bank and then at 11 St. Mark's Terrace. They later moved to 2 Darnley Road.
Since 1920, Tolkien dedicated his time, even vacations, to finding extra work to supplement his family's income, especially for doctor bills[note 1] and educate his children. He "stole" some free time for himself and his personal hobby of writing his own mythology.
W. A. Craigie resigned from the post of Rawlinson and Bosworth Professorship of Anglo-Saxon at the Oxford English School, and Tolkien wrote a letter expressing his desire to return there which he died in 1925.
Tolkien assisted Sir Mortimer Wheeler in the unearthing of a Roman Asclepieion at Lydney Park, Gloucestershire, in 1928. During his time at Pembroke, Tolkien wrote The Hobbit and the first two volumes of The Lord of the Rings. Of Tolkien's academic publications, the 1936 lecture "Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics" had a lasting influence on Beowulf research.
Lord of the Rings[edit | edit source]
- See also: The Lord of the Rings#Writing process
The success of The Hobbit and a request for its sequel, was an oportunity to combine his personal desire for writing, and financial needs, and agreed on writing a sequel.
In the turn of 1939, and in the midst of writing the Lord of the Rings, Tolkien faced financial stress and was obliged to do exams and lectures: his son, Michael was preparing for university, and Christopher, being home-schooled for health reasons, wanted to go to school. In the summer of that year, while gardening, Tolkien fell and suffered a concussion which required stitches; he was unwell for some time:p. xxi and this, along with his fatigue, worries, obligations, Edith's illness, his loss of his chief assistant and understudy, prevented him from continuing his writing, including a foreword to Beowulf as had promised. At the outbreak of WWII, his academic duties increased. Juggling between work, "Civil Defence" and writing in intervals, he doubted that, because of the War, completing the book had any use. Failing to progress during Christmas vacations, he resumed only two years later. It was the enthusiasm of his friends and Christopher (to whom he was sending copies by mail to South Africa) who encouraged him to continue.:p. xxv
In 1945, he moved to Merton College, Oxford, becoming the Merton Professor of English Language and Literature, in which post he remained until his retirement in 1959. In 1946 he faced fatigue from academic work and an illness, and although he recovered, and was free from examining work, he had to deal with a "mountain of neglects".
Tolkien spent the late summer (August-September) of 1948, at the home of Michael at Payables Farm, Woodcote. As Michael and his family were on holidays, Tolkien found the time and quiet he needed to finish Lord of the Rings, close to a decade after the first sketches.:p. xxvii
After a disagreement with Allen and Unwin concerning "The Silmarillion", and failing to reach an agreement with Collins, he settled the dispute with the Unwins. He reported to Rayner Unwin that he had been unwell (having recovered from "a terrible bout" of fibrositis and neuritis of the arm) burdened and downhearted. In the prospect of a nearing retirement of poverty, during which he would work as an examiner to survive, and the raising paper costs, he had modified his views ("Better something than nothing!"). Tolkien readily agreed to the 'profit-sharing' arrangement, where Tolkien would not receive an advance or royalties until the books had broken even. Between 1953 and 1955 Tolkien worked closely with Allen & Unwin on production of The Lord of the Rings, agreeing on the division of volumes, their titles, correcting proofs that arrived at intervals, complete and correct artwork, the maps and the dust-jacket designs.:p. xxxiv
Later life and recognition[edit | edit source]
During the 1950s, Tolkien spent many of his long academic holidays at the home of his son John Francis in Stoke-on-Trent.
In 1959 Tolkien went to compulsory retirement, which he found "both distressing, and extremely laborious", especially with the less than desirable pension. For him, 1963 was a "dreadful year", including the death of C.S. Lewis (22 November), an illness that prevented Tolkien and Edith to celebrate Christmas, and after that, Faith Faulconbridge leaving Christopher; Tolkien expressed "fear they have left their allegiance to our Mother [the Church]". In the 1960s he complained about the effects of old age, and other difficulties and anxieties, some of which were caused by his own family.
By the time of his retirement, Tolkien increasingly turned into a figure of public attention and literary fame. The sale of his books was so profitable that Tolkien regretted he had not taken early retirement. While at first he wrote enthusiastic answers to reader inquiries, he became more and more suspicious of emerging Tolkien fandom, especially among the hippy movement in the USA.
Fan attention became so intense that, with Joy Hill's suggestion, Tolkien had to take his phone number out of the public directory,[source?] and eventually he and Edith moved to Woodridings in Branksome, Poole near Bournemouth to escape his fame in Oxford. In June 1968, while preparing to move house, Tolkien fell down a set of stairs and had to stay in an Oxford hospital, leaving behind his obligations. He was expected to use crutches for all summer. The couple lived in Poole until Edith's death in November 1971. The widowed professor moved back Oxford, 21 Merton Street in March 1972.
Tolkien had an intense dislike for the side effects of industrialization, which he considered a devouring of the English countryside. For most of his adult life he eschewed automobiles, preferring to ride a bicycle. This attitude is perceptible from some parts of his work, such as the forced industrialization of The Shire in The Lord of the Rings.
W.H. Auden was a frequent correspondent and long-time friend of Tolkien's, initiated by Auden's fascination with The Lord of the Rings: Auden was among the most prominent early critics to praise the work. Tolkien wrote in a 1971 letter,
I am [...] very deeply in Auden's debt in recent years. His support of me and interest in my work has been one of my chief encouragements. He gave me very good reviews, notices and letters from the beginning when it was by no means a popular thing to do. He was, in fact, sneered at for it.
In a 1972 letter he deplores having become a cult-figure, but admits that
Edith Tolkien died on November 29, 1971, at the age of eighty-two, and Tolkien had the name Lúthien engraved on the stone at Wolvercote Cemetery, Oxford. When Tolkien died 21 months later of pneumonia on September 2, 1973, at the age of 81, he was buried in the same grave, with Beren added to his name, so that the engraving now reads:
- Edith Mary Tolkien, Lúthien, 1889 – 1971
- John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, Beren, 1892 – 1973
Posthumously named after Tolkien are the Tolkien Road in Eastbourne, East Sussex, and the asteroid 2675 Tolkien. Tolkien Way in Stoke-On-Trent is named after J.R.R.'s son Father John Francis Tolkien, who used to be the priest in charge at the nearby Roman Catholic Church of Our Lady of the Angels and St. Peter in Chains.
Appearance[edit | edit source]
The early images of J.R.R. Tolkien in school and university show a serious young man, average height, slender, clean-shaven, and with his hair parted in the middle.
At school he was considered too light for the rugby team, and in order to join he tried to make it up with ferocity during the game, and eventually he was accepted.
By 1916 and Tolkien had joined the army he had changed to a more conventional haircut, as well as a moustache for a short period of time.
Richard Plotz, who visited Tolkien in 1966, described him as
...a medium-sized man ... [who] looks much younger than his seventy-four years. Like one of his creations, the Hobbits, he is a bit fat in the stomach ...
—"J.R.R. Tolkien Talks about the Discovery of Middle-earth, the Origins of Elvish", Seventeen (January 1967), p. 92
In a letter on February 8th, 1967, to interviewers Charlotte and Denis Plimmer, Tolkien stated that he was not "tall, or strongly built. I now measure 5 ft 8 1/2, and am slightly built, with notably small hands. For most of my life I have been very thin and underweight. Since my early sixties I have become 'tubby'. Not unusual in men who took their exercise in games and swimming, when opportunities for these things cease". In "The Man Who Understands Hobbits" (Daily Telegraph Magazine, 22 March 1968), the Plimmers also noted that Tolkien had 'grey eyes, firm tanned skin, silvery hair and quick decisive speech'.
During Tolkien's time at King Edward's School he was noted for his choice in coloured socks.
Clyde S. Kilby, who spent some time with Tolkien in the summer of 1966, noted that he "was always neatly dressed from necktie to shoes. One of his favourite suits was a herringbone with which he wore a green corduroy vest [waistcoat]. Always there was a vest, and nearly always a sport coat. He did not mind wearing a very broad necktie which in those days was out of style".
Tolkien had a particular liking for decorative waistcoats: he told one correspondent that he had "one or two choice embroidered specimens, which I sometimes wear when required to make a speech, as I find they so fascinate the eyes of the audience that they do not notice if my dentures become a little loose with excitements of rhetoric" (from a letter to Nancy Smith, 25 December 1963.
Interviewers have noted that Tolkien almost clung to his smoking pipe, cradling it in his hand, or speaking with it in his mouth, sometimes making him difficult to understand. One of these, Richard Plotz, wrote that Tolkien "took out a pipe as he entered his study, and all during the interview he held it clenched in his teeth, lighting and relighting it, talking through it; he never removed it from his mouth for more than five seconds" ('J.R.R. Tolkien Talks...', p. 92).
Character, personality, views[edit | edit source]
- See also: Christianity
Tolkien attempted to describe himself for Deborah Webster:
- "I am in fact a Hobbit (in all but size). I like gardens, trees and unmechanized farmlands; I smoke a pipe, and like good plain food (unrefrigerated), but detest French cooking; I like, and even dare to wear in these dull days, ornamental waistcoats. I am fond of mushrooms (out of a field); have a very simple sense of humour (which even my appreciative critics find tiresome); I go to bed late and get up late (when possible). I do not travel much. I love Wales (what is left of it, when mines, and the even more ghastly sea-side reasons, have done their worst), and especially the Welsh language. But I have not in fact been in W. for a long time (except for crossing it on the way to Ireland). I go frequently to Ireland (Eire: Southern Ireland) being fond of it and of (most of) its people; but the Irish language I find wholly unattractive."
- ― Letter 213
Tolkien had an intense dislike for the side effects of industrialization, which he considered a devouring of the English countryside. For most of his adult life he eschewed automobiles, preferring to ride a bicycle. This attitude is perceptible from some parts of his work, such as the forced industrialization of The Shire in The Lord of the Rings.
In retrospect, Tolkien claimed that from the age of seven or eight, two interests dominated his subsequent perception about everything: elves and orcs.[note 2] Throughout his life he collected every detail related to it, which, along with the "Atlantis complex" dream, was the embryo of his Legendarium.
Jesting on the name of Puffin Books, Tolkien said he disliked penguins and puffins for eating other birds's eggs. He considered that Siamese cats "belong to the fauna of Mordor" He also disliked spiders although not that much as to kill them. He refused that this has anything to do with being bitten by a tarantula as a toddler.
Tolkien was insecure and lacked confidence in his own work, even when he was assured that it had value for others. Father Robert Murray, Tolkien's personal friend, considered the professor "a complex and depressed man" and his work "projects his very depressed view of the universe". Some analysts consider Tolkien's personality as an Assertive Mediator (INFP).
Politically, Tolkien a peaceful anarchist apolitical stance.
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Writing[edit | edit source]
Beginning with The Book of Lost Tales, written while recuperating from illness during World War I, Tolkien devised several themes that were reused in successive drafts of his legendarium. The two most prominent stories, the tales of Beren and Lúthien and that of Túrin, were carried forward into long narrative poems (published in The Lays of Beleriand). Tolkien wrote a brief summary of the mythology these poems were intended to represent, and that summary eventually evolved into "The Silmarillion", an epic history that Tolkien started three times but never published. The story of this continuous redrafting is told in the posthumous series The History of Middle-earth. From around 1936, he began to extend this framework to include the tale of The Fall of Númenor, which was inspired by the legend of Atlantis.
Tolkien was strongly influenced by Anglo-Saxon literature, Germanic and Norse mythologies, Finnish mythology, the Bible, and Greek mythology. The works most often cited as sources for Tolkien's stories include Beowulf, the Kalevala, the Poetic Edda, the Volsunga saga and the Hervarar saga. Tolkien himself acknowledged Homer, Oedipus, and the Kalevala as influences or sources for some of his stories and ideas. His borrowings also came from numerous Middle English works and poems. A major philosophical influence on his writing is King Alfred's Anglo-Saxon version of Boethius' Consolation of Philosophy known as the Lays of Boethius. Characters in The Lord of the Rings, such as Frodo, Treebeard and Elrond make noticeably Boethian remarks.
In addition to his mythological compositions, Tolkien enjoyed inventing fantasy stories to entertain his children. He wrote annual Christmas letters from Father Christmas for them, building up a series of short stories (later compiled and published as The Father Christmas Letters). Other stories included Mr. Bliss, Roverandom, Smith of Wootton Major, Farmer Giles of Ham and Leaf by Niggle. Roverandom and Smith of Wootton Major, like The Hobbit, borrowed ideas from his legendarium. Leaf by Niggle appears to be an autobiographical work, where a "very small man", Niggle, keeps painting leaves until finally he ends up with a tree.
Tolkien never expected his fictional stories to become popular, but he was persuaded by a former student to publish a book he had written for his own children called The Hobbit in 1937. However, the book attracted adult readers as well, and it became popular enough for the publisher, George Allen & Unwin, to ask Tolkien to work on a sequel.
Even though he felt uninspired on the topic, this request prompted Tolkien to begin what would become his most famous work: the epic three-volume novel The Lord of the Rings (published 1954–55). Tolkien spent more than ten years writing the primary narrative and appendices for The Lord of the Rings, during which time he received the constant support of the Inklings, in particular his closest friend C.S. Lewis, the author of The Chronicles of Narnia. Both The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings are set against the background of "The Silmarillion", but in a time long after it.
Tolkien at first intended The Lord of the Rings as a children's tale like The Hobbit, but it quickly grew darker and more serious in the writing. Though a direct sequel to The Hobbit, it addressed an older audience, drawing on the immense back story of Beleriand that Tolkien had constructed in previous years, and which eventually saw posthumous publication in The Silmarillion and other volumes. Tolkien's influence weighs heavily on the fantasy genre that grew up after the success of The Lord of the Rings.
Tolkien continued to work on the history of Middle-earth until his death. His son Christopher, with some assistance from fantasy writer Guy Gavriel Kay, organised some of this material into one volume, published as The Silmarillion in 1977. In 1980, Christopher Tolkien followed this with a collection of more fragmentary material under the title Unfinished Tales, and in subsequent years he published a massive amount of background material on the creation of Middle-earth in the twelve volumes of The History of Middle-earth. All these posthumous works contain unfinished, abandoned, alternative and outright contradictory accounts, since they were always a work in progress, and Tolkien only rarely settled on a definitive version for any of the stories. There is not even complete consistency to be found between The Lord of the Rings and The Hobbit, the two most closely related works, because Tolkien was never able to fully integrate all their traditions into each other. He commented in 1965, while editing The Hobbit for a third edition, that he would have preferred to completely rewrite the entire book.[source?]
The John P. Raynor, S.J., Library at Marquette University in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, preserves many of Tolkien's original manuscripts, notes and letters; other original material survives at Oxford's Bodleian Library. Marquette has the manuscripts and proofs of The Lord of the Rings and The Hobbit, and other manuscripts, including Farmer Giles of Ham, while the Bodleian holds "The Silmarillion" papers and Tolkien's academic work.
The Lord of the Rings became immensely popular in the 1960s and has remained so ever since, ranking as one of the most popular works of fiction of the twentieth century, judged by both sales and reader surveys. In the 2003 "Big Read" survey conducted by the BBC, The Lord of the Rings was found to be the "Nation's Best-loved Book". Australians voted The Lord of the Rings "My Favourite Book" in a 2004 survey conducted by the Australian ABC. In a 1999 poll of Amazon.com customers, The Lord of the Rings was judged to be their favourite "book of the millennium". In 2002 Tolkien was voted the ninety-second "greatest Briton" in a poll conducted by the BBC, and in 2004 he was voted thirty-fifth in the SABC3's Great South Africans, the only person to appear in both lists. His popularity is not limited just to the English-speaking world: in a 2004 poll inspired by the UK's "Big Read" survey, about 250,000 Germans found The Lord of the Rings (Der Herr der Ringe) to be their favourite work of literature.
Languages[edit | edit source]
Both Tolkien's academic career and his literary production are inseparable from his love of language and philology.
His mother taught him the rudiments of Latin very early. He could read by the age of four, and could write fluently soon afterwards.
In the early 1900s he was introduced to a secret "code" created by his Incledon cousins, called Animalic replacing words with animal-names. Soon after, with Mary they created Nevbosh, a more sophisticated language, with Tolkien contributing to the vocabulary and influencing the spelling.
In 1909 he wrote the Book of the Foxrook in a notebook, with notes in Esperanto, describing Privata Kodo Skauta ("Private Scout Code"). "consisting of a rune-like phonetic alphabet and a sizable number of ideographic symbols". In the 1910s he composed Naffarin, a private language,
He specialised in Greek philology in college, and in 1915 graduated Exeter College with a first-class degree in English language with Old Icelandic as special subject. By the time of his military training in 1915 he was working on a "mad hobby": a "nonsense fairy language" which would become his "elvenlatin", the first seed of his legendarium.
He worked for the Oxford English Dictionary from 1918. In 1920, he went to Leeds as Reader in English Language, where he claimed credit for raising the number of students of linguistics from five to twenty and even formed a "Viking Club". He gave courses in Old English heroic verse, history of English, various Old English and Middle English texts, Old and Middle English philology, introductory Germanic philology, Gothic, Old Icelandic, and Medieval Welsh. In 1925, aged 33, Tolkien applied for the Rawlinson and Bosworth Professorship of Anglo-Saxon. He also made an appearance at SSC Highschool.
Privately, Tolkien was attracted to "things of racial and linguistic significance", and he entertained notions of an inherited taste of language, which he termed the "native tongue" as opposed to "cradle tongue" in his 1955 lecture English and Welsh, which is crucial to his understanding of race and language. He considered west-midland Middle English his own "native tongue", and, as he wrote to W.H. Auden in 1955, "I am a West-midlander by blood (and took to early west-midland Middle English as a known tongue as soon as I set eyes on it)".
Parallel to Tolkien's professional work as a philologist, and sometimes overshadowing this work, to the effect that his academic output remained rather thin, was his affection for the construction of artificial languages. The best developed of these are Quenya and Sindarin, the etymological connection between which are at the core of much of Tolkien's legendarium. Language and grammar for Tolkien was a matter of aesthetics and euphony, and Quenya in particular was designed from "phonæsthetic" considerations. It was intended as an "Elvenlatin", and was phonologically based on Latin, with ingredients from Finnish and Greek. A notable addition came in late 1945 with Adûnaic, a language of a "faintly Semitic flavour", connected with Tolkien's Atlantis myth, which by The Notion Club Papers ties directly into his ideas about inheritability of language, and via the "Second Age" and the Eärendil myth was grounded in the legendarium, thereby providing a link of Tolkien's 20th-century "real primary world" with the mythical past of his Middle-earth.
Tolkien considered languages inseparable from the mythology associated with them, and he consequently took a dim view of auxiliary languages. In 1930 a congress of Esperantists were told as much by him, in his lecture A Secret Vice, "Your language construction will breed a mythology", but by 1956 he concluded that "Volapük, Esperanto, Ido, Novial, &c &c are dead, far deader than ancient unused languages, because their authors never invented any Esperanto legends".
The popularity of Tolkien's books has had a small but lasting effect on the use of language in fantasy literature in particular, and even on mainstream dictionaries, which today commonly accept Tolkien's revival of the spellings dwarves and elvish (instead of dwarfs and elfish), which had not been in use since the mid-1800s and earlier. Other terms he has coined, like legendarium and eucatastrophe, are mainly used in connection with Tolkien's work.
Works inspired by Tolkien[edit | edit source]
In a 1951 letter to Milton Waldman, Tolkien writes about his intentions to create a "body of more or less connected legend", of which:
The cycles should be linked to a majestic whole, and yet leave scope for other minds and hands, wielding paint and music and drama.
The hands and minds of many artists have indeed been inspired by Tolkien's legends. Personally known to him were Pauline Baynes (Tolkien's favourite illustrator of The Adventures of Tom Bombadil and Farmer Giles of Ham) and Donald Swann (who set the music to The Road Goes Ever On). Queen Margrethe II of Denmark created illustrations to The Lord of the Rings in the early 1970s. She sent them to Tolkien, who was struck by the similarity to the style of his own drawings.
But Tolkien was not fond of all the artistic representation of his works that were produced in his lifetime, and was sometimes harshly disapproving.
In 1946, he rejected suggestions for illustrations by Horus Engels for the German edition of the Hobbit as "too Disnified",
Bilbo with a dribbling nose, and Gandalf as a figure of vulgar fun rather than the Odinic wanderer that I think of.
He was sceptical of the emerging fandom in the United States, and in 1954 he returned proposals for the dust jackets of the American edition of The Lord of the Rings:
Thank you for sending me the projected 'blurbs', which I return. The Americans are not as a rule at all amenable to criticism or correction; but I think their effort is so poor that I feel constrained to make some effort to improve it.
And in 1958, in an irritated reaction to a proposed movie adaptation of The Lord of the Rings by Morton Grady Zimmerman:
I would ask them to make an effort of imagination sufficient to understand the irritation (and on occasion the resentment) of an author, who finds, increasingly as he proceeds, his work treated as it would seem carelessly in general, in places recklessly, and with no evident signs of any appreciation of what it is all about.
He went on to criticise the script scene by scene ("yet one more scene of screams and rather meaningless slashings"). But Tolkien was in principle open to the idea of a movie adaptation. He sold the film, stage and merchandise rights of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings to United Artists in 1969, while, guided by scepticism towards future productions, he forbade Disney should ever be involved:
It might be advisable [...] to let the Americans do what seems good to them — as long as it was possible [...] to veto anything from or influenced by the Disney studios (for all whose works I have a heartfelt loathing).
United Artists never made a film, though at least John Boorman was planning to make a film in the early seventies. It would have been a live-action film, which apparently would have been much more to Tolkien's liking than an animated film. In 1976 the rights were sold to Saul Zaentz, who in turn formed Tolkien Enterprises, now named Middle-earth Enterprises, a division of it's company, and the first movie adaptation (an animated rotoscoping film) of The Lord of the Rings appeared only after Tolkien's death (in 1978, directed by Ralph Bakshi). The screenplay was written by the fantasy writer Peter S. Beagle. This first adaptation, however, only contained the first half of the story that is The Lord of the Rings. In 1977 an animated TV production of The Hobbit was made by Rankin/Bass, and in 1980 the company produced an animated film titled The Return of the King, which covered some of the portion of The Lord of the Rings that Bakshi was unable to complete. In 2001-3 The Lord of the Rings was filmed in full and as a live-action film as a trilogy of films by Peter Jackson. A decade later, Jackson proceeded with The Hobbit, envisioned as a prequel trilogy.
Bibliography[edit | edit source]
- For a complete list of all of Tolkien's published writings, see Writings by J.R.R. Tolkien.
Fictional and poetic works[edit | edit source]
- 1936 Songs for the Philologists, with E.V. Gordon (only very few copies now exist)
- 1937 The Hobbit, or There and Back Again
- 1945 Leaf by Niggle
- 1945 The Lay of Aotrou and Itroun (published in Welsh Review)
- 1949 Farmer Giles of Ham
- 1953 The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth Beorhthelm's Son (published with the essay Ofermod)
- 1954-1955 The Lord of the Rings
- 1962 The Adventures of Tom Bombadil and Other Verses from the Red Book
- 1964 Tree and Leaf (a collection of writings)
- 1966 The Tolkien Reader (a collection of writings, published only in US)
- 1967 Smith of Wootton Major
- 1967 The Road Goes Ever On, with Donald Swann
- Bilbo's Last Song (included in 1978 edition)
Academic works[edit | edit source]
- 1922 A Middle English Vocabulary
- 1925 Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, with E.V. Gordon
- 1925 Some Contributions to Middle-English Lexicography
- 1925 The Devil's Coach-Horses
- 1929 Ancrene Wisse and Hali Meiðhad
- 1932 The Name 'Nodens' (published in Report on the Excavation in Lydney Park)
- 1932-1934 Sigelwara Land parts I and II
- 1934 Chaucer as a Philologist: The Reeve's Tale
- 1936 Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics (lecture on Beowulf criticism)
- 1939 On Fairy-Stories (essay on Tolkien's philosophy on fantasy)
- 1939 The Reeve's Tale: Version Prepared for Recitation at the 'Summer Diversions'
- 1944 Sir Orfeo (translation of a Middle English poem)
- 1953 Ofermod (published with the poem The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth)
- 1953 Middle English 'Losenger'
- 1962 Ancrene Wisse
- 1963 English and Welsh
- 1966 The Jerusalem Bible (contributing translator and lexicographer)
Posthumous publications[edit | edit source]
1975—1990[edit | edit source]
- 1975 Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Pearl and Sir Orfeo, ed. Christopher Tolkien
- 1976 Letters from Father Christmas, ed. Baillie Tolkien
- 1977 The Silmarillion, ed. Christopher Tolkien
- 1980 Unfinished Tales of Númenor and Middle-earth, ed. Christopher Tolkien
- 1980 Poems and Stories (a collection of stories)
- 1981 The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, eds. Christopher Tolkien, Humphrey Carpenter
- 1982 The Old English Exodus (translation of an Old English poem, only limited copies were printed)
- 1982 Finn and Hengest: The Fragment and the Episode, ed. Alan Bliss
- 1982 Mr. Bliss
- 1983 The Monsters and the Critics and Other Essays, ed. Christopher Tolkien (a collection of linguistic essays and lectures)
- 1983–1996 The History of Middle-earth, ed. Christopher Tolkien
- The Book of Lost Tales Part One (1983)
- The Book of Lost Tales Part Two (1984)
- The Lays of Beleriand (1985)
- The Shaping of Middle-earth (1986)
- The Lost Road and Other Writings (1987)
- The Return of the Shadow (The History of TLotR vol. 1) (1988)
- The Treason of Isengard (The History of TLotR vol. 2) (1989)
- The War of the Ring (The History of TLotR vol. 3) (1990)
- Sauron Defeated (The History of TLotR vol. 4) (1992)
- Morgoth's Ring (The Later Silmarillion vol. 1) (1993)
- The War of the Jewels (The Later Silmarillion vol. 2) (1994)
- The Peoples of Middle-earth (1996)
- Index (2002)
- 1985 J.R.R. Tolkien's Letters to Rhona Beare (only limited copies were printed)
1990—today[edit | edit source]
- 1990 Bilbo's Last Song
- 1997 Tales from the Perilous Realm (a collection of stories and poems)
- 1998 Roverandom, eds. Wayne G. Hammond, Christina Scull
- 1999 Farmer Giles of Ham, eds. Wayne G. Hammond, Christina Scull
- 2001 Tree and Leaf (a collection of writings)
- 2002 Beowulf and the Critics, ed. Michael D.C. Drout (a lecture series)
- 2003 The Annotated Hobbit: Revised and Expanded Edition, ed. Douglas A. Anderson
- containing The Dragon's Visit, among other writings (newly included)
- 2005 Smith of Wootton Major, ed. Verlyn Flieger
- 2007 The History of The Hobbit, ed. John D. Rateliff
- 2007 The Children of Húrin, ed. Christopher Tolkien
- 2008 Tolkien On Fairy-stories, eds. Verlyn Flieger, Douglas A. Anderson (an extended edition of the essay)
- 2009 The Legend of Sigurd and Gudrún, ed. Christopher Tolkien
- 2013 The Fall of Arthur, ed. Christopher Tolkien
- 2014 Beowulf: A Translation and Commentary, together with Sellic Spell, ed. Christopher Tolkien
- 2014 The Adventures of Tom Bombadil and Other Verses from the Red Book, eds. Wayne G. Hammond, Christina Scull
- containing Once upon a Time, among other writings (newly included)
- 2015 The Story of Kullervo, ed. Verlyn Flieger
- 2016 A Secret Vice: Tolkien on Invented Languages, eds. Dimitra Fimi, Andrew Higgins (an extended edition of the lecture)
- 2016 The Lay of Aotrou and Itroun, ed. Verlyn Flieger
- 2017 Beren and Lúthien, ed. Christopher Tolkien
- 2018 The Fall of Gondolin, ed. Christopher Tolkien
- 2021 The Nature of Middle-earth, ed. Carl F. Hostetter
- 2022 The Fall of Númenor, ed. Brian Sibley
- 2023 The Battle of Maldon: together with The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth, ed. Peter Grybauskas
Artwork[edit | edit source]
- 1979 Pictures by J.R.R. Tolkien ed. Christopher Tolkien
- 1992 J.R.R. Tolkien: Life and Legend ed. Judith Priestman
- 1995 J.R.R. Tolkien: Artist and Illustrator, eds. Wayne G. Hammond, Christina Scull
- 2011 The Art of The Hobbit, eds. Wayne G. Hammond, Christina Scull
- 2015 The Art of The Lord of the Rings, eds. Wayne G. Hammond, Christina Scull
- 2018 Tolkien: Maker of Middle-earth, ed. Catherine McIlwaine
- 2018 Tolkien: Treasures , ed. Catherine McIlwaine
- 2022 J.R.R. Tolkien: The Art of the Manuscript, eds. William M. Fliss, Sarah C. Schaefer
Audio recordings[edit | edit source]
Note: for a detailed listing of all recordings of Tolkien, see Audio recordings of J.R.R. Tolkien
- 1967 Poems and Songs of Middle Earth, Caedmon TC 1231
- 1975 J.R.R. Tolkien Reads and Sings his The Hobbit & The Lord of the Rings, Caedmon TC 1477, TC 1478 (based on an August, 1952 recording by George Sayer)
Awards[edit | edit source]
This list contains awards or recognitions given to J.R.R. Tolkien, it does not include awards given to his individual publications.
- D. Lit., in University College, Dublin (1954)
- Commander of Order of the British Empire (1972)
- Doctorate of Letters by Oxford University (1972)
- 6th "best postwar British writer" (The Times, 2008) 
One year after his death, Tolkien was the inaugural winner of the 1974 Gandalf Grand Master Award for life achievement in fantasy writing (the award itself named after his creation, Gandalf). In 1978 The Silmarillion won the first of the two Gandalf Award for Book-Length Fantasy.
Names and pseudonyms[edit | edit source]
- Luttro - Esperanto word for "otter", possibly referring to himself, in his private Book of the Foxrook (1909); possibly an allusion to Animalic
- Arcastar - Quenya rention of Tolkien used in Tolkien in Oxford, of unclear meaning.
- Eisphorides Acribus Polyglotteus, orator Graecorum - Tag name in the annual Latin debates during studies at Oxford.
- Fisiologus - Signature of a poem published in The Stapeldon Magazine (1927).
- J. - Signature of a poem published in The Stapeldon Magazine (1913).
- John - 
- JRsquared - 
- Kingston Bagpuize- Signature of a poem published in the Oxford Magazine (1931).
- Rægnold Hrædmóding - Old English rendition of Tolkien's name, used to sign the poem For W.H.A. (1967).
- Ronald - Name for Tolkien's near kin, which he treated with respect and refused to be abbreviated or tagged with.
- Ruginwaldus Dwalakôneis - "Gothicizied" version of Tolkien's name.
- Tollers - His name among the Inklings.
- N.N. - Signature of a poem published in the The Gryphon (1922), an abbreviation of Nomen Nescio.
- Oxymore - Signature of the poem Knocking at the Door, written c.1927 and published in The Oxford Magazine (1937).
Family Tree[edit | edit source]
|Mabel Suffield||Arthur Reuel Tolkien|
|Edith Bratt||J.R.R. Tolkien||Hilary Tolkien||Magdalen Matthews|
|John Tolkien||Michael Tolkien||Christopher Tolkien||Priscilla Tolkien|
See also[edit | edit source]
- Images of J.R.R. Tolkien
- Images by J.R.R. Tolkien
- J.R.R. Tolkien/Quotations
- Plaques and Memorials
- Unpublished material
- J.R.R. Tolkien Timeline
Further reading[edit | edit source]
A small selection of books about Tolkien and his works:
- Anderson, Douglas A., Michael D. C. Drout and Verlyn Flieger (founder eds.). Tolkien Studies: An Annual Scholarly Review
- Carpenter, Humphrey (1979). The Inklings: C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Charles Williams and Their Friends ISBN 0395276284
- Chance, Jane (ed.) (2003). Tolkien the Medievalist, London, New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-28944-0
- Chance, Jane (ed.) (2004). Tolkien and the Invention of Myth, a Reader, Louisville: University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0-813-12301-1
- Duriez, Colin and Porter, David (2001). The Inklings Handbook: The Lives, Thought and Writings of C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Charles Williams, Owen Barfield, and Their Friends. ISBN 1902694139
- Duriez, Colin (2003). Tolkien and C.S. Lewis: The Gift of Friendship. , ISBN 1587680262
- Flieger, Verlyn and Carl F. Hostetter (eds.) (2000). Tolkien's Legendarium: Essays on The History of Middle Earth, Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-30530-7. DDC 823.912. LC PR6039.
- O'Neill, Timothy R. (1979). The Individuated Hobbit: Jung, Tolkien and the Archetypes of Middle-earth, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-395-28208-X
- Pearce, Joseph (1999). Tolkien: A Celebration, London: HarperCollinsPublishers. ISBN 000-628120-6
- Pearce, Joseph (1998). Tolkien: Man and Myth, London: HarperCollinsPublishers. ISBN 000-274018-4
- Shippey, T. A. (2000). J.R.R. Tolkien: Author of the Century, Boston, New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-618-12764-X, ISBN 0-618-25759-4 (pbk)
- Shippey, T. A. (2004). 'Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel (1892–1973)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Tolkien, John & Priscilla (1992). The Tolkien Family Album, London: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-26-110239-7
- White, Michael (2003). Tolkien: A Biography, New American Library. ISBN 0451212428
[edit | edit source]
- Christopher Tolkien suffered from a heart ailment.
- It is not clear what he meant by this; possibly he understood the world as a struggle between people and elements who create beauty and do good; and those people or forces who defile and destroy nature or the "elves's" works.
- J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 165, (undated, written June 1955)
- J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 324, (dated 4-5 June 1971)
- J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 306, (undated, late 1967 - early 1968)
- J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 1, (dated October 1914)
- J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 3, (dated 26 November 1915)
- J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 7, (dated 27 June 1935)
- Humphrey Carpenter, J.R.R. Tolkien: A Biography, "III. 1917-1925: The making of a mythology", "Oxford Interlude"
- J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 46, (dated 26 November 1941)
- Christina Scull and Wayne G. Hammond (2006), The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide: I. Chronology, "1921"
- Humphrey Carpenter, J.R.R. Tolkien: A Biography, "Northern venture"
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Baillie Tolkien (ed.), Letters from Father Christmas
- J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 17, (dated 15 October 1937), p. 24
- J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 105, (dated 21 July 1946), p. 117-18
- J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 35, (dated 2 February 1939), p. 42
- Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (eds), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion
- J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 35, (dated 2 February 1939), p. 44
- J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, "Foreword to the Second Edition"
- J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 47, (dated 7 December 1941), p. 58
- J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 133, (dated 22 June 1952)
- Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (eds), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, p. xxxii
- J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 87, (dated 25 October 1944)
- Letter to Przemyslaw Mroczkowski (December 1959)
- Letter to Przemyslaw Mroczkowski (20–26 January 1964)
- Letters to Przemyslaw Mroczkowski (unknown date)
- J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 287, (dated 10 May 1966)
- Pieter Collier, "Here is your chance to own a piece of Tolkien history" dated 9 July 2008, TolkienLibrary.com (accessed 1 December 2023)
- J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 305, (dated 26 June 1968)
- Rodney Legg, "Tolkien in Bournemouth and Dorset" dated 1 November 2009, Dorset Life (accessed 1 December 2023)
- J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 333, (dated 16 March 1972)
- J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 16, (dated 3 October 1937)
- J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 294, (dated 8 February 1967), p. 373
- Charlotte and Denis Plimmer, "JRR Tolkien: 'Film my books? It's easier to film The Odyssey'" dated 19 April 2016, The Telegraph (accessed 26 January 2020)
- Clyde S. Kilby, Tolkien and the Silmarillion (1976), p. 24
- Letter to Maria Mroczkowska
- J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 225, (dated 10 December 1960)
- J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 219, (dated 14 October 1959)
- Letter to Richard Lupoff
- J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 163, (dated 7 June 1955)
- Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (eds), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, p. xliii, quoting a letter of Christopher Tolkien
- J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 199, (dated 24 June 1957)
- J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 35, (dated 2 February 1939)
- J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 282, (dated 18 December 1965)
- Richard C. West, "A Letter from Father Murray", Tolkien Studies 16, pp. 135-6
- Alycia, "J.R.R. Tolkien: Creator of Words and Worlds (The Lord of the Rings Personality Series)", 16personalities (accessed 14 January 2022)
- Patrick Curry, Defending Middle-Earth: Tolkien: Myth and Modernity, p. 47
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Monsters and the Critics and Other Essays, p. 133
- Arden R. Smith, Patrick Wynne, "Tolkien and Esperanto", in SEVEN, Volume 17, p. 29
- Arden R. Smith, "Writing Systems", tolkienestate.com (accessed 27 December 2016)
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Monsters and the Critics and Other Essays, p. 141
- J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 4, (dated 2 March 1916)
- J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 163, (dated 7 June 1955)
- J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 144, (dated 25 April 1954)
- J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 180, (dated 14 January 1956)
- J.R.R. Tolkien; Dimitra Fimi, Andrew Higgins (eds.), A Secret Vice, p. 40-1 [note 19];
- John Garth, Tolkien and the Great War, "Part One: The immortal four", p. 19
- J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 309, (dated 2 January 1969), p. 398
- J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 272, (dated 20 July 1965), p. 357
|President of The Tolkien Society|
27 June 1972 - In perpetuo
None; perpetual title
|Illustrators of The Hobbit|
|Internal art||J.R.R. Tolkien (1937-present) · Eric Fraser (The Folio Society: 1979, 1992-present) · Michael Hague (1984-1992) · David T. Wenzel (graphic novel: 1989-present) · Alan Lee (1997-present) · David Wyatt (1998-2001, 2012-2013) · John Howe (pop-up: 1999) · Jemima Catlin (2013-present)|
|Cover art only||J.R.R. Tolkien (1937-present) · Pauline Baynes (1961) · Roger Garland (1987-1989) · John Howe (1991-present) · Ted Nasmith (1989-1991) · Barbara Remington (1965 US)|
|Illustrators of The Lord of the Rings|
|Internal art||J.R.R. Tolkien (1937-present) · Eric Fraser/Ingahild Grathmer (The Folio Society: 1979, 1992-present) · Alan Lee (1997-present)|
|Cover art only||J.R.R. Tolkien (1937-present) · Pauline Baynes (1970-1989) · Roger Garland (1983-1991) · John Howe (1991-present) · Ted Nasmith (1990) · Geoff Taylor (1999)|
|Illustrators of The Silmarillion|
|Internal art||Francis Mosley (The Folio Society: 1997-present)· Ted Nasmith (1998-present)|
|Cover art only||J.R.R. Tolkien (1937-present) · Roger Garland (1983-1991) · John Howe (1992-1995)|
|Illustrators of official Tolkien calendars|
|Emily Austin (2023) · Pauline Baynes (1973, 1974) · Cor Blok (2011, 2012) · Jemima Catlin (2014) · Jenny Dolfen (2023) · Inger Edelfeldt (1985) · Mary Fairburn (2015) · Roger Garland (1984, 1987, 1988, 1989) · Spiros Gelekas (2023) · Justin Gerard (2023) · Donato Giancola (2023) · Michael Hague (1986) · The Brothers Hildebrandt (1976 US, 1977 US, 1978 US) · John Howe (1987, 1988, 1991, 1995, 1997, 2001, 2013, 2021) · Tove Jansson (2016) · Michael Kaluta (1994) · Tim Kirk (1975) · Alan Lee (1987, 1993, 1999, 2007, 2008, 2013, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021, 2024) · Ted Nasmith (1987, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1996, 2000, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2009, 2010, 2021, 2022) · Kip Rasmussen (2023) · Darrell Sweet (1982) · J.R.R. Tolkien (1973, 1974, 1976 UK, 1977 UK, 1978 UK, 1979, 2005, 2006, 2017)|